Tag Archives: Sanke

Koi and Japanese Culture

Koi and Japanese Culture

Have carp been raised in Japan since the time before Christ? Judging from the fact that some carp bones have been unearthed from shell heaps of the Yayoi period, it is considered that carp have inhabited in the rivers and swamps of Japan for at least 2000. Ancient people might have started catching carp for food and began keeping them for provisions.

Japanese people have also enjoyed carp as ornamental fish. The oldest record regarding carp keeping can be seen in the “Nihonshoki” (Chronicle of Japan). The Emperor Keiko fell in love with Otohime princess and tried to make her visit his place. He would happily view carp in the pond at the Kukurinomiya Palace. The princess finally visited the pond to see the carp and the Emperor fulfilled his long-cherished dream with the aid of his carp. The story was written in 734. In Heian period (794~1185), viewing carp in garden ponds was common among the aristocracy. Later around the end of Edo period (early 19th century), there were Higoi (red carp), Shirogoi (white carp) and Shirogoi with some red markings on the various parts of the body seen in Japan. They are all ancestors of today’s Kohaku. It was the farmers of Echigo (current Niigata Prefecture) who transformed mutant carp into beautiful Nishikigoi. By the way, there is a record of red, white and yellow carp in China. However, regarding Nishikigoi as “Living jewelry”, it can be said that Japanese people have improved upon it. Nishikigoi are worthy of being called the national ornamental fish of Japan (Kokugyo). Today it is considered to be one of the leading figures of ornamental fish in the world.

The Chinese character for carp “Koi” was, of course, introduced from China. It is made up of three separate parts, called radicals. The left one means fish, the upper part of the right means rice field and the bottom means earth. The right parts together mean the marked off land which further means the condition of beautiful organization. A fish representative that has a beautiful law of scales is the Nishikigoi, while the animal counterpart with a fine coat of hair is determined a raccoon dog, according to Chinese characters.

Koi is said to be a fish that succeeds in life. This came after a historical event in China where carp were the only fish that could swim up a waterfall, called Ryumon (dragon gate) at the upper reaches of the Yellow River, and became dragons. The saying, “koi-no-taki-nobori”, a carp swimming up the rapids, also came later.

Koi are also worthy of being called “bushi-gyo” (Japanese warrior fish) because of their serene and sometimes tremendous manner of swimming. They even have a habit of jumping up in the air. The figure of high splashing water after they jump and land looks very powerful. While placed on a chopping board, koi never make a scene. Even when a chopping knife is placed in the body it stays without moving a muscle. The manner reminds Japanese people of a samurai with an air of composure.

Japanese people consider setting up one’s own house a grave affair. After building a house, many make a pond in the garden. Keeping koi in the garden makes the master of the house feel fulfilled. In this way, the refreshing atmosphere of koi meets the temperament of Japanese people. However, today not only the Japanese but also many people outside Japan are attracted by koi.

Koi are often compared to a natural big tree, while tropical fish can be compared to flowers in a flower garden and goldfish to a dwarf tree. The air of Nishikigoi is suitable to the king of ornamental fish. There are many words that describe Nishikigoi, such as heroic, tremendous, sturdy, magnificent, vigorous and so on. Their composed figure is a suitable object for painting and sculpture.


Koi and Japanese Culture

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The Background of Nishikigoi Born

