Tag Archives: healthy local food

Europska aquakultura

 
 
Važnost očuvanja

Provjere od strane službenika za kontrolu ribarstva sprječavaju prekomjerno izlovljavanje ribe.

Ribarska industrija EU-a druga je po veličini u svijetu. Godišnje osigurava oko 7.3 milijuna tona ribe. Ribarstvo i industrija prerade  ribe zapošljavaju više od 400.000 ljudi.

Prioritet ribarske politike EU-a je postići ravnotežu između osiguravanja konkurente ribarske industrije s jedne i održivih ribljih zaliha te održivog pomorskog eko-sustava s druge strane.

Za razdoblje od 2007.-2013. godine, Europski ribarski fond ima na raspolaganju 3.85 milijardi eura koje se mogu potrošiti na prioritete postavljene od strane zemalja članica, temeljene na njihovim vlastitim odlukama o tome što im je naviše potrebno. Novac se može iskoristiti za morsko i slatkovodno ribarstvo, akvakulturu, organizacije proizvođača, sektor procesiranja i marketinga, te za ekonomsku diverzifikaciju u ribarskim zajednicama.

 
Nužna je dobra provedba

Kako bi osigurala poštivanje ograničenja vezanih za ribarstvo, postavljenih u interesu dugoročnog očuvanja zaliha ribe, EU je 2005. godine osnovala Agenciju za kontrolu ribarstva Zajednice. Agencija, čije je trenutno sjedište u Bruxellesu, trebala bi se u 2008. godini preseliti na svoju stalnu lokaciju u Vigo u Španjolskoj, europsku vodeću ribarsku luku. Agencija koordinira provedbu pravila za sprječavanje prekomjernog izlovljavanja ribe i zaštitu drugih oblika morskog života. Osim toga, ona osigurava obuku za inspektore i organizira zajedničko postavljanje inspektora iz više država članica Unije.

 
Međunarodna suradnja i pomoć

Ribarski sporazumi sa zemljama izvan EU-a i pregovori unutar regionalnih i međunarodnih ribarskih organizacija osiguravaju sprječavanje prekomjernog izlovljavanja ribe, ne samo u vodama EU-a, već i u onima iz čitavog svijeta. Istovremeno, ribarima EU-a pružaju pristup ribi u udaljenim vodama. Zemljama u razvoju EU plaća za pravo pristupa, a novac dobiven tim putem uvelike se ulaže u ribarske industrije tih zemalja te u izgradnju njihovih ribljih zaliha.

 
Razvijanje akvakulture

Akvakulturom se može nadoknaditi smanjenje zaliha divlje ribe. Već sada 20% ukupnog izlova Europske unije dolazi iz uzgajališta riba. Mekušci, školjke, potočna pastrva i losos spadaju u najvažnije proizvode akvakulture, no u nekim zemljama važno mjesto zauzimaju i šaran i deverika.

Akvakulturna industrija EU-a raste sporije od industrije ostatka svijeta. Europska komisija razmatra uvođenje dodatnih koraka za razvoj potencijala ove industrije. Ključni izazovi uključuju manjak prostora i vode dobre kvalitete, te visoke standarde zaštite javnog zdravlja i okoliša. Europska aquakultura prednjači u održivom razvoju u svijetu, i po pitanju socijalnih učinaka i učinaka na okoliš, no to otežava tržišno natjecanje s proizvođačima iz drugih zemalja, posebice iz Azije i južne Amerike.

 
Pomorska dimenzija

EU ima više mora nego kopna te predstavlja najveći svjetski pomorski teritorij. Ima ukupno 1200 luka, a oko 90% ukupne vanjske trgovine i 40% unutarnje obavlja se morskim putem. Trgovačka flota Europske unije najveća je na svijetu.

Pomorske regije sačinjavaju više od 40% bruto domaćeg proizvoda EU-a, a u njima živi 60% populacije Unije. Oko 5% BDP-a dolazi izravno iz pomorskih industrija i usluga. Broj je puno veći kada se uzmu u obzir neizravni doprinosi iz drugih sektora, poput turizma.

Kako su ribarska politika i politika zaštite okoliša već neko vrijeme percipirane kao dvije strane iste medalje, EU sada preuzima šire gledište kako bi obuhvatila sve koristi našeg pomorskog prostora. Cilj je ojačati europska pomorska istraživanja, tehnologiju i inovacije. To se uklapa u Lisabonsku agendu za veći broj kvalitetnijih poslova i rast, te u Unijinu posvećenost osiguravanju da gospodarski razvoj ne ugrožava održivost okoliša. Integrirana pomorska politika obuhvaća pomorski prijevoz, konkurentnost kompanija u pomorskom sektoru, zapošljavanje, znanstvena istraživanja, ribarstvo i zaštitu morskog okoliša.

Kako bi naglasila važnost ovog sektora, Europska komisija je 20. svibnja proglasila Europskim danom pomorstva. Prvi Europski dan pomorstva obilježen je 2008. godine. 

 

Branka Kalle 

Predsjednica Savjeta 

Hrvatskog Centra Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)

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Environment


Quality of life for the planet

Need for high quality water and other resources

Clean water is the primary pre-requisite to successful aquaculture. A clean environment is therefore critical for its commercial success. Any environmental impact that would compromise the quality of the water used on fish farms must be monitored and minimised through appropriate siting (choice of locations) of farms and production processes.

 

In recent years, the development of aquaculture has raised some associated environmental concerns. Like any farming operation on land, fish farm cages produce waste materials. These fall into three categories – uneaten feed, fish faeces and dead fish. Most of the environmental impacts of aquaculture can be managed and minimised through understanding of the processes involved, responsible management and the effective siting of farms.

 

Uneaten feed – Should uneaten feed reach the bottom of a cage, processes that break it down can reduce the amount of oxygen in the sediment. In severe cases, oxygen levels in the water above may also decrease, creating “anoxic” conditions in which only a few animal species can survive. Should the feed contain antibiotics used to treat the farmed fish above, bacteria in the sediment and the natural breakdown of waste material might be affected.

In practice, fish farmers do everything they can to prevent such a situation, since the cost of fish feed amounts up to 40 percent of the total production cost. Feed reaching the sediment is lost, and it is in the farmer’s interest to minimise such waste. On well-managed farms, feeding is carefully regulated to ensure that the maximum amount of food is taken up directly by the fish and farmers aim to ensure that less than 5 percent of the feed is wasted. To improve uptake by fish, feed pellets are manufactured to either float or to sink slowly through the water.

Fish faeces – Unlike land animals, fish do not generally produce compact solid faecal material and more often excrete a loose cloud of faecal material that is easily dispersed by water currents. In still conditions, however, faecal material can build up beneath fish cages. It is, however, not in the farmer’s interest to let this happen, since the buildup of faecal material can lead to anoxic conditions which affect the fish above. Fish farmers wanting to ensure the health of their fish will frequently check the bottom below their fish cages to ensure that faecal material is not building up. In addition, in many EU Member States, the government employs diving teams to carry out inspections.
If faecal build-up is observed, farmers will be advised to move their cages, allowing the bottom to recuperate for a short period, however full recovery typically takes between three to ten years. In recent years, improved feed formulations have also been introduced that fish digest more efficiently, producing less waste.

