Tag Archives: Organic food by CCRES

10 Tips Nutrition Education Series

Ten Tips Education Series

The Ten Tips Nutrition Education Series provides consumers and professionals with high quality, easy-to-follow tips in a convenient, printable format. These are perfect for posting on a refrigerator.

These tips and ideas are a starting point. You will find a wealth of suggestions here that can help you get started toward a healthy diet. Choose a change that you can make today, and move toward a healthier you. These tips are also available in Spanish.

More tips coming soon!

 

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources  (CCRES)

special thanks to  

The Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, an organization of the U.S. Department of Agriculture

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The Life of Algae

This video from Sapphire Energy tracks the cultivation of algae from their San Diego lab in microscopic images, to petri dishes, to flasks, and then outside in their Las Cruces, NM facility and into 14′, 40′, 100′ and half-acre ponds. This is the path that many thousands of strains have taken as Sapphire refines their library of commercial strains that will be used in their Green Crude Farm or Integrated Algal BioRefinery (IABR) now under construction in Columbus, NM. At the Green Crude Farm, the world’s first commercial demonstration scale algae-to-energy facility, algae will be cultivated in ponds over 2 acres in size.
CCRES SPIRULINA
 part of 
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)
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Build an Aquaponics Grow Bed

  • Measure the length and width of the aquarium with the measuring tape.
  • Cut the plywood with the saw to the dimensions of the aquarium you measured in Step 1.
  • Cut four beams the same length and width of the plywood you cut in Step 2.

  • Drill holes into two beams and screw them together at a 90-degree angle. Lay the other two beams across the aquaponics grow bed.

  • Cut legs for the aquaponics grow bed frame. Place the frame where you will use it and measure and cut the legs to the length you need, keeping in mind the need to make them longer if there is a slope.

  • Drill holes into the legs. Keep them flush with the edge of the frame and screw them into place securely. Place the frame onto the plywood you cut in Step 2.

  • Place the grow bed right next to the aquarium or pond. Line the grow bed with pond foil the same length and width of the grow bed. Pour gravel on top of the pond foil in the grow bed. Cut a hole through the center of the grow bed and pond foil with the saw.

  • Place the water pump in the fish tank or pond and connect the water-in pipe to the pump.

  • Pull the water-in pipe through the hole in the grow bed. Install the overflow drain into the grow bed and set it to a few inches above the height of the grow bed to prevent water from overflowing.
  • Fill the aquarium or pond with water and place plants into the gravel of the grow bed.
CCRES AQUAPONICS special thanks to Zeljko Serdar for presentation of “How-To” module.
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CCRES promotes Elken Spirulina

Best Food for The Future – Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Spirulina contains nutrition not found in other food sources and is able to fulfill nutrition deficiency as well as neutralize our body’s acidic condition. Spirulina has been consumed by the Japanese for decades and has been proven to increase health and promote longevity.

To maintain healthy body, we need nutritious food which consists of 80% alkaline food, and 20% acidic food. Alkaline food presents only in vegetables, fruits, cheese, egg white and algae. Others are all acidic in nature. To make matter worse, modern food tends to be high in carbohydrates, calorie, glucose, fat and cholesterol, and at the same time, low in vitamin, minerals and proteins which are what our cells need the most. These conditions create nutrition-deficiency and acidic body condition.

Our body cells require 46 different types of nutrition in well balanced amount. These vitamins and minerals cannot be produced by our body and is used up daily. Therefore, we need to have them in our diets. Since the various types of nutrition may have dependencies among themselves, a lack in one element might cause another to be wasted.
Unbalanced nutrition may cause semi-healthy states, such as fatigue, susceptible to illness, lack of concentration, allergic, gastric and others.

Nutrisi tidak seimbang dan kondisi tubuh yang asam dapat mengakibatkan keadaan tubuh setengah sehat

Spirulina contains complete and balanced set of nutrition that is easily available to our cells for faster absorption and to strengthen our body’s immune system.

How to preserve health? Our body needs food in the following proportion to remain healthy: 80% alkaline food and 20% acidic food. Modern lifestyles and diets consist of mostly acidic food such as meat, seafood, grains and others. The choice of alkaline food is very limited and consist only of vegetables, fruits, algae, cheese and egg white. Spirulina is the best out of alkaline food as it is 100% alkaline and is very nutritious.

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
special thanks to
Hakim Hauston from Indonesia
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CCRES AQUAPONICS Education Program

  Become an Activist! 

 The aquaponics courses held at the training center will teach students all of the basic skills and knowledge necessary to successfully breed and grow Koi or Tilapia and culture plants and vegetables “aquaponically” on a practical, self sustaining, “back yard” scale, as well as larger commercial scale.

 The courses include topics in Koi or Tilapia and aquaponic plant culture, breeding setups, equipment, reproduction, growth procedures, purging or cleaning, and harvesting of the fish and vegetables.
 The entire system consumes less than 400 watts.

The vegetable production is over twice what can be grown in the same square footage of soil. Fish are also harvested and excess vegetation is either fed to the fish or composted to build healthy soils.

 It is our desire to use such systems to replenish depleated or erroded soils in places that can no longer support farming and reclaim the losses of bad management.

 There is no soil in the system itself with only gravel as the growth media with nutrients provided by the fish.

Join the movement!  
Add your voice to our rapidly expanding network of grassroots activists.

Every day, CCRES supporters fight to make environmental education, clean energy solutions, and the green economy a reality.

  Volunteers have been the key to the success of the CCRES for the past years and we hope YOU will help make the 2012 CCRES even better!!

CCRES AQUAPONICS 
part of  NGO
CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)
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Why choose Spirulina?

What is Spirulina?

 

 

Spirulina is 100% natural and a highly nutritious micro salt water plant. It was discovered in South American and Africa in natural alkaline lakes. This spiral shaped algae is a rich food source. For a long time (centuries) this algae has constituted a significant part of the diet of many communities. Since the 1970’s, Spirulina has been well known and widely used as a dietary supplement in some countries.