The Background of Nishikigoi Born  There are so few literature existed about Nishikigoi breeding, it is however in the back of year A.D. 720 only Nihonsyoki stated that Keikou tennnou (Emperor)saw Nishikigoi in the Kukuriyano miya pond and also Suiko tennnou (Emperor) year of A.D. 620 that he saw the Nishikigoi swimming in the Pond of Sogano Umeko’s pond on the Garden as well.
1) Geographical environment
In the age of no road is well prepared for mass transportation the ship is utilized as one of the way to carry mass volume goods.
It is understood that the river running southern Niigata Prefecture Uono gawa river,for instance,also it is utilized for carring daily life goods and also it includes local products and fishes for commercial bases.
One of local town and city who has historiography museum, where you will be able to see ancient fishing tools and farming tools so that they tell some kind of trade among towns and cities in local district.
It is told also in the winter ship is useless so the river should have been crowded to carry / to pass the winter goods and salmon fishing vessel before comming winter/snow seasons.
Under these environments river fishes are treated as fresh fish and also sold as processed food to the other local region.
The origin of Nishikigoi,Yamakoshi hamlet is deeper snowy place in mountain area where faces to Kita Uonuma county and snow pile up to over five(5) meters,one one(1)meter or more snow falling over a night is often experienced.
In January the snow month,communication often disconnected even with adjacent villages.
The Nishikigoi for food is a valuable source of Protein under these severe meteorogical conditions and they are kept in a farming pond in the summer time for building seeds of Nishikigoi.
It is also so called TANADA (Terraced Paddy Fields) breeding, this way keep continuing from ancient time and from the year around 1970 the pond was converted to breeding pond for adjustment on the rice productions policy,it is thought the rice terrace breeding will be continued until such time the rice farming policy is changed.
The kind of fish is rich in Uono Gawa river which being start flowing Mt. Tanigawa dake summit in boarder of Gunnma and Niigata prefecture.
The quality of water is fine and just fit for breeding so the Nishikigoi captured is further developped and trade activities followed before snow falling.
The Koi for food is MAGOI and three different kind and the ASAGI MAGOI is majority in this region then TETSUMAGOI and DOROMAGOI can not be seen.
In this category,the relation with MAGOI is deeper and evolution from ASAGI MAGOI has longer history, by mutation in latter Edo era AOI KOI was born and this leads to ASAGI Koi.
BY way of Jyu Ni Daira Gawa river the origin of Uono Gawa river start flow and TETSUMAGOI carried to Yamakoshi hamlet wuth HI GOI products a key of born the KOHAKU.
It is referred to us that the word origin of UONO being AINU word of 500 ponds and it means the place with many ponds.
The era of war in Japan, Nitta Yoshisada changed the name to IONUMA and in the MEIJI era the district on Kita Uonuma ,Minami Uonuma and Naka Uonuma gunn were consolidated and governed as one.
The area in this region testifys the existence of many ponds such name as Wanagashima,Aosima,and Shimojima and local name that conveys word/name of island (Shima) and surrounding on them piling up of soil makes farming land and they lead living people around in longer history.
The stratums on the Uono Gawa vicinity is much of gravel so the ASAGI Koi conveyed by Uonuma fits to Yamakoshi county’s stratums and his quality of water and moreover it is said that the changement of the color tone is essential matter to live the fish having a factor to have imperfect protection color for which gives effectiveness on Nishikigoi’s born.