Fish farmers generally avoid overly sheltered and stagnant sites, preferring areas that contain a healthy flow of water through the cages. Such flows disperse fish faeces so it can enter the natural food chain.

Dead fish – Dead fish are a loss to the farmer and a potential health hazard to the stock as well as a source of pollution. Fish farmers will, at all times, endeavour to minimise the number of dead fish on their farms and to remove such mortalities where they occur.

Fish farms are required to report significant fish deaths when they occur and are inspected by state agencies at least twice a year.

Shellfish cultivation

Shellfish such as oysters, mussels and clams are filter feeders and take their food directly from the water in which they live. This means that they do not require supplementary food and, if anything, actually improve the quality and clarity of the water. Shellfish farming can only provide the best quality products if practiced in pristine environments with the highest water quality.

Environmental problems can arise on shellfish farms where the animals are held at overly high densities, leading to depletion of food in the water and build-up of faeces below the holding areas. Both effects will harm the outcome for the farmer and hence shellfish farms are generally sited where water exchange is high and the stock is kept at densities that are compatible with the level of water exchange. In many cases, stocking densities on farms are lower than those of clusters of shellfish (e.g. mussels) that occur on natural beds.

Shellfish farms have been thought to disturb wildlife habitats by taking up space on a beach where wading birds feed. It has been shown, however, that wading birds and oyster farms can exist side by side. The fallen oyster or mussel can have a positive impact on a bird’s feeding pattern.

Other potential impacts include the importation of parasites, pests and diseases onto the shellfish farm which would then spread to other areas. The microscopic oyster parasite Bonamia ostrea, for example, gradually spread through Europe with the spread of oyster farming. Oyster farmers have responded by significantly reducing the density at which their shellfish are farmed.

Some people complain of “visual pollution” caused by large numbers of floating barrels or shellfish trestles in otherwise unspoilt areas. Low-profile and dark-coloured floats have recently been developed to minimise the visual impact.

Pond fish farming

Fish pond systems represent the oldest fish farming activity in Europe, at least dating back to medieval times. Ponds were built in areas where water supply was available and the soil was not suitable for agriculture. The wetlands of Central and Eastern Europe are good examples of this. The total European production from pond farming is approximately 475,000 tonnes. About half of this production is cyprinid fish, such as common carp, silver carp and bighead carp. The main producer countries are the Russian Federation, Poland, Czech Republic, Germany, Ukraine and Hungary.

pondfarming_600.jpg

Typical fish ponds are earthen enclosures in which the fish live in a natural-like environment, feeding on the natural food growing in the pond itself from sunlight and nutrients available in the pond water.

In order to reach higher yields, farmers today introduce nutrients into the pond such as organic manure. This is accompanied by stocking of fingerlings and by water being flushed through the pond. Fish pond production, however, remains ‘extensive’ or ‘semi-intensive’ (with supplementary feeding) in most countries, where semi-static freshwater systems play an important role in aquaculture. Chemicals and therapeutics are not usually used in such ponds. Hence the main environmental issue is the use of organic fertilisers, which may cause eutrophication in the surrounding natural waters. The use of organic fertilisers is regulated at national levels.

Extensive fish ponds are usually surrounded by reed belts and natural vegetation, thus providing important habitats for flora and fauna. They play a growing role in rural tourism. Many pond fish farms have been turned into multifunctional fish farms, where various other services are provided for recreation, maintenance of biodiversity and improvement of water management.

In areas where water is scarce, some farm systems recirculate, treat and re-use their water. Such systems are generally self-contained and therefore pose little threat to the environment. Solid waste material produced in such systems is rich in organic compounds and often used as a fertilizer elsewhere. Alternatively, new hydroponic systems have been developed to grow vegetables and other food crops in the nutrient-enriched water. There is much interest in these systems, but their economic viability remains challenging.

Trout farming in flow-through systems

 

The most widely-practiced form of inland aquaculture in Europe is trout farming. Water is taken from the river, circulated through the farm and treated before being released downstream. All water in the farm is renewed at least once per day. Where more than one farm exists on the same river, it is in everyone’s interests that the quality of the outflowing water from one farm is good, as this then becomes the inflowing water for the next farm. Other water sources include spring water or drilled and pumped ground water. In some countries, heated industrial water sources (such as electricity generating plants) are used to increase the water temperature (by heat exchange)
used in the farm, thereby saving energy costs to heat the water. Geothermal water also provides naturally warmed water, thus allowing the farming of new fresh water species (especially eel, sturgeon, perch and tilapia) with low environmental impact.

 

 

trout farm

Recirculation Aquaculture Systems

Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS) are land-based systems in which water is re-used after mechanical and biological treatment so as to reduce the needs for water and energy and the emission of nutrients to the environment. These systems present several advantages such as: water and energy saving, a rigorous control of water quality, low environmental impacts, high biosecurity levels and an easier control of waste production as compared to other production systems. The main disadvantages are high capital costs, high operational costs, requirements for very careful management (and thus highly skilled labour forces) and difficulties in treating disease. RAS is still a
small fraction of Europe’s aquaculture production and has its main relevance in The Netherlands and Denmark. The main species produced in RAS are catfish and eel but other species are already being produced using this type of technology such as turbot, sea bass, pikeperch, tilapia and sole.

recirculation

Other environmental impacts of fish farming – the case of escaped fish

It is inevitable that fish farmed in net pens in either fresh or salt water will sometimes escape into the wild. In some cases, there will be a small but steady release of fish. Sometimes, large numbers will escape due to severe damage to the net pen by way of storms, predator attacks or vandalism.

 

There has been vigorous debate on the potential impact of escaped farmed fish, in particular salmon, on wild populations. On the one hand, it has been suggested that escaped farmed salmon could compete for living space, breeding partners and food resources, spread disease, or interbreed with wild fish, causing “genetic pollution” and thereby weakening the wild strain and reducing its ability to survive . On the other hand, scientists have argued that farmed salmon, which are bred for fast growth in perfect conditions, are less able to compete for food, territory and mate in the wild than their wild colleagues. Therefore, a limited escape of farmed fish would be unlikely to have a serious effect on wild fish populations. Only if very large numbers of fish escape into a small area, would interbreeding occur and the fitness of the local population potentially be reduced.

 

In its Aquaculture Europe 2005 conference, the European Aquaculture Society invited the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organisation (NASCO) to hold a special workshop on the interactions between wild and farmed salmon. The summary report of this event “Wild and Farmed Salmon – Working Together” drew the following main conclusions:

Through the use of single bay management, single generation sites and synchronised fallowing, real progress is being made in relation to minimising impacts of diseases and parasites, which are key issues for wild fish interests. The development of third-party audited containment management systems may represent a significant step forward. The liaison group should look more at the possibilities of rearing all-female triploid salmon, which could eliminate genetic interaction with the wild stocks, but which need to be balanced by the production cost of these fish, as well as consumer resistance to what could be seen as genetic manipulation.

Restoration programmes can benefit from fish farmers’ expertise, but habitat protection and restoration have equal or greater importance in species restoration than stocking programmes alone.