Spirulina contains rich vegetable protein (60~ 63 %, 3~4 times higher than fish or beef ), multi Vitamins (Vitamin B 12 is 3~4 times higher than animal liver), which is particularly lacking in a vegetarian diet. It contains a wide range of minerals (including Iron, Potassium, Magnesium Sodium, Phosphorus, Calcium etc.), a high volume of Beta- carotene which protects cells (5 time more than carrots, 40 time more than spinach), high volumes of gamma-Linolein acid (which can reduce cholesterol and prevent heart disease). Further, Spirulina contains Phycocyanin which can only be found in Spirulina.

In USA, NASA have chosen to use it for astronauts food in space, and even plan to grow and harvest it in space stations in the near future.

How does Spirulina grow?

There are four major conditions for growing Spirulina.

  1. Tropical weather
  2. Strong sunshine
  3. Pure water resource
  4. Pollution free environment

It is not possible to grow Commercial Spirulina culture in a cold or temperate area. Spirulina needs consistent high temperature which helps it’s growth. Spirulina will not grow anywhere that has constant low temperature (under 25 degrees). Under 20c degrees Spirulina will stop reproducing and die in a short time.

Spirulina absorbs sunshine and then creates a reaction in it’s cells. When this reaction starts, Spirulina will produce the nutrients in the cell and will convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. Strong sunshine helps Spirulina produce more nutrients.

Spirulina grows in alkaline saline water. Because Spirulina easily absorbs nutrients from water, if the water contains pollution or heavy metals, these will be highly concentrated in the Spirulina cell. If this happens, then this kind of Spirulina is no longer suitable for human consumption.

What does Spirulina contain?

With over 100 nutrients, Spirulina is often described as the most complete food source in the world. The American National Aeronautical and Space Agency includes it in their astronauts diet and plans to grow Spirulina in it’s space station. It’s easy to see why.

Japan has some good examples of some Japanese seniors who have only relied on Spirulina and water for more than 20 years showing how good is Spirulina for the human body.

How should Spirulina be stored?

High temperature, moisture or pollution will reduce the beneficial effects of Spirulina.

  1. Buy and keep no more than 6 months worth.
  2. After open the packaging we strongly recommend you use the product within three months.
  3. After usage , ensure you reseal the packing as soon as possible.
  4. Keep the product away from any possible heat source.
  5. Keep the product away from sun or any exposure to strong light.

Who should take Spirulina?

  1. Children who don’t like or get enough vegetables and or have an imbalanced food intake.
  2. Teenagers during their rapid growing period need a sufficient injection of nutrients. Spirulina is ideal for this.
  3. Pregnant mums who need extra nutrients.
  4. Seniors who have difficulty in having reasonable average 3 meals per day.
  5. Sport lovers or athletics who need extra nutrients to keep their energy levels up.
  6. Modern busy people who don’t have the time to eat good meals.
  7. Patients or people who need high volumes of nutrients to assist recovery (please consult your doctor)
  8. Vegetarians who require extra nutrient sources

Who shouldn’t take too much Spirulina?

  1. People with hyperparathyroidism
  2. People who have serious allergies to seafood or seaweed.
  3. Patients current experiencing high fever.

How much Spirulina should be taken?

We suggest 5~10 tablets a day for adults, 3~5 tablets for children under 12 years old. If you have special requirements for extra nutrients, please consult your chemist or your health practitioner.

How should Spirulina be taken?

  1. Take only with cold or warm water, (not juice, soft drinks, coffee or tea)
  2. After taking Spirulina, avoid alcohol, soft drinks or coffee for 30 minutes as these drinks can destroy some of the Spirulina nutrients and enzymes
  3. Take at least an extra half litre of water a day
  4. It doesn’t matter if you take it once a day or twice a day, so long as you take enough for a day.

What are the Spirulina side effects?

Spirulina is a totally natural product and will not normally cause any problems to the body. Even if too much is taken, there will be no harm to the body, but doing this is a waste.

However some people may experience some of the following symptoms after taking Spirulina;

  1. Slight fever due to the body’s need to burn the extra protein from Spirulina
  2. Slight dizziness. If this occurs, take less of the product. If the symptom does not improve please stop taking Spirulina
  3. Thirst and constipation. After taking a high volume of Spirulina we recommend at least an extra 1/2 litre of water per day to help our body absorb the Spirulina
  4. Stomach ache
  5. Skin itch or slight body rash

Spirulina: a food ? or a medicine?

As we all know, some of our illnesses are caused by having insufficient nutrients in our body. These illnesses are just the symptoms to show us that we may be lacking in some nutrients. If we replenish these nutrients in time, the symptoms usually disappear. If not, we can lower the function of our immune system causing further problems.

In most cases people will go to consult their doctor and may be prescribed some medicine.

Spirulina is not a medicine, but when used as a good source of supplementary food, you can avoid nutrient deficiencies causing illnessIn most cases people will go to consult their doctor and may be prescribed some medicine.

The topic of Spirulina is currently quite hot for it’s therapeutic applications. Medical research has already shown that Spirulina can provide benefits to our body.

Spirulina can help you to have reasonable levels of nutrients in your body, which will in turn give you less of the chance to get sick.

Spirulina Vegetable protein vs animal protein

Spirulina contains more than 60% vegetable protein, which is much higher than fish, pork, or beef (which contains about 15 ~20 %).Animal protein is a much bigger molecule than vegetable protein, and is much harder to for our system to digest.

Most modern people overindulge in animal protein, by eating fish, beef, pork etc. When too much animal protein is eaten, it is deposited in our body as fat. Too much fat will cause high cholesterol levels and may impact our heart and blood vessels.

Vegetable protein is water soluble, and is much smaller than animal protein. If you eat too much vegetable protein, it is simply discharged by your system as waste and not stored as fat.

Animal protein is a much bigger molecule than vegetable protein, and is much harder to for our system to digest.

Most modern people overindulge in animal protein, by eating fish, beef, pork etc. When too much animal protein is eaten, it is deposited in our body as fat. Too much fat will cause high cholesterol levels and may impact our heart and blood vessels.

Vegetable protein is water soluble, and is much smaller than animal protein. If you eat too much vegetable protein, it is simply discharged by your system as waste and not stored as fat.

Spirulina & Heavy metals contains

Spirulina easily absorbs the nutrients from any possible source. Like putting a dry sponge in water, Spirulina will take just about everything from the water and store it in their cells.

So ,take Spirulina from polluted area may result some negative result as Spirulina has been highly concentrate all the heavy metals from growing enviorment.