2) The history of Nishiki Goi.
The Nishikigoi ASAGI carried into Yamakoshi hamlet by Uonuma district being strange kind in this region and it was told that wealthy farmer wanted but due to clay quality of water the residual Blue color on the back close to white with no color is most of them which is quite differ from remaining on Uonuma district.
Due to this, ASAGI Koi tend to be breed together with KOI for food, it is however this leads accidental happening to born Nishikigoi.
The TETSUMAGOI was breeding for food in the farming pond in Yamakoshi hamlet,the HIGOI happened to born by close relation crossbreeding and being treated as present on a happy events.
It is however,around end of Edo era year 1818-1829 red color with white body among white colored MIZU ASAGI and HIGOI were emerged.
Based upon this ,ancestor of a kind of KOHAKU born in MEIJI era but on year 1830-1843 emerged NIshikigoi with half red color on the head and also red color around a mouth.
On year 1874-1875, Beni Hakusyu (variety) based light rouge type was emerged and it was dispersed locally.
On year 1899, Mr. Kunizou Hiroi, Yamakoshi Higasiyama village developed and fixed the kind,and its family is distributed in the local district,also improvement was carried and finally KOHAKU was completed.
And, moreover some activities were carried between KOHAKU and Koi with Aka Kuro pattern by close relation crossbreeding,and TAISYOU SANSYOKU,Taisyou era year 1917 and also KUROKO ,RAN GI were born which leaded the kind of Koi now a day.
On the way to improve the kind for the Nishikigoi,the German Koi accelerated its activities much. Fourty fishes with AISYU GURTEN kind were presented by Dr. Buruno Hopha of Fish Disease Laboratory in Munich Germany to Mr. Shinnnosuke Matsubara of Fishery Training Chef and they were given to Nagano prefecture mainly to improvement on KOi for food.
Of the two, Mr. Kichigorou Akiyama in Fukagawa Tokyo did crossbreeding it with ASAGI and got DOITSU(German)ASAGI this is called SYUU SUI and also by crossbreeding among SYUU SUI,KOHAKU and Taisyou SANSYOKU goes via decade of generation the KAGAMI UROKO and TAISYOU SANN SYOKU on the DOITSU KOHAKUwere developped.
The unique on the DOITSU (German) is that it has the strong heredity and being relayed to its type the KAGAMI UROKO, KAWAGOI with no scale and also so called WAGOI and its intermidiate type of YOROI GOI for which there are three types.
Whichever the body shape is contrast from WARINN and they are brought up for keeping superior body shape with efficient feeding developed for which the DOITSUGOI was essential KOI indeed and moreover All Japan Nishikigoi Promotion Association takes a role to supervise the Nishikigoi exhibition under the indipendent division.
Talking to the NISHIKIGOI after year 1945,the development on OUGON,KIN GINN RINN and its fixing of type is essential and can not be aside.
On year 1947, the new one with OUGON GOI features the chest fin/gold leaf was developped by Mr. Sawata Aoki,Yamakoshi Takezawa village(now Nagaoka city).
The show up of this Golden colored Koi gave astonishiment to breeder in Yamakoshi hamlet/village,it is however,evolution were advanced rapidly in 50 years.
The blood having golden colored Nishikigoi has now 26 varieties and the one who produced/developed could be memorized forever.
Also, person who did the settlement on gold and silver scale to promote Nishikigoi as splendid and elegantly would need recording in the history.
In year 1965, the Nishikigoi that has scales with gold colors and silver which have not have over neck thru tail was developed by Mr. Uedera.
Many of breeders have introduced Silver Scale,and made crossbreeding with KOHAKU, TAISYOU SANSYOKU,SYOWA SANSYOKU and further crossbreeding with golden system would accelerate evolution.
The activities on Nishikigoi to improve stands by settlement of a kind, introduction of German Koi to get Goldengoi and also settlement of Gold Silver scale,the history stands also by its application on them.
The kind tells that biological stand point,like as HIKARI MUJI system,all the child fishes born by the same mother Koi should have the same character classification, but in Nishikigoi world a kind classification is the name of heredity expression and it is not saying by a kind determination.
Presently,there are 82 different kind of Nishikigoi and breeders are pursuing splendid and elegent expression’s.
All Japan Nishikigoi Promotion Association has over 16 countries with about 70 professional members ,the Nishikigoi as Japan Nationa fishes being exported over 40 countries and we expect the Nishikigoi takes a role as visitor’s with peace mission over the world keeping good communication among peoples.

3) Nishikigoi Competitive Exhibition and its significance
The said competitive Exhibition was opened in order to exhibit the products by breeders in back year 1912,it was opened at elementary school at Kawaguchi town,Kita Uonuma Gunn in Niigata prefecture,in year 1914,Nishikigoi were exhibited in Tokyo as Taisyou Exhibition for which it is told us it is the first Nishikigoi exhibition in Japan wide.
By the trigger on the exhibition,breeding associations were establishied in Higashi Murayama, Takezawa Mura, and Ohta Mura village for which they run the exhibition yearly bases in turn.
It is also told that some of local activities such time that harvesting crops in autumn open small sized competitive exhibition.
It is thought after activities were took place any breeders could participate freely to such exhibition so the Nishikigoi breeding activities were spread over Niigata prefecture.
The Nishikigoi competition was not took place during war,but in order to make reconstruction many of local did the exhibition in parallel with reconstruction activities.
The first competitive exhibition in Niigata prefecture took place on year 1962, the Nagaoka city is one of frequent and the competition now count for 53rd as of year 2006.
The city who opened Nishikigoi Competitive Exhibition so far ranked Nagaoka city,Yamakoshi village (now Nagaoka city),and Kawaguchi town who runs 45 times and for Hiroshima prefecture with 42 times.
The exhibition runs prefecture bases so the breeder get together to demonstrate their products and have a meeting opportunities to information exchange.
As the other association, Zen Nippon sougou Nishikigoi competition by Zen Nippon Rinn Yuukai and also Zen Nippon Ai Rin Kai competition are also run so the Nishikigoi is now dispatching Japan national fishes with terminology of Nishikigoi are all Japanese word.
The competitive exhibition now opens frequently in overseas with Nishikigoi exported from Japan and also born oversea locally and got higher level of appreciation.