 

CCRES AQUAPONICS

part of NGO

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

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CCRES AQUAPONICS Cooperating Institutions

 

 CCRES AQUAPONICS Cooperating Institutions
International Fish Farming Technologies provides a novel technology for the inland production of seawater fish. IFFT’s innovative and environmentally friendly Closed Loop Mariculture (CLM) offers an alternative to conventional fish farming. By uncoupling from the environment and under stable rearing conditions they present the new perspective for sustainable and environmentally friendly fish farming.
Agro Ittica Lombarda S.p.A. : CALVISIUSâ Original Caviar Malossol is the registered trade mark of Agroittica Lombarda’s farmed White Sturgeon Caviar. Agroittica Lombarda, based in Brescia (Italy) runs the largest sturgeon farm in Europe producing 500 tonnes/year of meat and 20 tonnes/year of top quality caviar. Experienced since 1991 in farmed caviar processing, Agroittica has gained a worldwide reputation for the freshness, granulometry (min.2.8mm) flavour and hygiene of its sturgeon roe: a real Malossol with a very low salt content. This has been made possible because CALVISIUSâ is extracted from October through March thus avoiding high salting for longer preservation.
We, the Acadian Sturgeon and Caviar Inc. , produce and sell sturgeon stocking material – Atlantic (Acipenser oxyrhynchus) and shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) for aquaculture, restocking and research. We also offer consulting and R&D services in the field of sturgeon aquaculture and ecology. We are developing the production of sturgeon meat and caviar as well as a gene bank for both those sturgeon species in Carters Point, New Brunswick, Canada.
The GoConsult is an independent consultancy involved with ship-mediated biological invasions and species introductions for aquaculture purposes since 1999. Dr. Gollasch was chairman of the ICES Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms (2001-2006). This group commented on the project to re-import sturgeons from North America to the Baltic countries and also monitors through country reports the importation of life specimens for trade and aquaculture, including sturgeons. Today’s work is focussed also on the development of risk assessment and ballast water management scenarios for Europe as well as on specific efficacy tests of ballast water treatment systems.
The Holsten-Stör Fishfarm produces caviar from the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baeri, in closed recirculating systems. The caviar is sold under trademark “Baerioska”.
The main objectives of the International Sturgeon Research Institute (ISRI) in Rasht (Iran) relate to conservation and sustainable use of sturgeon stocks in the Caspian Sea while also fostering regional and international cooperation to conduct sturgeon research in joint projects along the following thematic subject areas:

A) Specific Research topics:

  • Sturgeon Ecology in natural waters and under ponds conditions
  • Controlled reproduction, Sturgeon rehabilitation and restocking of sturgeon populations
  • Stock assessment and improved catch technology
  • General physiology and biochemistry of sturgeons
  • Genetics and breeding, biotechnology and population genetics of sturgeons
  • Sturgeon aquaculture
  • Ecotoxicology studies using sturgeons as target species
  • Processing technology and development of sturgeon products
  • Sturgeon pathology and disease control

B) Involvement in Regional and International Cooperation:

  • Cooperation with international organizations to conserve valuable stocks of sturgeons in the Caspian Sea and other endangered populations of sturgeon species in the world. eg. CITES ( Asia representative in Animal Committee), IUCN (Chairman of Sturgeon Specialist Group), Member of Foundation Committee and Board in WSCS
  • Exchange scientific and technical information as well as research experts with other organizations and universities
  • Conduct long term and short term training courses at different academic levels
  • Hosting international conferences on management and conservation of sturgeon stocks. (Chairman of ISS5)
The North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO) is an international organization established under the Convention for the Conservation of Salmon in the North Atlantic Ocean which entered into force on 1 October 1983. The objective of the Organization is to contribute through consultation and cooperation to the conservation, restoration, enhancement and rational management of salmon stocks subject to the Convention taking into account the best scientific evidence available to it. The Convention applies to the salmon stocks which migrate beyond areas of fisheries jurisdiction of coastal States of the Atlantic Ocean north of 36N latitude throughout their migratory range. Contracting partners include Canada, Denmark, the European Union, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation and the United States of America. NASCO has three regional commissions. NASCO can be contacted through the Secreatariat at NASCO / 11 Rutland Square / Edinburgh, EH1 2AS / United Kingdom
CRM-Coastal Research & Management is a private association of experts in the fields of Marine Research and Environmental Consulting, Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Marine Biotechnology. CRM elaborates science-based planning and decision tools, that help to avoid ecological or economical failures. Since 1993 CRM’s interdisciplinary team supplies services for coastal industries (aquaculture, harbor, shipping, tourism) and is partner in international scientfic projects. The first seaweed farm in Germany was established by CRM in order to develop new value added products for cosmetic, medical and biotechnological use.
Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) of the Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. The IZW conducts integrated biological and veterinary research on wildlife. Our work is focused on the mechanisms and functions of evolutionary adaptations that ensure the survival and reproduction of individuals in free-ranging and captive populations of wildlife, and the limits that may affect the viability and persistence of such populations. For this purpose, we study the behavioural and evolutionary ecology, wildlife diseases, and reproduction of mostly larger mammals and birds. A special group around Dr. A. Ludwig studies in particular sturgeon genetics in relation to their phylogeny and distribution but also in light of trade control of caviar. The institute was recently the co-organizer of the 2nd Status Workshop on Identification of Acipenseriformes Species in Trade
Department of Ecotoxicology (Institute for Ecological Research and Technology, Technical University of Berlin. Major research areas are: Fisheries and ecological status of habitats. Effects Monitoring (freshwater and marine) and the study of detoxification processes using modern methods to assess DNA damages (Genotoxicity, Xenoestrogens, Immunosuppression, Phagocytosis). Development of modern bioanalytical systems and (on-line) monitoring systems, entire cell bio-sensors. Development and testing of cost efficient screening methods (genotoxic potential, endocrine effects and immunosuppression) in inland and coastal waters. Landscape scale ecotoxicology in respect to the Water Frame Work Directive and REACH. Risk assessment, -communication and -management in constructions and materials.
The European Aquaculture Society (EAS) is an international non-profit association that promotes contacts and disseminates information among all involved or interested in aquaculture in Europe. EAS has members in more than 60 countries and participates in various initiatives to contribute to the sutainable development of European aquaculture.
From the start DIECKMANN & HANSEN has always been and still is a caviar import/export company and has therefore global experience in this trade and its quality control. DIECKMANN & HANSEN was founded in 1869 and is the oldest existing caviar trading company worldwide.
Polar and Marine research are central themes of Global system and Environmental Science. The Alfred Wegener Institute conducts research in the Arctic, the Antarctic and at temperate latitudes. It coordinates Polar research in Germany and provides both the necessary equipment and the essential logistic back up for polar expeditions. Recent additional research themes include North Sea Research, contributions to Marine Biological Monitoring, Marine Pollution Research, Investigation of naturally occuring marine substances, marine aquaculture and technical marine developments.
The European Association of Fish Pathologists was established on 25th October 1979 in Munich, Germany. it is an interdisciplinary society, embracing all aspects of aquatic disease in fish and shellfish, in aquaculture and in wild stocks. Members come from all disciplines, biologists, microbiologists, veterinarians, fish farmers and aquaculture engineers. The objective of the EAFP is to promote the rapid exchange of experience and information on aquatic disease problems and related topics. These aims are pursued mainly through regular regional and international meetings, support for training courses in laboratory techniques and the publication of the Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, a fully citeable journal listed in ASFA, Current Contents and Science Citation Index.
Blackwell Publishing Germany Blackwell Verlag is the German subsidiary of the company Blackwell Publishing whose headquarters are located in Oxford, UK. At the heart of Blackwell’s publishing service is an organisation with international reach, publishing over 660 journals and collaborating with more than 500 learned societies. In 2002 Blackwell published over 600 books. With revenues of approximately 230 million euros, Blackwell is the largest privately owned publisher world wide.
Leibnitz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries The Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries is one of the principal German centres for research on limnic ecosystems, and unites hydrologists, chemists, microbiologists, fish ecologists and fish biologists. A combination of fundamental and applied research supports our long-term goal of management of aquatic ecosystems, via restoration, development and protection. Our research activities are primarily oriented to the analysis of the widespread structures and functions of freshwater ecosystems. Our subsidiary focus is the study of unique regional environments such as the Berlin river-lake system where numerous shallow lakes are interconnected by dominant rivers, and turbulence is a major influence.
Sander Ozonizers Erwin Sander Elektroapparatebau GmbH: Ozone Generators for Laboratory and Industry – Typical Applications: Potable Water, Waste Water, Waste Air, Bottling Industry, Sterilisation, Swimming Pools, Laboratories, Material Tests, Petro Chemistry, Bio Chemistry, Water Chemistry, Climatic Technology, Cooling Towers, Test Cases, Aquaculture, Public Aquaria, Medicine, School, University
Global Information System FishBase FishBase is a relational database with information to cater to different professionals such as research scientists, fisheries managers, zoologists and many more. FishBase on the web contains practically all fish species known to science. FishBase was developed at the WorldFish Center in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and many other partners, and with support from the European Commission (EC). Since 2001 FishBase is supported by a consortium of seven research institutions.
Deutsche See Deutsche See is the market leader for fish and seafood in Germany. Pleasure oriented foods and excellent service are the core competences – and this is demonstrated to customers and partners everday. The real cornerstones lie in the international sourcing of fresh and carefully selected products, their processing in the custom built “Deutsche See” factory in Bremerhaven and the groundbreaking Quality Management. Furthermore, “Deutsche See” offers a high degree of local presence and delivery all over Germany through a network of 26 “Deutsche See” branches.
aquafuture aquaFUTURE e.K. – Aquaculture Equipment, Consulting, Fishfarming, Recirculated Systems
Vancouver Island University Vancouver Island University  Known as a centre of excellence for teaching and learning, Vancouver Island University (VIU) is producing high calibre graduates who are in demand by employers across the country and around the world. Through its ongoing evolution and growth, VIU is proud to have contributed to the development of Vancouver Island and British Columbias culture, economy and knowledge base. VIU, formerly Malaspina University-College, has evolved from a small community college to a dynamic, internationally known university supporting a student population in excess of 18,000 full-and part-time learners and employing over 2,000 faculty and staff.
Society to Save the Sturgeon e.V. Founded in 1994, the Society to Save the Sturgeon is engaged in the restoration of the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. Scientists, fishfarmers und nature conservationists work closely together in this ambitious project, supported by international experts and organisations, aming at the reintroduction of the species in the mayor German rivers. Accompanied by international cooperations, these stocks should be expended to neighboring areas. On our homepage, we want to give experts and interessted layman some insights to the project and the sturgeon – its biology and its way of life.
Freshwater Fisheries Society of BC The Freshwater Fisheries Society of B.C. (FFSBC) is a non-profit society that delivers all of the services formerly provided the by Provincial Governments Fish Culture Section (Provincial Hatcheries). The society works in partnership with the province to deliver the provincial fish stocking program as well as providing conservation fish culture services that support steelhead and sturgeon recovery programs. The Freshwater Fisheries Society is also responsible for the promotion and marketing of freshwater fishing in the province. One of the main objectives is to offer anglers the most comprehensive website for lake and stream sports fishing information in British Columbia.
fishartgallery Teom Lim is an award winning carver with a unique perspective. He is an artist, avid fisherman and fisheries biologist rolled up in one. His meticulous attention to detail and university background produces carvings that are beautiful and anatomically correct. These attributes coupled with his love for fishing have enabled Teom to create pieces of art that capture a moment in nature.
Sturgeon AquaFarms Sturgeon AquaFarms, LLC (SAF) is a company that is dedicated to restoring the world’s resources of sturgeon. The company was established in order to start an aquaculture operation in Florida, USA that would farm various sturgeon species for commercial production of sturgeon meat and caviar – beluga, osetra, sevruga.
Sturgeon AquaFarms, LLC. was established in order to farm sturgeon species Huso huso, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser baerii, and Acipenser ruthenus. The company has been researching this proposal for the past seven years. During that time we have negotiated with the United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Aquaculture, Food & Drug Administration, Conservation Commission, Department of Fisheries, Water Management organization and Aquatic Services. We have corresponded with these agencies in an attempt to successfully fulfill all requirements for our proposal.
AquaBioTech Group AquaBioTech Group is a leading independent aquaculture, fisheries and environmental consulting, development, testing, research and training company operating throughout the world.

ABT Aquaculture is a leading aquaculture consulting and technical support company that forms part of the AquaBioTech Group. The company has grown to become one of the largest dedicated independent aquaculture consulting company`s operating on a truely global scale. With clients and projects in over twenty-nine (29) countries and a team of over twenty-five (25) highly qualified and experienced staff and personnel, the company draws on a wealth of experience and expertise covering all aspects of aquaculture planning, feasibility, development and operation.

ZwyerCaviar LLC ZwyerCaviar LLC is an family owned enterprise, seated in the heart of Swiss alps. As an innovative company we are determined to succeed and differentiate ourselves in the highly competitive and growing luxury fine food market worldwide. We are socially and ecologically conscientious of everything we do. Our approach is led by sustainability. Caviar is about trust. ZwyerCaviar comes from a sustainable controlled and responsible aqua farming environment and meets the highest health and quality standards in the world. A high priority is given to the protection and conservation of the sturgeon species in the wild. The sturgeons of ZwyerCaviar live in an untouched natural reserve, far from civilization and pollution. ZwyerCaviar is a clima-neutral company and proud member of the World Sturgoen Conservation Society eV.

Apart from the corporate website there is a blog named Caviarist you may want to visit, which is a mix between a corporate (of ZwyerCaviar LLC) and a privat (Roger Zwyer) blog.

Aller Aqua Group Aller Aqua Group:  With more than 40 years in the sector, Aller Aqua is one of the most experienced suppliers of fish feed for freshwater and saltwater species.
Aller Aqua has a wide range of fish feed for freshwater and saltwater fish  for example fish feed for carp, catfish, rainbow trout, cod, turbot, rockfish, salmon, seabass, seabream and sturgeon.