Pollution sources are;

  1. Air
  2. Water
  3. Dirt or dust
  4. Feed

Air pollution will bring lead, mercury etc. All commercial Spirulina is grown in open areas,for maximum production yield.

Water pollution is another issue. Most Spirulina production sites need plenty of water to compensate for high evaporation. If the water contains any heavy metal which will accumulate in the growing system, then Spirulina will absorb it. Water pollution is a big issue as even the water pumped from the sea or surface can contain certain amounts of possible pollutants which will eventually accumulate in Spirulina.

 

Why choose Spirulina?

Richest nutrient source

Spirulina is the richest nutrient and complete food source found in the world. It contains over 100 nutrients, more than any other plant, grain or herb. Today Spirulina is widely used as a food supplement to maintain health, boost energy and reduce weight

Spirulina contains 60-63 % protein, up to 13 % of essence minerals like Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Phosphorus, Iron, and Zinc as well as complete vitamin B groups and many important anti-oxidants (which protect cells). The anti-oxidant Phycocyanin can only be found in Spirulina. It is the richest natural source of Vitamin E and beta-carotene.

Energy booster

 

 

Spirulina being naturally green is beneficial to our health as it contains a large amount of the chlorophyll and Phycocyanin. Chlorophyll absorbs the energy from sunlight to create carbohydrates to boost your energy through the day.

 

Vegetarians best nutrient supplement

Vegetarians can not eat animal products and commonly lack Vitamin 12 (from the animal liver), Iron (from red meat or spinach) and Amino Acids. Spirulina is a natural organic product and vegetarians taking Spirulina daily will fill these gaps.

Concentrated of protein and essential fatty acid

Amino Acids are important to our body. They assist muscle growth, immunity, and the production of enzymes and hormones. Spirulina can provide more than 60~63 percent of protein including a complete source of 8 essential amino acids, plus 10 other non-essential amino acids, which are commonly lacking in vegetarian diets.

Spirulina is also one of the few sources of food that contains omega 3 and 6 fatty acids in the linolenin, gamma linolenin acid(GLA). These fatty acids are essential in keeping a woman’s body healthy.

Weight reduction

Although Spirulina can not directly reduce your weight, it contains the nutrients our bodies need and is quickly assimilated.

Adjust your body’s PH value

The ideal healthy human body’s PH level should remain on low alkaline about PH 7.35~7.45. Modern day people indulge in too much acidic food like soft drinks, meat, cheese, eggs, and ham. These cause our body to become acidic ( PH< 7 ). Many medical research reports have proven that acidic bodies will have more chance of getting diseases or cancer. Regular use of Spirulina can help keep your body alkaline will help you reduce this risk and is the ideal food supplement for the weight reducer.

Ideal supplement food for the pregnant women and infant

While women are pregnant, the baby in their body will rapidly absorb nutrients. If the pregnant mum does not get sufficient nutrients from food while her baby is growing, she will become depleted of these nutrients herself.

Spirulina easily provides the richest and most complete source of nutrients for the pregnant women and thereby prevents nutrient deficiency after the baby is born.

Natural Nutrient source

Most multi vitamin products are synthetic (artificial). No other products can provide natural nutrients and vitamins like Spirulina. Spirulina is a totally natural non synthetic product.

 

 

Nutrition Information

Vitamins

Vitamins are essential foods which the body needs in small amounts, to work normally and to stay healthy. They are essential for proper growth in children, and for the preservation of good health for all.

Vitamins are commonly classified under thirteen headings, using letters of the alphabet,and are considered according to their ability to be absorbed in fat or water. The vitamins which are soluble in fat are A, D, E and K, they are usually consumed with fat containing foods and the body can store them within its own fat. For this reason, they are retained over some period of time, so it is not necessary to eat or drink them each day. Water soluble vitamins are the B group and vitamin C. These cannot be retained in the body so we need to take foods which contain them every day.

Vitamins Supplied by Spirulina

B6 or pyridoxine helps in the breakdown and assimilation of proteins. It offers protection to the heart and reduces oedema.

Biotin is an enzyme that carries carbon dioxide and acts as an agent in the assimilation of some B complex vitamins.

B12 or Cobalamin is very difficult to extract from vegetables, but Spirulina is rich in this rare vitamin. The deficiency of B12 is indicated in cases of pernicious anaemia, nerve degeneration etc.

Pantothenic Acid is used in the adrenal glands along with vitamin C and cholesterol to produce steroids such as cortisone in response to physical and mental stress.

Folic Acid is essential for making new red blood cells.

Inositol keeps the liver healthy and balances blood holesterol. It is probably the most abundant vitamin in the body after niacin.

Niacin is considered to be a cholesterol lowering agent as well as being essential to mental health.

B2 or Riboflavin prevents eye problems and severe eczema.

B1 or Thiamine maintains glucose level in the blood. A serious deficiency of this vitamin may result in death.

E or Tocopherol. Preserves heart and vascular health and retards ageing.

Carotenoids. Some substances in plants are not always true vitamins, but they may be something from which the body can produce its own vitamins. The carotenoid compound of Spirulina is just such a substance. Carotenoids act as free radical quenchers, so they behave as a protector for the body’s own cells.

Normally, vitamin A is available only from the liver of some animals. Since vitamin A from animals is fat soluble, the human body stores it with its own fat reserves and it is not naturally expelled when an excess is consumed. Hence, vitamin A poisoning can occur.

Beta-Carotene is a very important antioxidant. There are some sources which are artificial, and others which exist within some of our vegetable foods.

The latter group or natural beta-carotenes are much to be preferred since the body can absorb these much more quickly. Several studies have indicated that people whose diet contains a lot of beta-carotene tend to have a lower risk of developing cancer. Other developing cancer. Other advantages are that natural sources do not contain preservatives or colouring materials.

Many common foods are rich in beta-carotene and may be enjoyed for their flavour as well as their goodness. Kale and spinach with their dark green leaves, broccoli, pumpkin, carrots, squash, papayas and cantaloupes all supply this important substance.

Green and yellow vegetables in general should be embraced as important foods for good health. Spirulina of course is very rich in beta-carotene, and by using it regularly you’d ensure the body was not in need of this essential food.