Author: Mr. Satoru Hoshino

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CCRES AQUAPONICS promotion association

CCRES AQUAPONICS promotion association


Tedori Fishland
Hinago Yogyojo
Shinohara Nisikigoi



海港錦鯉企業集團 Harbour Koi Group
Koi san Europe
Thai Nippon Fish Farm
Mungkorn intercorpration

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42nd All Japan Combined Koi Show by CCRES AQUAPONICS



42nd All Japan Combined Koi Show(2011)


90bu Kohaku

Kris Kasemsarn (Thailand)

Parent M Kohaku
handling by Thai Nippon Fish Farm


70bu Sanke

Didi Wikara (Indonesia)

Parent  Hiryu
handling by Samurai Koi Center

40bu Kohaku

Edy Yonathan (Indonesia)

handling by Narita Koi Farm
Samurai Koi Center

Kokugyo Prize
85bu Kohaku

David&Kelvin (Singapore)
Parent  Miss Japan
March, 2007 Auction koi
handling by Narita Koi Farm
Max Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
80bu Kohaku

Mitsuzo Kaneko (Nagano)

Parent  Yamato
handling by Nagashima Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
70bu Kohaku

譚 永権 (China)

Parent  Zipangu
handling by Narita Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
65bu Sanke

P&T (Thailand)

Parent Hiryu
December, 2010 Auction koi
handling by Narita Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
65bu Male Kohaku

Saburo Iizuka

handling by Narita Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
60bu Kohaku

Tadashi Nakanishi
Parent Yamato
March, 2010 Auction koi
handling by Yasuai Gyoen

Kokugyo Prize
25bu Sanke

Mr Fujimoto (Aichi)

handling by Narita Koi Farm

Sakura Prize
Best in Variety
85bu Hikari Utsuri

Jonkie Budiman (Indonesia)

December, 2008 Auction koi
handling by Samurai Koi Center

Best in Variety
85bu Sanke

Jitsuro Takagi (Fukuoka)

Parent Rainbow
October, 2007 Auction koi
handling by Narita Koi Farm

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Treatment of Nitrite Toxicity – CCRES AQUAPONICS

Why do some fish remain hardy and almost bullet-proof and others die at the slightest disruption to their routine?
We have a fish well suited to Aquaponics called the Murray Cod that has the reputation of being the sort of fish that dies at the most inopportune time in backyard aquaponics systems.

Many people avoid stocking this fine eating fish in systems for that very reason.
Not all fish are the same and some fish are finally tuned specimens that are unable to tolerate the ups and down of wild pH swings and sudden surges in biological activity in recirculated aquaponics systems.

The Murray Cod is one such specimen. Having said that, experienced aquaponics enthusiasts who monitor the chemistry of their water regularly have successfully grown Murray Cod right out to maturity without problem. Its a fine dining fish but there are some guidelines to growing these fish successfully out.
So how do you get the best of health out of your fish? What are the aquaponic secrets the pros use to grow their fish well?

Murray Cod

Nitrite Toxicity

New aquaponic system are more prone to the shock of a spike in ammonia especially if the beneficial bacteria have not had a chance to establish themselves. These natural occurring bacteria commonly need a few weeks for the system to cycle before your fish are introduced. The Ammonia spike is closely followed by a Nitrite spike which most fish can tolerate in low dosage.
However Nitrite toxicity is not limited to just new systems. Over feeding of fish and allowing the feed to settle to the bottom of the tank can result in a secondary surge resulting in sudden shocks to the well being of the fish. The plants will do just fine and keep growing. But the fish might be affected and start to die.

Nitrogen Cycle

A sudden surge in Nitrite can also occur in anaerobic grow beds.
The media in the lower layers is too dense with fish muck. Aerobic bacteria (the oxygen loving kind) is unable to colonize this segment and a meaner strain of bacteria able to live in stagnant no oxygen conditions begins to thrive. Like an engine in reverse this strain of bacteria begins to break the muck converting the Nitrate (the good stuff that plants like to eat) back to Nitrite.

Nitrite toxicity is also known as Brown Blood disease. The blood in the fish turns brown because it cannot absorb the oxygen into the blood stream. The fish are weakened and begin to suffer. Stressed fish struggle to keep alive by frantic gill movement, loss of balance and frantic effort to suck more oxygen into their system by gulping on the surface of the water.