All our fish feed products are produced by means of extrusion. The fish feed must cover the basic metabolism of the fish and ensure healthy growth. In order to meet these requirements the fish feed composition must meet all needs for nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Aller Aqua fish feed meet all these requirements and have been adapted to various sizes of fish and feeding strategies. The feed have been developed in cooperation with customers and undergo continuous tests, in selected test stations and fish farms.
Fish feed from Aller Aqua are produced at our factories in Denmark, Poland and Germany.

Fish Farm Giaveri Rodolfo The Fish Farm Giaveri Rodolfo  was created in 1979 as an eel farm. Thanks to realization of an efficient system of modern aquaculture, with an advanced plant, it has become the leader in this field among the top European fish farms. For almost 30 years the focus of the farms eel production has been to satisfy traditional kitchen requests in the South of our Peninsula and Sardinia, while trade in the foreign market has been mainly in smoked eel. Furthermore, already in the early 80’s, the breeding was diversified introducing alternative species as Carps, Tenches and especially the Sturgeon. At the beginning, bred for sport fishing and then for its meat, it became the new and real protagonist of Giaveri production. Sturgeon inspires a lot of interest for the high quality of its resulting caviar also covering a particular role for variety of exemplars of Acipenser which are present in the plant.
Empirika Empirika
Mottra Caviar MOTTRA Ltd  are the purveyors of exceptional quality farmed black caviar from Latvia. Established in 2002 and founded by a group of Russian and Latvian caviar experts, MOTTRA combines a new environmental and scientific approach resulting in the production of the purest CITES certified caviar that will delight the most discerning connoisseur.

Mottra produces Osetra (Acipenser baerii) and Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) caviar all year long, no matter what the season, due to the Mottra caviar pools being totally enclosed and insulated under carefully controlled temperatures using unique technology. This allows Mottra to be in full control of the process of caviar ripeness as the water at the farm is not susceptible to climate change and the caviar can be collected when it is at its best. Mottra does not use any preservatives, chemical or medical additions to the fish nor to the caviar; only salt is added. The caviar is malossol, grain-to-grain. Unlike many farms, the Mottra sturgeon are “stripped” of their eggs and are allowed to mature rather than being culled, as for each year that the fish lives the superior the quality, and thus all round caviar experience.

Tropenhaus Frutigen The Tropenhaus Frutigen  represents a new tourist attraction in the Bernese Oberland. 100 litres of mountain water flows out of the Ltschberg Base Railway Tunnel every second. This heat energy is put to good use in the Tropenhaus: Fish and plants that love a warm climate are cultivated in the extensive facility, which is open to the public, and the Tropenhaus has around 80 employees from the local area. The facility is run by the Tropenhaus Frutigen AG, with Hans Peter Schwarz as the Chairman of the Board of Directors.

The Tropenhaus Frutigen is an attractive excursion destination for both individuals and groups. Visitors experience at first hand how the waste heat from the Ltschberg Base Tunnel is made use of: Exotic plants thrive in the Tropenhaus, while heat-loving fish swim about in the large basins. The food that is produced on-site comes fresh onto the tables of the operations own restaurants. The Tropenhaus is also a suitable location for events of all kinds, such as wedding receptions, company events or meetings. A wide range of tourist attractions are also available in the immediate vicinity.

TU Berlin Department of Ecological Impact Research and Ecotoxicology Berlin Institute of Technology (BIT) Department Ecological Impact Research and Ecotoxicology  Research for a Sustainable Future of our Ecosystems: Our research line in the field of ecological impact research and ecotoxicology aims to understand changes in an ecosystem from molecule, cells, organisms up to population effects and landscape structure. Within this goal the aquatic-terrestrial connectivity is one of the main back bones. Beside anthropogenic caused changes, we are investigating natural compounds, such as cyanobacterial toxins, which also cuase changes in an ecosystem.

A sustainable protection of our ecosystems can only be achieved, if single ecosystem function are investigated in order to help achieving the goal to protect the ecosystems.

Fischzucht Rh�nforelle GmbH & Co. KG Fischzucht Rhnforelle  is among the pioneers of sturgeon farming in Germany. In 1990 Peter Gross imported the first thousand small Siberian sturgeon juveniles from Konakowo (Volga River) to Gersfeld (Germany). Since than, he gradually converted the former trout farm into a sturgeon farm. Today, the Siberian sturgeon is reproduced year round and fertilized eggs are exported world-wide, including to the former origin in Russia. Today, juvenile production includes the highly endangered species Huso huso.
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Species protection and conservation

 

 

Fish farming can contribute to the protection and restoration of endangered fish populations living in the wild through the efficient provision of juveniles for release or stocking.

An increasing number of fish are finding their way onto the CITES lists of endangered species. The production of juvenile fish and shellfish in hatcheries is far more efficient (in terms of survival) than in the wild. These juveniles may not only be grown on as food, but also for the conservation and restoration of fish populations (through release or restocking) and the provision of fish for angling.

 

This technique, also known as “stock enhancement” or “enhancement aquaculture” has an economic advantage in that production costs are much lower, and has proven to be successful for a variety of marine fish species, mainly in Norway, Japan and the USA.

 

Sturgeons are among the world’s most valuable wildlife resources and can be found in large river systems, lakes, coastal waters and inner seas throughout the northern hemisphere. For people around the world, caviar, i.e. unfertilized sturgeon roe, is a delicacy. Sturgeons are also a major source of income and employment, as well as an important element of the local food supply. Current trends in illegal harvest and trade put all these benefits at risk. Since 1998, international trade in all species of sturgeons has been regulated under CITES owing to concerns over the impact of unsustainable harvesting of and illegal trade in sturgeon populations in the wild.

 

Sturgeon

 

Photo: Juvenile sturgeon for restocking.
Source Aquaculture Europe Vol 32 (3). September 2007. Courtesy M. Chebanov.

 

The Ramsar Declaration on Global Sturgeon Conservation recognises the importance of aquaculture in the preservation of sturgeon species, specifically mentioning the importance of captive broodstock programmes to prevent loss of genetic variety; the monitoring of stocked juvenile fish to assess the cost-effectiveness of stocking strategies; the cultivation of sturgeon for meat and caviar products – especially with due involvement of the lowincome local fishing community who need alternative livelihoods; and the need for internationally agreed standards on culture technology and general husbandry, adequate nutrition, disease prevention and product quality control.

 

More information is available at http://www.wscs.info – the site of the World Sturgeon Conservation Society.

 

Different trout species have been restocked in Europe’s rivers for decades. Prior to the Second World War, the UK production of trout juveniles was exclusively to stock rivers in England and Scotland to support natural populations and for recreational fishing. It was only in the 1950s that technology was introduced to produce fish for the table. This is the case across much of Europe, where trout remains the top aquaculture production species within European Member States, and where restocking accounts for a significant proportion of total trout fry production.

 

restocknivelleriver_600.jpg

 

Photo showing 2007 re-population in the river Nivelle in the Basque region of France.
Photo courtesy of Dr. Jacques Dumas, INRA.