Other Good Things!

Depending upon growing conditions, Spirulina will be from 65% to 71% protein. This protein content is said to be biologically complete. That means that all eight essential amino acids are present in their correct ratios. A lot of plants contain various ranges of protein, but with differing quantities of amino acids. Thus some degree of incompleteness will exist.

Here again Spirulina is different in that it contains a total of 18 amino acids in the exact proportion to mother’s breast milk.
It has these eight complete amino acids regarded as ideal for the human body.

Regrettably, the human body is unable to store amino acids, so when incomplete foods are taken, there is frequently an imbalance in the diet. Spirulina can come to the rescue with its full range of complete amino acids. These are as follows.

Isoleucine (4.13%). Needed for growth, intelligence development and nitrogen balance within the body. Also assists with synthesising other nonessential amino acids.

Leucine (5.8%). Helps to increase muscular energy levels and stimulate brain function.

Lysine (4.0%). used for forming blood antibodies, improves the circulatory system and promotes cell growth.

Methionine (2.17%). Vital for metabolising fats and lipids that maintain a healthy liver. Also helps calm the nerves.

Phenylalanine (3.95%). Used by the thyroid for the production of thyroxin which in turn governs metabolic rate.

Threonine (4.17%). Improves competence of the intestines and thus aids digestion.

Tryptophane (1.13%). Enhances the use of B group vitamins, improves nerve fibres. This in its turn contributes to emotional stability and calmness.

Valine (6.0%). Assists with the co-ordination of the muscular system as well as contributing to improved mental capacity.

Nonessential amino acids

Another group of amino acids are termed as nonessential, and there are twelve of these. Well Spirulina doesn’t have all of them, but does have ten; not bad eh? Nonessential means that if not present in normal foods, they can be synthesised; it does not mean that the body has no need of them. Again, the following list is that of the nonessential amino acids which Spirulina can provide.

Alanine (5.82%). Strengthens the walls of cells.

Arginine (5.98%). Important for the production of (male) seminal fluid which is about 80% arginine. Assists in keeping the blood clean.

Aspartic Acid (6.34%). Helps with the transformation of carbohydrates to energy.

Cystine (0.67%). Aids with pancreatic health and thus stabilises blood sugar etc. May help towards alleviating food allergies.

Glutamic Acid (8.94%). Along with glucose it fuels the brain cells. Can reduce the craving for alcohol and also stabilise mental health.

Glycine (3.5%). Promoter of energy.

Histidine (1.08%). Improves nerve relays, especially in the hearing organs. Has even been used as a remedy for deafness.

Proline (2.97%). A Precursor of Glutamic acid.

Serine (4.0%). Helps with the formation of the fatty sheath surrounding nerve fibres.

Tyrosine (4.6%). May slow the ageing of cells and suppresses hunger. Involved in the colouration of hair and skin, and indeed helps with sunburn protection.

Chlorophyll – The Green Gold

Spirulina is very high in chlorophyll. It has an average of three times the amount of the green gold of other highly developed green plants. The dark green colour of Spirulina omes from the large amount of plant blood or in other words, chlorophyll, which is only one molecule different from haemoglobin in human blood and with it, a very important substance in a healthy diet. Chlorophyll in plants is collected sunlight. This “light-energy”, as Dr. Fritz-Albert Popp, Germany, calls it, is an important key factor in the human metabolism and cell communication.

Already in 1915 Prof. Richard Willstätter was honoured for his research about chlorophyll with the Nobel Prize. He proved, that chlorophyll is able to produce living substances from dead matter with the help of the stored, converted sunlight.

Dr. Ingfried Hobert, Germany, Chairman of the International Federation to Research and Develop Traditional Healing Methods and author of the book “Das Algen Gesundheits Buch” (The Algae Health Book), highlights in his book the benefits of chlorophyll in maintaining good health. Chlorophyll is mentioned for the prevention and treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers, acne, to strengthens the heart muscles, build up immunity and energy, as a possible anti-bactericide, only to mention a few.

Minerals

Along with vitamins, we are always told how important minerals are. Well, to most people minerals come from rocks to form stalactites, or simply make washing water harder to wash with! Minerals really are chemical elements which we know are very important for good health. They are used in extremely small amounts however.

Spirulina grows in shallow ponds which contain very high concentrations of minerals. These ponds are very alkaline and in fact almost no other plant life can survive in this type of environment. Spirulina has the ability to lock many minerals into amino acids. By doing this, when we consume Spirulina, we receive the minerals in a form which our body can readily make use of. This next list shows those minerals and trace elements which Spirulina can provide.

Calcium (1,315 mg/Kg). The most abundant mineral in the human body. Essential for strong bones and teeth. Calcium also contributes to nerve transmission ability and absorbs acids in the body.

Potassium (15,400 mg/Kg). Used for regulating electrolytes. A deficiency can lead to heart attack and muscular collapse.

Zinc (39 mg/Kg). Assists with mental health, skin tone, prostate function and the ability for wounds to heal quickly.

Magnesium (1,915 mg/Kg). Assists with the assimilation of vitamins B and C and also some proteins. A deficiency may lead to muscular and cardiac problems.

Manganese (25 mg/Kg). Activates enzymes together with zinc. Helps stabilise blood sugars.

Selenium (0.40 ppm). Improves cardiac efficiency, reduces some types of toxicity and may retard ageing processes.

Iron (580 mg/Kg). Used for making haemoglobin, the oxygen carrier in the blood.

Phosphorus (8,942 mg/Kg). Found in almost every cell of the human body, and together with calcium contributes to strong bones, and assists with digestion of carbohydrates.This information in article is repruduced with a permission.