The Danger SignsHealthy fish are sprightly and dart around the tank at speed when startled. Fish that exhibit Nitrite toxicity will be sluggish and exhibit some of these tell tale signs.

  • Rapid gill movement
  • Fish begin to gasp for air at the water surface
  • Fish stay limp and listless near water outlets
  • Tan or brown gills
A healthy aquaponics system shows no Nitrite activity (blue)

Fish that have been exposed to low levels of Nitrite for prolonged periods of time will eventually deteriorate in condition as secondary diseases begin to make an appearance. Fin rot, ich and bacterial infections suddenly occur resulting in a spiral string of sudden fish deaths.

Monitoring your system

Try and keep your aquaponic system clean of uneaten food stuff floating at the bottom of the tank. Make sure you have enough bio-filtration (grow beds) to strip impurities out of the water when recirculating the water. The water should never look foamy and cloudy. Make sure your pump is sufficient in size and capable of turning over the water in the fish tank at least four or five times per hour in volume capacity. Make sure you regularly test the water for Nitrite. Testing for Nitrite is very simple. A $40 dollar API Master test kit will supply all the equipment necessary to conduct the test. Five drops of Nitrite test solution in a vial of fish water will instantly tell you the condition of your water by the colour. A healthy system will turn blue. A bright scarlet colour spells trouble ahead.

So how do we combat this problem and what are the solutions we can employ to grow healthy fish?

In an emergency situation, partial water changes will eliminate the Nitrite – after you’ve eliminated any food found at the bottom of the tank. The addition of salt has a beneficial influence on the fish and will reduce the influence of the Nitrite to strip oxygen from the blood cells. Increase the aeration going to the fish. If necessary an extra aerator with plenty of air bubbling in the water will help keep the fish alive.

Treatment of Nitrite Toxicity
  • Change the Water
  • Add salt
  • Stop Feeding
  • Remove uneaten food.
  • Clean the tank
  • Increase aeration

Keeping your system clean and not overfeeding your fish will generally keep your system running fine and healthy. Regular small feeds throughout the day are preferable to sudden large feeds. Fish sometimes go off their feed for a day or two. Thats okay and nothing to be concerned about. Remove uneaten food. Observe the general tone and condition of your fish.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.


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Many people keep koi fish in ponds or tanks, but only some can easily identify the types of Koi that are swimming around in them. In this video, we show 38 different types of Koi, including some rare varieties. Use this video to help you learn how to identify Koi when you see them.

Koi types included in this video:
Shiro Utsuri
Hi Utsuri
Ki Utsuri
Kin Shiro Utsuri
Platinum Ogon
Ai Goromo
Budo Goromo
Sumi Goromo
Yamato Nishiki
Doitsu Hariwake
Gin Matsuba
Aka Matsuba
Ochiba Shigure
Beni Kumonryu
Beni Kin Kikokuryu
Kabuto Ogon
Aka Haijiro
Cha Utsuri
Tancho Goromo
Tancho Goshiki
Tancho Kohaku
Tancho Sanke
Tancho Showa
Tancho Yamato Nishiki

Varieties that are missing from this video:
Ki Matsuba
Bekko Varieties
Orenji Ogon

More info at: solarserdar@gmail.com

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Aquaponics Case Studies

Case Studies

The Able Project, Wakefield


The ABLE project provides an outdoor learning facility for young people whose needs are not met in mainstream education as well as community service participants. The ABLE project combines areas of willow coppice, with a wood chip biomass boiler, a recirculation aquaculture system growing tilapia, carp, sturgeon and catfish, out door vegetable plots, an orchard, beehives, a BMX track and aquaponics greenhouses to provide an interdiscipli nary learning environment catering for a wide variety of interests.

Aquaponics UK designed, supplied, helped build, and commissioned the aquaponics greenhouse systems as well as providing training and continued support.

The Old Mills Project, Elgin


The Old Mills project is designed to produce between 10 15 tonnes of tilapia a year as well as consistent year round production from 600m2 of climate controlled aq uaponics greenhouses.

The site itself includes a water mill that dates back to 1010AD and in the 1200’s was owned by Macbeth. The watermill will be central to the projects aims towards sustainability producing electricity from the three lades that flow through the site, to power pumps and supple mentary lighting.

Learning, employment opportunities and training will be core values of the project as a whole and the site will also include a farm shop, a visitor center and function as a participatory resource for the local community and visitors alike.