 

 

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Health and welfare of farmed fish & shellfish

 CCRES AQUAPONICS

Farmed fish are contained – in ponds, tanks or cages – as with all farmed animals. Just as in land-based farming, farm managers increasingly choose stocking densities and handling practices that optimize growth and health status while avoiding unnecessary suffering.

Questions are sometimes raised about welfare aspects of aquaculture production. Usually, such questions focus on three issues: stocking densities, the possibility to have ‘free-range’ aquaculture and the way farmed fish is slaughtered at harvest.

There are many definitions of animal welfare. One definition is based upon the Farm Animal Welfare Council’s “five freedoms”:

  • Freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition
  • Freedom from discomfort due to environment
  • Freedom from pain, injury and disease
  • Freedom to express normal behaviour for the species
  • Freedom from fear and distress.

Scientific studies have identified operating indicators of fish welfare so that producers are able to measure the welfare status of their stock. The Freedom Food certification scheme of the RSPCA in the UK is a very good example of a welfare standard that has been built by on-farm dialogue with producers and which is now available for salmonid species.

Stocking Density

Many species of fish, such as herring and mackerel, live in large shoals in the wild and are therefore used to very high densities. Keeping such fish in high densities on a farm will only become a problem if the water quality deteriorates, or if the fish are deprived of oxygen or exposed to disease. Fish farmers do their best to prevent such conditions since they will reduce production.

Fish farms holding fish at high stocking densities carefully monitor the oxygen in the water and maintain it at the optimum level for fish growth. Every effort is made to ensure that fish are kept in a healthy condition and that disease is prevented wherever possible, or identified and treated should it occur.

Stocking density has often been proposed as an indicator to measure welfare and there is considerable debate about its value. Also, since the 1980’s the volume of cages used for salmon culture in Northern Europe has increased considerably – in some cases more than 200 times, reducing densities and enhancing the ability for the fish to show natural behaviour. However, as land animals that are kept within fences, some limits on behaviour are necessary in farmed fish production.

Free-range aquaculture

“Freerange” aquaculture exists in several forms – for example in “ranching” of salmon and lobster, in “organic” salmon production and in shellfish farming.

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Photo: Juvenile lobsters reared for restocking Copyright: The AquaReg Lobster Project http://www.aquareg.com


“Ranching”
– is an aquaculture technique whereby fish and shellfish are bred in captivity and then released into the wild to complete their life cycle before being harvested at some time in the future. Ranching has effectively been applied to Atlantic and Pacific salmon production, whereby juvenile fish have been reared from wild-caught eggs and sperm, raised in hatcheries and then released into specific rivers as smolt, allowed to migrate to sea and recaptured on their return to their river of origin.

Lobster ranching has also been tried on a number of commercial lobster beds in the past, with juvenile lobsters being raised in shore-based hatcheries and then placed on the seabed in sheltered rocky habitats where their chance of survival is thought to warrant the expense of production.

“Organic” salmon farming is conducted according to agreed codes of organic production. Rearing takes place in large, open water floating pens where conditions are as close to the open ocean as possible. Stocking densities are reduced to allow the fish to grow and develop in as natural a way as possible and the only feed used comes from sustainable fisheries. Because of lower stocking densities and open water conditions, the fish tend to be less prone to disease and therefore the use of medicines can be kept to a minimum. Increased production cost for “organic” fish is recouped with higher prices on the marketplace.

Shellfish farming, such as the laying of oysters and mussels directly on the seabed or the hanging of mussels on suspended ropes, can be said to be “free range” in so far as it is allowing the shellfish to grow in identical conditions to those they would encounter in the wild.

Slaughter methods

Recent studies suggest that fish, like warm-blooded animals, can experience fear and pain, leading to justifiable concern that codes of practice for the welfare of warm-blooded farm animals should be extended to cover farmed fish.

Accordingly, a four-step process for the humane slaughter of farmed fish has been developed similar to the European Directive covering warm-blooded animals. It covers transport and live storage, restraining, stunning and slaughter.

The process decrees that, to spare fish avoidable trauma, stunning prior to slaughter should induce immediate (within one second) and permanent loss of consciousness or, where loss of consciousness is not immediate, it should be without any avoidable excitement, pain or suffering.

stunning

Photo: Electrical stunning of Atlantic Salmon in Tasmania. Systems identical to this are currently being
installed in Norway, so that all farms are equipped by July 2008. Photo courtesy of Bruce Goodrick.

Farmers currently employ any of three ways to reach this goal: electrical stunning (passing a current through the animal); mechanical stunning (a captive needle destroys the brain) or chemical stunning (adding a food-grade substance like eugenol, based on clove oil, to the water in which the fish are held.)

 

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Safe and affordable seafood products

CCRES AQUAPONICS

Aquaculture produces safe,
high-quality food

Just as with wild-caught fish, farmed seafood represents an excellent source of nutrients important for human health. There is hard evidence that regular consumption of fish lowers the risk of coronary heart diseases because of high concentrations of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids. Other important nutrients in farmed fish are vitamins A and D for maintaining healthy bones, eyes and skin. Farmed fish is also a rich source for iodine, important for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland, and selenium, which is an important anti-oxidant.

Because farmed fish and shellfish are produced under controlled conditions, it is possible to maintain the highest quality standards from the egg to the plate. In the same way that business processes may be certified to meet standards (e.g. ISO), aquaculture production also has certification schemes. They are increasingly supported by various codes (of conduct and of good practice), developed at national and European levels.

Production of fish and shellfish on farms allows for consistent and even enhanced levels of the elements in seafood that do us good. For example, the level and balance of omega fatty acids, vitamins and minerals such as iodine and selenium can all be influenced through specially designed fish feeds.

What are the health benefits of seafood?

Much of the importance of fish in health has come from research into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 family. Other abbreviations used are omega-3 and n-3 fats. Fish is a rich source of two important PUFA: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PUFA are present in both wild and farmed fish. DHA and EPA are found in abundance in the flesh of oil-rich fish but they are also present in lean fish.

The effect of PUFA on coronary heart disease has been extensively studied. The human body cannot make PUFA. There is strong evidence from many scientific studies that PUFAs from fish play a major role in protection against heart disease . PUFAs may also help prevent other illnesses, such as arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, some types of cancer and asthma. Extensive research to confirm these relationships is ongoing.

How much seafood should we eat?

Different values exist in the scientific literature for what is the “ideal” daily or weekly intake of EPA and DHA for human health. Government advice varies considerably between countries. However, as a general rule, a healthy diet is generally assumed to include 1-2 fish per week, especially fatty fish.

The International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL) suggests an uptake of 500 mg of EPA + DHA per day or 3.5 g per week provides enhanced cardiac health in adults.

In its 2004 report “Advice on Fish Consumption – Benefits and Risks”, the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) concluded that the majority of the UK population does not consume enough fish, particularly oily fish, and should be encouraged to increase consumption. The Inter-Committee Subgroup endorsed the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) 1994 population guideline recommendation that people should eat at least two portions of fish a week, of which one should be oily. Consumption of this amount would probably confer significant public health benefits to the UK population in terms of reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and may also have beneficial effects on foetal development.