 

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources 

special thanks to

 Harald W. Tietze

 “Spirulina – Micro Food Macro blessing”

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Nutritional elements contained Spirulina

 

 

CCRES SPIRULINA PROJECT

Amino-acids composition of bulk spirulina powder

Essential
amino acids
per 100 grams
of bulk
spirulina powder
Isoleucine 3.17g
Leucine 5.02g
Lysine 2.70g
Methionine
+ Cystine
2.19g
Phenylalanine
+ Tyrosine
5.00g
Threonine 2.78g
Tryptophan 0.84g
Valine 3.48g
(Total amount
of essential
amino acids)
(25.18g)

MORE INFO HERE

Non-essential
amino acids
per 100 grams
of bulk
spirulina powder
Arginine 3.60g
Alanine 4.11g
Aspartic acid 5.47g
Glutamic acid 8.02g
Glycine 2.85g
Histidine 1.09g
Proline 2.04g
Serine 2.74g
(Total amount
of non-essential
amino acids)
(25.18g)

Pigment contents of bulk spirulina powder
(per 100 grams)

Components per 100 grams of bulk spirulina powder
Chlorophyll-a 1.29g
Total carotenes 157mg
Xanthophylls 81mg
Phycocyanin 7.56g
Major carotenoids β-carotene 201mg
Zeaxanthin 72mg
Lutein ND

Spirulina consists of the wide range of healthy/nutritional elements, more than 50 different kinds.

 β-carotene, Zeaxanthin, Chlorophyll, Phycocyanin, Polysaccharide

Amino acids

Valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, tryptophan, threonine, cystine, tyrosine, histidine, arginine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and serine.

Vitamins

Beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin K1, vitamin K2, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B12 and inositol.

Minerals

Zinc, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur, selenium, cobalt, cupper, chromium and manganese.

Other nutritional elements

Dietary fiber, polysaccharides, linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, phycocyanin, zeaxanthin, chlorophyll a, nucleic acid and SOD.

 

Generally, some nutrients function better in concert with vitamins, minerals and amino acids.

 

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

 special thanks to 

Mr. Atsushi Egashira

 President of DIC LIFETEC Co.,Ltd

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Growing Spirulina at Home

 

The popular image of algae farming is bubbling green columns and white-coated scientists, and seems out of reach for ordinary people. Is the experience of algae farming limited to professionals? A growing network of DIY algae farmers is proving that we can all participate, by creating successful algae ponds and growth tanks in our own homes.

These are not mere science projects. Because of the high rate of algae growth and their potential nutrient density, it is possible to produce enough in a single window to significantly supplement an ordinary person’s experimentalist’s diet.

 

Helping these folks is the mission of our lab and website, Algaelab.org. Although there are many kinds of algae, and we’re committed to helping people grow any strain they’re interested in, we believe that Spirulina is the best species for DIYers to start with, for three main reasons:

Spirulina in microscope

Spirulina in microscope

 

1. The unique health value of live, fresh Spirulina, even at small doses.

Just a few grams of Spirulina powder a day have been shown to have definite health benefits. Spirulina is by far the most-studied nutritional algae, both in terms of its benefits and lack of harm. It has been shown to make a difference in preventing and treating ailments from obesity to malnutrition, cancer to heart disease.

These studies are on powdered Spirulina. Though it hasn’t been studied, it seems obvious that the live, fresh stuff—which is only available if you grow it yourself—would be even healthier. Personally, I find that eating a few grams of Spirulina with every meal makes the meal more satisfying, smoothes out sugar highs and lows, and gives me extended endurance and stamina.

 

2. Spirulina is safe and easy to grow.

As innocent as it may seem, Spirulina is in fact an extremophile, capable of growing in extremely alkaline water inhospitable to almost every other organism. Most other algae grow in essentially pH-neutral water, which supports the growth of a vast range of algae—including types that produce toxins—as well as doing nothing to inhibit the growth of other potentially harmful organisms such as bacteria. In my biofuel-algae work, we’re constantly fending off invasive species. It’s not just an academic concern. Since it is generally hard to control the growth of possibly harmful stuff (and although it’s fun, we think you should look at your culture under the microscope every day), this aspect of Spirulina cultivation is pretty key to growing pure and safe cultures on a DIY basis. One of the best aspects of growing your own Spirulina is knowing that the product that you are growing is as pure and free of contamination as possible.

 

3. Ease of harvest, and no need for further processing.

Harvesting Spirulina with a cloth filter

Harvesting Spirulina with a cloth filter

Even when an algal culture looks nice and thick, it’s probably still about 99.9% water. Separating the desired .1% from all that water can be a real trick. As a general rule, algal cells are tiny, roughly spherical, and devilishly difficult to pull out of the water without some special (read: expensive) tech. This is where the corkscrew shape of Spirulina cells comes in; when a culture is poured through nothing more complex than a fine cloth, it filters out easily, leaving a thick paste, which can be consumed immediately. Contrast that with the need for cell rupturing, drying, and product extraction in typical algal production systems, and it’s easy to see why Spirulina is a good place to start.

So if you or someone you know wants to get involved, what is necessary? Nothing more than a sunny window, some sort of transparent container, and a kit of supplies like we sell at AlgaeLab.org. If you want to assemble your own kit, we can set you up with spirulina starter, growing tips, and any other equipment you might want. To get in touch with the growing community of algae home-grow enthusiasts, as well as get your questions answered, join or visit this public forum: http://www.algaelab.org/phorum/

…and have a look at the ever-expanding Home-Grown Spirulina FAQ @ http://www.algaelab.org/faq/. Let us know about your algae adventures!


“...eating a few grams of Spirulina with every meal makes the meal more satisfying, smoothes out sugar highs and lows, and gives me extended endurance and stamina.”

Some FAQs about growing algae at home:

How long does it take to grow from the kit with the 1 liter starter bottle, until I can start harvesting from my tank?

Grow-up proceeds in stages—see the instructions; you put half the contents of the bottle into one quarter of the tank (2.5 gallons for a 10-gallon tank) to start with, which results in a very thin culture at first, which will thicken over time. After a couple of weeks, the algae should be thick enough that you can double the culture volume, then after a week or so, double again, so that the tank is full. Once the tank is full, the algae are thick (3cm Secchi or less, see below), and the pH has been at least 10 for 24 hours, you should be able to harvest. This process can take from 3 to 6 weeks.

 

AlgaeLab DIY Spirulina Growth Kit

AlgaeLab DIY Spirulina Growth Kit

 

Can I harvest multiple times?

Once you have a thriving culture (which typically takes a few weeks), you can harvest from it regularly (how often depends mostly on how much light the algae get, the more the better); each time you harvest, you add a little Make-Up Mix to the culture to make up for the nutrients that are taken out in the harvested algae.

 

What kind of water should I use to make the growth medium?