Urban Aquaponics, Shoreham


Aquaponics UK, designed an urban aquaponics system for a household in Shoreham Sussex, the system is de signed to incorporate their requirements for fresh herbs, salad crops and duck’s eggs as well as fish for ornamen tal purposes.

The system is also intended to provide a learning re source for afterschool clubs and classes as well as dem onstrating sustainable urban food production.

Commercial trial system, Colchester


A trial system growing oriental herbs and tilapia is being used as a proof of concept for a larger commercial system which will when operational, supply high value London restaurants through the Low Hub food distribution chain.

The Able Project, Heckmonwike


Aquaponics UK has been working with the ABLE project and a Sustainable Aquaculture MSc student from the University of Stirling to develop a proposal for the integration of aquaponics into the redevelopment of a brown field site. The project would create community assets, recycle local green wastes, providing training and employment and sustainably produce food for local consumers.

Sanford Housing Coop, New Cross, London


Aquaponics UK are advising members of the Sanford housing cooperative on adopting aquaponics to meet the salad and fresh herb requirements of the 130 strong community.

The buildings on site are currently being heated by biomass boilers and solar thermal systems and aquaponics is seen as a further way in which the community can lower their footprint and produce more of their own food.

Aquaponics in schools with the ABLE project.


Aquaponics UK hosted an Erasmus student from the Basque country for three months alongside an MSc student from Stirling. During this time, the students worked with staff from both the ABLE project, ABLE to Build and Aquaponics UK to develop a number of small scale demonstration systems and helped install them in a variety of schools, colleges and offices across Yorkshire under the ABLE Aquaponics scheme.

Over the same period we also collectively promoted aquaponics at the 2009 Harrogate Flower Show and received a great deal of interest from schools, community projects, garden designers and growing enthusiasts alike.

Aquaponics at Stirling University


Aquaponics UK designed and supplied a low energy lighting system for the research greenhouses and their use in bumble bee research. The installation of a variety of aquaponic systems around the institute of aquaculture is in it’s planning phase.

The installations will provide both intriguing and captivating learning resources and the will be used to demonstrate how the architectural and design elements of aquaponics can be combined with hard science, to provide diverse and highly productive food growing systems for all involved.

The institute of Aquaculture at Stirling and more specifically the Systems Research Group, has been an extremely valuable pool of knowledge, ideas, contacts and has been instrumental in the establishment of Aquaponics UK.

Charlie Price from Aquaponics UK has also been working through the Institute with CEFAS to provide information to the growing UK tilapia industry both on aquaponics and renewable energy systems, and in Oct09 will give a presentation to key stakeholders including representatives from DEFRA on the role aquaponics can play in the future of our collective food supplies.

Birmingham Regeneration Plan, CAT

Aquaponics UK has been advising a sustainable architecture student on a visionary proposal for the redevelopment of an industrial site in Birmingham. The proposal includes the reuse of industrial buildings into food production systems and the site being made into a functional and aesthetically pleasing space for the communities involved. The student is working with the Center for Alternative Technology in Wales and the project is in the preliminary design and concept stage.


Aquaponics in Afghanistan


We are currently supporting an initiative in Afghanistan, being coordinated by US marines based in the Helmand province. The initiative is aimed at providing aquaponics resources for training local villagers and school children and is ultimately viewed as a viable high value alternative to opium production.

Aquaponics UK provided free equipment to the project with the support of Hydrogarden and Oase, as well as continued support to ensure the project reaches its full potential. A demonstration farm incorporating aquaponics is planned in Lashkar Gar with the support of USAID. Aquaponics UK, along with a variety of stakeholders, will work together to ensure methodologies are adopted appropriately and to the direct benefit of the Afghan people.

WOTR, India


Aquaponics UK are working with “Pathways to Empowerment” within the WOTR project programme. Huge problems exist in many of India’s rural communities in which the WOTR work, due to a variety of issues ranging from soil infertility to the over extraction of ground water resulting in, amongst other things, poorer livelihoods for the farming communities and some alarming suicide rates (183,000 in the last 15 years).

WOTR have implemented 728 watershed projects, in 996 villages and impacting on the lives of 740,000 people across India. We are currently in the early stages of helping to design a variety of systems for a demonstration farm at the WOTR center.