Current advice from the UK Food Standards Agency suggests a weekly intake of up to four 140g portions of oily fish for men, boys and women over reproductive age, with the caveat that girls and women of reproductive age should only consume two portions of oily fish per week2.

Safe seafood products

Because it is a controlled food production process, fish farming can include safeguards to protect its product from contamination. Ironically, the main source of contaminants in farmed fish (such as trace amounts of dioxins, PCBs and mercury) is fish feed composed of wild fish. However, because this food can be sampled and analysed prior to feeding, maximum limits of contaminants in fishmeal and fish oil used in aquaculture have been established by international law.

Photo: Courtesy of Vidar VassvikData from the official controls of the fish feed ingredients and analysis of the farmed fish itself are available for consumers, authorities and industry alike.

Strategies to minimise contamination of farmed fish by way of feed derived from the wild are in place and can include; careful selection of the fish oil source, purification of fish oil prior to its inclusion in fish feed, and partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils.

A number of factors have combined to make us more aware than ever of the safety of food. Firstly, increasingly accurate measuring techniques allow us to detect even the lowest levels of contaminants. Secondly, increasing media focus on food safety has highlighted issues such as BSE, dioxins and salmonella, and ‘food scares’ have become regular features of news broadcasts. For food to be acceptable, it must be proven to be safe to eat.

Food safety standards have been developed giving clinically proven safe levels of food constituents that may at higher levels provide a risk to health.

Contaminants and health risks

Contaminants in fish derive predominantly from their diet. Whilst it is not possible to control the diet of wild fish, the levels of contaminants and some nutrients in farmed fish may be modified by altering their feed.

Strict EU regulations (e.g. Directive2002/32/EC) and controls by food
safety authorities ensure that contaminants are kept well below dangerous
levels in farmed fish. Emerging technologies allow fish feed producers to
purify fish meal and oil before it is incorporated in the feed.

 The retention of dietary mercury by fish is dependent on dietary concentration and the duration of exposure to the contaminant. Methylmercury (the toxic form of mercury in fish) is present in higher amounts in large predatory fish such as swordfish and tuna. High consumers of such top predatory species, such as pike or tuna (especially fresh or frozen bluefin or albacore tuna), may exceed the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of methylmercury.

The greatest susceptibility to the critical contaminants (methylmercury and the dioxin-like compounds) occurs during early human development. For a developing human foetus, this means that the risk comes from the amount of these compounds in the mother’s body.

Furthermore, EU maximum limits exist for a range of contaminants in food such as dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, mercury, lead, cadmium and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (the maximum level is for one PAH, BaP). These limits include food of farm origin and other foods such as fish from capture fisheries.

Monitoring programmes exist to document the levels of contaminants in wild and farmed fish to fulfil a need for independent data for consumers, food authorities, fisheries authorities, industry and markets.

Traceability

As in land farming, fish farming benefits from traceability technologies to monitor and follow the production cycle through its entirety. While traceability itself is not a guarantee of safety, it is essential in pinpointing problems, should they occur, throughout the whole production chain. This is not just limited to producers, but encompasses their suppliers, processors and distributors. Such “full chain traceability” is most effective when all links in the chain have the same principles and use the same (or at least compatible) tools.

In 2002, an EU-funded concerted action initiative called “TraceFish” (www.tracefish.org) produced three consensusbased standards for the recording and exchange of traceability information in the seafood chains.

One of these is a standard for farmed fish. The basic element in the system is a unique identification number to be placed on each lot of products in such a way that traceability can be transmitted electronically. The system is voluntary.

Traceability tools are being continuously improved and are major monitoring components of various labelling and certification schemes for aquaculture products.

An example of this is the TRACE initiative (www.trace.eu) that is using 5 case studies in food to improve traceability parameters and measure food authenticity. This last point has specific interest for fish products and TRACE is developing generic low cost analytical tools for use in the traceability infrastructure that verify geographical origin, production origin and species origin.

Affordable seafood products

As fish species become scarcer in the oceans, they will become less affordable to consumers.

All of the approximately thirty species of fish in European aquaculture production have shown a decrease in farm gate price as their production volume has increased, while improvements in production techniques have resulted in ever-increasing quality.

figure4.jpg
Figure 5: EU production and price trends – for several aquaculture species produced in Europe.
Data from FAO FishStat 2006. Note prices in US Dollars.

Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are almost exclusively farmed. They are now comparable in price to land farmed produce such as chicken and pork.

The availability of ‘new’ farmed species (sea bass, sea bream, cod, sole, scallops, octopus etc.) has the potential to provide this increase in affordability to all consumers.

Quality of life of aquatic animals

Health

Infectious diseases are encountered in all food production. Fish and shellfish may be more under threat from disease than land animals or plants because germs survive longer and can spread more effectively in water. The rapid identification and treatment of bacterial and viral infection is therefore crucial in aquaculture. While best management practice remains the preferred option for producers, the use of therapeutic agents may sometimes be necessary.

National and international regulations have been implemented to approve veterinary medicines that do not compromise food safety. An example of this is the so-called ‘withdrawal period’, defined as the minimum time to elapse between termination of the treatment and harvest of the animal. Withdrawal periods are specific for each drug and each utilisation of that drug, for example to treat bacterial disease.

It is important to note that the use of veterinary medicines such as antibiotics has greatly decreased in many types of aquaculture. For example, in Norway the use of antibiotics in salmon and trout farming has been negligible for the last 10 years due to the use of better vaccines. In 2004, Norway produced 23 times more salmon and trout than in 1985; in the same period, the use of antibiotics dropped by a factor of 25.

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Figure 6: Antibiotics used in Norwegian farming of trout and salmon 1980-2004.

The principal challenges in aquaculture are now related to viruses and parasites. For example, “sea lice” threaten farmed salmon in temperate waters. However, non-medicinal and environmentally friendly lice treatments are being developed. In Norway, for example, wrasse, another fish, is used to eat the lice from infected salmon.

With the adoption of tighter laws and regulations, and with the difficulties of drug companies registering new treatments for aquaculture, the availability of medicines to treat aquaculture species becomes increasingly unsure. More and more, research is therefore turning towards prophylaxis as a solution.

Parasites are common in wild fish, too

Parasites are not unique to farmed fish, but in the wild they obviously go untreated. Parasites fall into two main groups – ectoparasites, which affect the skin and external organs, and endoparasites, which invade the body and attack the musculature and internal organs.

Ectoparasites include several types of sea lice, crablike creatures that eat the skin and flesh of the fish. If left untreated, they will cause considerable suffering to the fish and open wounds on the skin of the fish that may become sites for disease.

Endoparasites include nematode worms that enter the body of the fish through the mouth, infest the gut and can then burrow into the flesh of the fish. As well as reducing the fish’s ability to regulate the amount of salt in its body by perforating the gut membrane, they also reduce the saleability of the flesh, since fish infested with nematode parasites are not saleable for human consumption.

As on land-based farms, when animals are held at higher densities parasites can infect a stock relatively rapidly. Because unhealthy fish mean substantial loss to the farmer, however, it is uncommon in modern fish farms to find harmful burdens of parasites. Outbreaks are controlled by modern farming practices and the use of medicines that authorities have deemed safe to the fish, to consumers and to the environment.