We use tap water, filtered through activated carbon (such as a Brita) or through a ceramic filter (such as a Berkey). Algae are quite sensitive to chlorine (which is why it’s used in the first place!), so tap water is only usable if the chlorine has been removed—which can be done using products sold for fish aquariums. The afore-mentioned filters, and de-chlorination, leave minerals in the water, which is generally a good thing; if you want to use de-mineralized water such as distilled or reverse osmosis water, or if your water is particularly soft, you may get better growth if you add some combination of 0.1 g/L magnesium sulfate, 0.5 g/L potassium sulfate, and/or 0.1 g/L calcium chloride (or lime or plaster). That said, we have yet to hear of anyone having trouble growing in non- or de-chlorinated drinking water of any kind.

 

How much Spirulina will I be able to harvest from my tank, how often, and for how long?

If you follow the instructions and thus provide proper temperature, pH, and nutrients, yield will depend mostly on the hours of bright light the tank receives. This generally means sunlight. (See below for a discussion of artificial lighting.) 
In a south-facing window with plenty of direct sun exposure, you can get roughly a tablespoon of live Spirulina harvest from a typical 10-gallon tank every other day. Two or three such tanks (or bigger) can fit in a window for daily harvest.

For how long? If the proper amount of make-up mix is added back to the tank after every harvest, the nutrient balance can be maintained for a high level of growth for about four to six months, at which point the pH will have risen too high (11+) for good growth. At this point you simply mix up a new batch of medium, harvest all your Spirulina, and immediately put them in the new medium.  After a couple of weeks your culture should be full, dense, and ready for harvest again, ready to start the 4-6 month cycle. So, you need enough starter mix to renew your culture every 4-6 months, though it’s a good idea to keep some on hand in case anything else might go wrong with your medium (though this is unusual). There is no reason why you shouldn’t be able to keep going this way indefinitely. The formulae for the starter and make-up mix are in the instructions if you want to make your own.

 

How do I use the Make-Up Mix?

As described above, the make-up mix is used only at harvest time (or when removing dead algae). Add an amount of make-up mix proportional to the harvested algae—one teaspoon of the mix per tablespoon of harvested algae, plus a dash of iron juice. This makes up for the nutrients lost in the harvested algae, thus the name.

How do I keep my Spirulina alive when I go on vacation?  Can they be “parked” for a while?

The trick is to slow down their metabolism by lowering the tank temperature. This can be done simply by turning off the heater. The tank should also be kept from strong direct light during this time as well, although it does need some light. If kept in this way, it should be fine for several weeks or more. When bringing it back from this state, raise the temperature and light in stages, over a few days, and the algae will be fine.

 

Can I use artificial lights to grow my algae?

Some algae-nauts have had good results from using artificial illumination, but it’s worth remembering that direct sunshine is about 100x brighter (~100,000 lux) than the light in what would be considered a very well artifically-lit room (1000 lux). It’s hard to compete with the sun. If using artificial lighting, it’s smart to take advantage of the heat generated by the light fixture as well. See below for a discussion of the optimal color for an artificial light source.
Do I need to tell you to be very careful about combining water and electricity? Watch for dripping water going along power cords – keep plugs high so you won’t get shocked!

 

What are the health benefits of eating Spirulina?

Too many to mention here; take a look around the Web for a more complete picture. In a nutshell, because it lacks a cell wall or any other indigestible components, Spirulina is a super-concentrated, highly available nutrient source, which enhances the nutrition of any food eaten with it. Spirulina is about 65% complete protein, and the remainder is packed with anti-oxidants, essential omega-3 fatty acids, and other compounds with healthful anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. As a blue-green algae, its nutritional value is unique, since blue-green algae split evolutionarily from green plants approximately a billion years ago.

My experience with Spirulina (I eat about 15 grams a day) is that it greatly improves my stamina, raises and levels out my mood, and speeds up all kinds of healing. The first two effects are consistent with clinical studies that show a large reduction (up to 50%)in the glycemic index of foods eaten with even a small amount (2.5%) of Spirulina.

 

Is live Spirulina better for you than the powder or pills I can get at the health food store?

All studies of the health benefits of Spirulina have been on the dead, powdered stuff. It stands to reason, though, that the live, fresh version of such a highly perishable food would have superior properties, and this is my experience, having eaten both. Purveyors of the powder claim that they take every precaution to preserve the nutritional properties of the algae, but what would you rather eat, a fresh blueberry, or a powdered blueberry?

 

How long does the live, fresh Spirulina last? How can I preserve it?

Fresh Spirulina, once removed from the preserving alkaline environment of the tank, is like raw eggs in its perishability—it should be eaten or refrigerated within an hour or so of harvest. It will last in the fridge for up to three days. If frozen, it lasts indefinitely; if dehydrated (and kept dry), it will last for about a year, longer if kept in an airtight container. It’s not hard to tell if it does go bad—it smells like rotten eggs.

 

Is there an optimal artificial light to use for growing Spirulina?

As a general rule, a plant or alga (or anything else for that matter) absorbs the wavelengths (colors) that are not present in its apparent color, which is made up of the wavelengths that it bounces out without absorbing. So, the chlorophyll of green plants absorbs mainly red and blue light, and bounces out green light. Green plants need both red and blue light to thrive. Blue-green algae, such as spirulina, have special accessory pigments called phycocyanins and allophycocyanins, which allow them to capture more red and orange light (and to a lesser extent yellow and green) than green plants. They do have chlorophyll (only slightly different from green plants’ chlorophyll), so they also use blue light.

For these reasons, ordinary “grow lights”, which are optimized for green land plants, are not particularly good for growing Spirulina or other blue-green algae (though they will work). A light with more red and orange light—i.e. a “warmer” color—would be more efficient for growth, as a higher fraction of the light will be absorbed. Another approach would be to use white light supplemented by a red-orange light source (peaking at 620-650 nm), to hit the phyco-pigments better. I have used the “warmer” colored compact fluorescents with some success, but haven’t done any side-by-side testing. In general, though, the color of the light source is not as important in my experience as getting the nutrients and temperature right, and providing LOTS of light, which is a lot easier using sunshine!

 

CCRES AQUAPONICS special thanks to Dr. Aaron Baum, of AlgaeLab.org

 

CCRES AQUAPONICS 

Project of NGO

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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What is Spirulina ?