Baobab Farm, The Haller Foundation, Kenya


One of our newest staff members, Rebecca Bainbridge, is working with the Haller Foundation at Baobab Farm. Rebecca, under a scholarship from Aquaponics UK, will work with staff from the Baobab Farm from Sept-Dec 09 to develop household scaled aquaponics systems suitable for sub Saharan applications.

The Baobab farm is based in an old quarry and provides a unique demonstration farm exhibiting integration on many levels and providing a training facility for local farmers. We will keep you informed of Becky’s progress on the website in the coming months.

Aquaponics In Uganda

We are working with an organisations in Uganda to develop a commercial scale aquaponics farm producing tomatoes and around 5 tonnes of tilapia per year.

The system is designed to act as a demonstration and training facility as well as exhibiting the commercially viable nature of aquaponics in areas where soil fertility and water scarcity are an issue.

University of the Virgin Islands, USA


The University of the Virgin Islands was the first academic institution to conduct prolonged and detailed research in the field of aquaponics. UVI has a proven track record and runs yearly short courses in Aquaponics and green water systems.

The founder and director of Aquaponics UK, Charlie Price, spent some time at UVI back in 2006 and also completed their short course. Over the coming few years Aquaponics UK through the Institute of Aquaculture at Stirling, aims to develop research projects with UVI to develop our knowledge base further.

Katho University, Belgium

Aquaponics UK have been helping advise staff at Katho University of the setting up of a small scale trial system growing salad crops and tilapia. The system is intended as a first step towards developing educational aquaponics within the university. Progress is ongoing.

These are just some of our recent and current projects, and are listed in order to give you an idea of the range of applications and work that we do. There are numerous other people and projects to which we provide information and advice, and in time we aim to provide detailed information on the case studies in order from us all to learn from each other experiences, to share ideas and to collectively move things forward.

More info : solarserdar@gmail.com


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CCRES Application Tips

CCRES Application Tips

Net Pots

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Net Pot Example 1 Net Pot Example 2 Net Pot Example 3
Hold seedling at the top of the pot. (Rinse dirt from roots if started in soil.) Carefully add Expanded Shale around the roots to the top of the pot. Moisten the Expanded Shale to prevent the roots from drying.
Flood & Drain (Ebb & Flow) NFT
Flood & Drain Example NFT Example
Flood nutrient water every 1-1.5 hours for 10-15 minutes. Flood more frequently under hot conditions. Insert wick while adding Expanded Shale. Nutrient water should continuously flow over wick.

Grow Beds

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Grow Bed Example 1 Grow Bed Example 2 Grow Bed Example 3
Pour Expanded Shale into grow bed and level. To reduce evaporation and algae growth, keep maximum flood level 1″ below the surface. Like traditional soil, dig a hole and place seedling in hole. (Rinse dirt from roots if started in soil.) Carefully backfill hole. If seeding directly, following seeding instructions on package. Keep Expanded Shale moist until roots develop or seeds sprout. Flood nutrient water every 1-1.5 hours for 10-15 minutes. Flood more frequently under hot conditions.

Vertical Towers

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Filling Growing Tower Grow Tower Seedling Filling Growing Tower
Add Expanded Shale to the base of the growing tower. Place a filter around drain to prevent clogging. Insert seedling and carefully place Expanded Shale around the roots. Continue adding growing media to the next level.
Step 4 Step 5 Notes
Watering Seedling Growing Tower Flood
  • Continue watering plants until roots develop and can get enough moisture from the flood cycle.
  • Occasionally check towers for root-bound plants and clogged drain.
Moisten the Expanded Shale at each seedling to prevent the roots from drying. Flood nutrient water every 1-1.5 hours for 10-15 minutes. Flood more frequently under hot conditions.

Other Notes:

  • Expanded Shale will retain moisture in its pockets and fisures. Many people have found that it is not necessary to run their systems at night.
  • The above diagrams are generic samples and don’t pertain to any particular setup. Every system is different depending on the environmental conditions, plants, and nutrients.
  • Flood and drain times can vary depending on environmental conditions or sizes/types of plants.
  • Do you have a question about using Expanded Shale? Please contact us on solarserdar@gmail.com
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Koi Fish Support

What do I feed my Koi?


Your Koi’s diet and nutritional needs will change with the water temperature. During the summer, you will need to feed your Koi a food that is high in protein, around 30% to 50%. During the spring and the fall, when the water is cold, you will need to feed your Koi a Wheat Germ based Koi food that is easy to digest. During the winter, Koi go dormant and won’t eat. If you keep your Koi in a tank inside your house during the winter, you can keep feeding them a high protein food.


How long do Koi live for?


Koi usually live for 20 to 30 years. Some will live even longer. Factors that affect how long a Koi will live include:

  • Overall health
  • Genetics
  • Pond water quality
  • Area Predator Population
  • Pond Size
  • Koi Food Quality
  • Environment


The oldest Koi on record was names Hanako. Hanako reportedly lived to be 226 years old.


When do Koi start breeding?


Koi will start breeding when they reach sexual maturity. This happens when they are at least two years old and about 12 inches long. If you plan on breeding your Koi, it is better to wait until they are around 4 or 5 years old. Spawning is stressful and it can damage your Koi. When they are older, they will be able to handle the stress better.


Why is my fish isolating itself?


Your Koi could have a parasite or a bacterial infection. It should be netted and inspected. If you live elsewhere and require assistance, get in touch with a veterinarian that specializes in Koi health in your area.

Do Koi do better in hard or soft water?


Koi do better in hard water.

A stable pH level is required to keep Koi. Hard water is full of minerals, which act as a buffer to prevent any pH fluctuations. It is easier to keep Koi in hard water than soft water. In a closed water system like a small Koi pond, the pH level will remain stable for longer periods of time with less water changes.

If you keep your Koi in soft water, you will need to do water changes more often, in order to keep your pH level stable. A “pH crash” can occur if you fail to do regular water changes. A pH crash happens when the mineral content in the pond water becomes too low to buffer and the pond water quickly becomes to acidic. A rapid change in the pH level is toxic to fish. Since soft water has a much lower mineral content than hard water, the chance of a pH crash happening is far greater.

We recommend that you use hard water for your Koi pond. It helps create a stable environment for the Koi fish.

More info at: solarserdar@gmail.


part of

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)


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  • Exchange information, ideas and methodologies for aquaponics, fish, seafood and associated products inspection, quality management and fish/seafood processing technology;
  • Foster interaction, understanding and professional collaboration among individuals, organizations and governments for the purpose of facilitating the global export and import of fish, seafood and associated products and their consumption;
  • Contribute to discussions and analysis of current fish/seafood inspection and control systems, regulatory regimes and fish/seafood processing infrastructure and suggest ways and means to improve fish, seafood and associated product quality and safety inspection and mitigate risk of fish/seafood origin consumer illness;
  • Disseminate knowledge about aquaponics, fish, seafood and associated products inspection and methodologies employed;
    encourage development of global fish, seafood and associated products products standards and new fish/seafood inspection systems, methodologies and technologies;
  • Promote advancement of the state-of-the-art in research and education on fish/seafood inspection and control systems and risk analysis and their integration into everyday application;
  • Provide services to its members to assist them in developing their careers as fish/seafood inspectors; and
  • Provide fish, seafood and associated product inspection, quality management and fish/seafood processing technology consultative, inspection and audit services to individuals and organizations.

Membership is open to any professional or student with and interest and involvement with the fish, seafood and aquaponics sector.

More info: solarserdar@gmail.com


part of


Seafood Links

Argentina – Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, and Food
Australia – Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
Belgium – Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain
Belize – Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries
Botswana – Ministry of Health
Canada – Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Chile – National Fisheries Service
Costa Rica – Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock
Denmark – Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
Fiji – Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forests
Finland – Finnish Food Safety Authority
France – Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche
Germany – Federal Ministry of Health
Germany – Federal Research Institute for Fisheries
Greece – Ministry of Agriculture
Guyana – Ministry of Agriculture
Hungary – Ministry of Agriculture
Iceland – Directorate of Fisheries
India – Marine Products Export Development Authority
Ireland – Food Safety Authority of Ireland
Italy – Ministry of Health
Japan – Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Lithuania – Ministry of Agriculture
Netherlands – Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority
New Zealand – New Zealand Food Safety Authority
Norway – National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research
Norway – Norwegian Food Safety Authority
Papua New Guinea – National Fisheries Authority
Peru – Ministry of Agriculture
Portugal – Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries
South Africa – South African Bureau of Standards
Sweden – National Food Administration
Thailand – Department of Fisheries
United Kingdom – Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
United States of America – Food and Drug Administration
United States of America – National Marine Fisheries Service
Uruguay – Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries
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