 

                                                                  Spirulina Algae

 

 

 

What is Spirulina Algae ?

 

Spirulina is a microscopic blue-green algae that exists as a single celled organism turning sunlight into life energy.

It is one of the first life forms designed by nature more than 3.6 billion years ago. Spirulina contains billions of years of evolutionary wisdom in its DNA and is an offspring of earth’s first photosynthetic life forms.

Under the microscope, Spirulina is a blue-green color and has the appearance of a spiral of long thin threads. 

 

Spirulina is exceedingly adaptable and occurs in a wide variety of environments including fresh water, tropical springs, saltwater and saltpans.

Spirulina is full of nutrients and very easily digested. Commercially, Spirulina is available as a powder, tablet and capsule or added to foods and health tonics.

There are many forms of valuable algae and in the last 40 years Spirulina has been singled out for its nutritional properties. Long before it became a favorite of the health food industry, Spirulina was eaten regularly by North Africans and Mexicans centuries ago. Now many people around the globe realize that Spirulina is a powerful food with huge potential as a whole food source, medicine and biochemical resource.

A great deal of research has concentrated on the cultivation and harvesting of what is affectionately referred to as ‘the green’. It has been described as ‘probiotic’ and a ‘superfood’.

The cultivation of Spirulina has also brought interest because, as with most micro algae, Spirulina is extremely adaptable, often thriving in extreme conditions. With its rich nutritional goodness and ability to grow in adverse conditions, Spirulina has a huge potential to be a food source that will help feed and nourish the worlds population.

As a plant, Spirulina is incredibly rich containing a balance of nutrients that make it virtually a ‘whole food’ capable of sustaining life without the need for other foods.

Spirulina provides vitamins, many minerals, essential amino acids, carbohydrates and enzymes. Spirulina is at least 60% vegetable protein, which is predigested by the algae, making it a highly digestible food. It is higher in protein than any other food. Its outstanding nutritional profile also includes the essential fatty acids, GLA fatty acid, lipids, the nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), B complex, vitamin C and E and phytochemicals, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll (blood purifier), and phycocyanin (a blue pigment), which is a protein that is known to inhibit cancer.

A breakdown in nutritional terms of a few of the most commonly available supplements reveals an impressive comparison. 

                                                   Fresh Spirulina


How is it grown?

 

Spirulina thrives in natural alkaline lakes. Spirulina farming is part of the new era of ecological agriculture. The key component in the production of Spirulina is sunlight and attention is given to measurement of temperature and oxygen levels.

Because pesticides and herbicides would kill many microscopic life forms in a pond, algae scientists have learned how to balance pond ecology without the use of these harmful substances.

This form of aquaculture represents one of the solutions needed to produce food while restoring the planet.

 

 Why Certifed Organic ?

Humans create toxic waste, spill oil in the oceans, fill the air with acid rain and car exhaust and dump herbicides and pesticides into the soil. Unfortunately, this story of destroying our planet is still unfolding, and we are all its authors. There’s no question that lives will be much poorer if conventional farming continues to pollute water, changing historic landscapes into arable deserts, reducing the ozone layer for the sake of a few more strawberries and allowing the return of diseases that modern society believed it had beaten. For healthy human race with happy prospects and for sake of our planet, choose organic food.

 

                                                  Spirulina in water


Ensures no Pesticides are used

‘Pesticides’. People simply don’t understand how dangerous they are, most of the commonly used manmade pesticides are potential carcinogens…some of them are related to nerve gases and all of them are poisonous. They have to be — they are designed to kill. But what we don’t know is what the accumulation of potent pesticide residues do to us. Studies suggest that low-level exposure to pesticides over several years can cause health problems. The health effects of pesticides in our food and the environment are slowly becoming clear; immune suppression, hormone disruption, neurological damage,birth defects, cancer and nerve damage.

 

 Additives

As if pesticides in our food were not enough, we are forced to ingest food additives. Have you ever wondered what is added to food before it is packaged? Or, have you ever found yourself perplexed by words like tocopherol, propionic acid, or carrageenan on a food label?

Food additives are defined as substances that are added to food during processing, but are not normally consumed by themselves as foods. But the larger question is why do food companies use additives in any amounts? And, why should we purchase foods that contain these additives if there is even the slightest health risk? Since artificial colours aren’t necessary to preserve the food or enhance food safety and quality, (and may cause medical problems in some people) it’s best to do without this particular type of additive.

The seven thousand artificial additives permitted in non-organic foods are used to make food last beyond its natural sell-by date, make it appear brighter or more colourful, and/or taste sweeter, saltier or just plain better than the manufacturer could manage without these crutches. At best, these additives are unnecessary and annoying to those who question their use and usefulness. At worst, they are possible carcinogens and could be causing damage that no one has bothered to study.

 

Eco-Domaine Ferme de Bouquetot

 

 

CCRES AQUAPONICS 

project of NGO

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

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Sustainable feed resources

Fish farming is very efficient in terms of the conversion of protein, which means an important ecological advantage in light of the sustainability of fish feed resources.

One of the most-frequently cited issues with the sustainable development of aquaculture is the capture of other fish as raw material to be used as fish feed in the form of fish meal and fish oil. It is seen as an issue because a food production sector is in part relying on a capture fishery for the supply of raw materials for the production of aquaculture feed.

Typically, these other fish species are small, oil-rich, bony pelagic fish that are not normally used for direct human consumption. Two decades ago, the majority of fish meal and oil was used to make feeds for land animal production. At present, over 50 percent of fishmeal and over 80 percent of fish oil is used for aquaculture.

If aquaculture is to fill the gap in demand for seafood, this raises important sustainability issues as to the availability of sufficient feed supply. This is particularly relevant given the fact that fishmeal and fish oil production has been, and is likely to remain, relatively constant at around 6 million and 0.9 million tonnes per year, respectively.

However, as the demand for fishmeal and fish oil in aquaculture has increased, so the price has risen. This has driven both terrestrial agriculture and aquaculture to seek nutritional alternatives to fishmeal and fish oil. This is an on-going process and estimates made by the International Fishmeal & Fish oil Organisation (IFFO) show that the growth of aquaculture and the substitution of fishmeal and fish oil can continue together. The IFFO has started to produce datasheets on fisheries for fish meal and fish oil and these are available at the IFFO web site.

Conversion of caught wild fish to farmed fish

It has been noted that certain types of fish, particularly salmon, are net consumers, requiring in the region of 3 kg of wild fish as feed to produce 1 kg of farmed fish. While it is true that growing high-quality salmon requires considerable amounts of fishmeal and oil, improved technology in fishmeal and oil production as well as better feeding practices on farms have reduced the ratio over time.

Salmon are an exception, because their diets require large amounts of fish oil. For aquaculture overall, the ratio is now well below one: less fish is used for feed than is produced at farms. For carnivorous species, the ratio is still decreasing and expected to reach 1.0 around 2012 (IFFO).

These figures do not include recent gains thanks to the recovery of meal and oil from aquaculture waste. Increasingly in Europe, waste from aquaculture is collected and processed, redirecting around 50 percent of the harvested weight to valuable products.

It should also be noted that wild carnivorous fish also need food. It is estimated that it takes 10 kg of forage fish to produce 1 kg of salmon caught in the wild6. If by-catch values are added to the equation, another 5 kg of forage fish has to be added. Hence, even a 3 to 1 ratio for farmed salmon would be significantly better than a 10-15 to 1 ratio of salmon caught in the wild.

 Efficiency of food conversion in farmed fish

The ‘food conversion ratio’ (FCR) is defined as the weight of food that is required to produce one kilogram of fish. In the early days of aquaculture, farmed fish were fed with whole ‘trash’ fish and FCRs were more than 20 to 1. Through the years, the ratio has dramatically declined. With the advent of dry, pelletised feeds and modern extrusion technologies, FCR levels are now almost 1 to 1. Certain trout and salmon farms achieve an FCR of less than 1:1, making them far more efficient converters of marine protein than their wild counterparts.

As fish feeds represent an increasingly high share of total production cost, fish farmers have every interest in using feeds as effectively as possible, thereby also reducing the potential environmental impacts of non-consumed feeds. Overfeeding or underfeeding would increase the FCR. Therefore, many farms are equipped with underwater surveillance and monitoring systems as well as devices controlling the supply and delivery of feed.

Replacement of marine protein sources by (terrestrial) plant protein

For various reasons, fishmeal and oil are gradually being replaced by plant proteins in feed that is used in fish farms. Plant proteins can be less costly and they are free of potential contaminants like dioxin, PCB or mercury.

However, fishmeal is an important ingredient in fish feed and can only to a limited extent be replaced by vegetable proteins without reducing feed efficiency and growth. After all, carnivorous or ‘piscivorous’ fish naturally feed on other fish. The fatty acid composition in the flesh from farmed fish will also reflect the feed composition and inclusion of vegetable oil will reduce the level of omega-3 fatty acids.

Although the introduction of plant protein into the feed can be seen as a way of reducing the sector’s dependence on fish meal and fish oil, some have questioned the trend because:

  • carnivorous fish do not naturally feed on plants;
  • plant proteins may have anti-nutritional effects on fish;
  • there is a maximum level of replacement, after which the texture and eating quality
  • of the fish is compromised;
  • some plant proteins could be derived from GMOs.

Generally speaking, though, marine plants have enormous potential to act as fish feed ingredients. Initial research has confirmed this potential and our knowledge in this area is starting to build.

Decontamination of fish meal and fish oil
Fishmeal and fish oil are produced from fish that may contain contaminants. Various research projects are ongoing to look into the feasibility of de-contaminating fish meal and fish oil. One such project is carried out at the Fiskeriforskning Institute in Norway.

Fish stocks of concern in the northern European industry are sprat and herring from the Baltic Sea, and herring, sprat, sand eel and blue whiting in the North Sea. The differences in dioxin and PCB levels reflect the general pollution levels in the respective fishing areas and will disfavour the North European fishmeal and oil producers in the world market. This is already the case in aquaculture, where most fishmeal is sourced from the southern hemisphere.

The main objective of the project is to develop a new oil extraction process to reduce the persistent organic pollutants level in fishmeal. The research will aim to identity optimal processing conditions with respect to both decontamination efficiency and preservation of fishmeal and oil quality. The new oil extraction process is expected to have several advantages compared to a standard hexane extraction process. This will include the possibility of easy integration in an existing fishmeal processing line, use of a safe and non-flammable extraction medium and lower investment and operation costs.

Do farmed fish contain artificial colouring?

The natural red/orange colour of salmon results from carotenoid pigments, largely astaxanthin in the flesh. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant that stimulates the development of healthy fish nervous systems and that enhances the fish’s fertility and growth rate. Wild salmon get these carotenoids from feeding on small crustaceans, such as prawns and shrimp. Astaxanthin does not naturally occur in fish feeds and thus must be added. The astaxanthin which is added to feed is identical to the natural pigment.

Food miles

In recent years, there has been increasing emphasis on energy resources needed to ship in food from afar. Although the relationship between transport and overall sustainability can be complex, it can be said that where food supply chains are otherwise identical, reducing food transport improves sustainability.

Therefore, generally speaking, European aquaculture production could be seen as more efficient in terms of “food miles” than imports of the same species from countries far away.

However, there is a food mile issue with the use of fish meal and fish oil produced in the southern hemisphere and used in Europe, although this is itself a trade-off of not using fish meal produced in Europe due to issues of species in recovery (e.g. sandeel and capelin) and contamination of fish meal and oil (e.g. Baltic herring).

However, as stated before, comparisons can be complex, involving differences between food supply systems that often involve trade-offs between a diverse variety of environmental, social and economic factors. The impact of food transport can be offset to some extent if food imported to an area has been produced more sustainably than the food available locally. For example, a case study showed that it can be more sustainable (at least in energy efficiency terms) to import tomatoes from Spain than to produce them in heated greenhouses in the UK outside the summer months.

In the case of fishmeal and fish oil, the world’s largest producers of fishmeal and fish oil are in South America. There, fishmeal and fish oil are mass-produced very efficiently and shipped overseas (already with a reduced water content in the case of fishmeal) to Europe to be used as feed in aquaculture. Surely, this has to compare favourably to using airplanes to import fresh fish from Asia or South America.

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