(1) Simopoulos, A.P. “Essential Fatty Acids in Health and Chronic Disease”. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71 (suppl): 5065-95.

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Aquaculture Recommended Reading List

The aquaculture industry in Croatia is not large compared to other areas in the world, but the industry here is highly diversified, and the region has the water and land resources needed for significant growth.The purpose of this list is to provide sources of information for current and prospective aquaculturists in Croatia and the EU region.
 Aquaculture Recommended Reading List
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Encyclopedia of Aquaculture / By Robert R. Stickney. New York: Wiley:  2000.
A comprehensive reference to the science, technology, and economics of aquaculture for scientists and professionals in aquaculture as well as individuals wishing to expand their knowledge of the field. With an emphasis on current trends and sustainable practices, the Encyclopedia of Aquaculture is complete with photographs, illustrations, and graphs as well as references to the extensive literature.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Best Management Practices for Aquaculture in Wisconsin and the Great Lakes Region / By Jeffrey A. Malison and Christopher F. Hartleb. Madison: University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute:  2005.
The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for current and prospective aquaculturists in Wisconsin and the Great Lakes region. Best management practices or BMP’s are defined as management guidelines or approaches designed to minimize or prevent any adverse environmental impacts, to maximize the health and well-being of the organisms being raised, and to encourage efficient and economical production.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Aquaculture: Principles and Practices / By T. V. R. Pillay and M. N. Kutty. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub.:  2005.
Covering all aspects of subsistence and commercial aquaculture as practiced across the globe, this fully revised edition from two leading world authorities in the field covers both principles and practices. It covers in detail recent developments in: history and planning; nutrition; reproduction and genetic selection; production statistics and economics; integrated aquaculture; and sustainability and environmental effects.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Aquaculture Marketing Handbook / By Carole R. Engle and Kwamena Quagrainie. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub. Professional:  2006.
The Aquaculture Marketing Handbook provides the reader with information regarding aquaculture economics, markets, and marketing. In addition, this volume also contains an extensive annotated bibliography and webliography that provide descriptions of key additional sources of information. Useful for both the experienced aquaculture professional and those new to the field.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants / By John S. Lucas and Paul C. Southgate. Oxford: Fishing News Books:  2003.
This book covers all major aspects of the aquaculture of fish, shellfish and algae in freshwater and marine environments. Subject areas include water quality and environmental impacts of aquaculture, desert aquaculture, reproduction, life cycles and growth, genetics and stock improvement, nutrition and feed production, diseases, post-harvest technology and processing, economics and marketing. The second part of the text is devoted to the culture of different species.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Practical Genetics for Aquaculture / By Charles Gregory Lutz. Malden, Mass.: Fishing News Books:  2001.
Lutz provides reviews of the fundamental theory and examples of practical applications for numerous aspects of genetic improvement in aquaculture. While new molecular techniques hold great promise for application in commercial aquaculture in the future, most aquaculture currently takes place under practical and often challenging conditions. Tremendous gains could be realized through the application of more traditional and practical approaches to genetic improvement.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Aquaculture Biosecurity: Prevention, Control, and Eradication of Aquatic Animal Disease / By A. David Scarfe, Cheng-Sheng Lee, and Patricia J. O’Bryen. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub. Professional:  2006.
Aquaculture loses millions of dollars in revenue annually due to aquatic animal diseases. As a result, aquaculture biosecurity programs that address aquatic animal pathogens and diseases have become an important focus for the aquaculture industry. With contributions from renowned international experts, this book is a vital reference for those concerned about protecting aquaculture from impacts of aquatic animal disease.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Cage Aquaculture / By Malcolm C. M. Beveridge. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub. Professional:  2004.
Cages are the most important system for producing farmed salmon, sea bass, sea bream, yellowtail and tuna. They are relatively inexpensive, require no access to land, and offer tremendous flexibility to aquaculture farmers in terms of production. This fully updated, expanded, and revised third edition incorporates the major developments in the aquaculture industry, including the ever-increasing market for farmed salmon.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Ecological Aquaculture: The Evolution of the Blue Revolution / By Barry A. Costa-Pierce. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science:  2002.
The aim of this important and thought-provoking book is to stimulate discussion among aquaculture’s modern scientific, education and extension communities concerning the principles, practices and policies needed to develop ecologically and socially sustainable aquaculture systems worldwide. Ecological Aquaculture provides fascinating and valuable insights into primitive (and often sustainable) culture systems, and ties these to modern large-scale aquaculture systems.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Aquaculture Water Reuse Systems: Engineering Design and Management / By Michael B. Timmons and Thomas M. Losordo. New York: Elsevier:  1994.
This well-organized book provides all the information needed to design and manage a water reuse system. The text was written for engineers and biologists working in the area of intensive fish culture, but it should also prove useful as a design manual for practicing aquaculturists.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Fish Nutrition / By John E. Halver and Ronald W. Hardy. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press:  2002.
Fish Nutrition is a comprehensive treatise on nutrient requirements and metabolism in major species of fish used in aquaculture or scientific experiments. It covers nutrients required and used in cold water, warm water, fresh water, and marine species for growth and reproduction.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Biology of Farmed Fish / By Kenneth D. Black and A. D. Pickering. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press; Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press:  1998.
Focusing on developments of the last decade, this volume considers the biology underlying fish culture. The chapters, written by fish biologists who have made a significant contribution to the primary research literature, are broad in nature, covering aspects of the subject with reference to a range of species from around the world.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Environmental Impacts of Aquaculture / By Kenneth D. Black. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press; Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press:  2001.
This text examines the relationships between the activities of aquaculture and the environment, starting with an examination of several separate cultures and then moving into a discussion of general relevance to aquaculture. This book is directed at fish and shellfish biologists and environmental scientists in academia, industry and government.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Manual on the Production and Use of Live Food for Aquaculture / By Patrick Lavens and Patrick Sorgeloos. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations:  1996.
The manual describes the major production techniques currently used for the cultivation of the types of live food commonly used in larviculture, as well as their application potential in terms of their nutritional and physical properties and feeding methods. The manual is divided according to the major groups of live food organisms used in aquaculture: micro-algae, rotifers, Artemia, natural zooplankton, and copepods, nematodes and trochophores.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Reproductive Biotechnology in Finfish Aquaculture: Proceedings of a Workshop Hosted by the Oceanic Institute, Hawaii, USA, in Honolulu, 4th-7th October 1999 / By Cheng-Sheng Lee and Edward M. Donaldson. Amsterdam: Elsevier:  2001.
Successful reproduction of cultured brood stock is essential to the sustainable aquaculture of aquatic organisms. This book describes recent advances in the field of finfish reproductive biotechnology. The chapters, written by eminent scientists, review the progress and assess the status of biotechnology research applicable to the reproduction of aquaculture finfish species. The last chapter summarizes discussions at the workshop, provides recommendations to industry and describes priorities of research and development.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Biology and Culture of Channel Catfish / By Craig S. Tucker and John A. Hargreaves. Amsterdam: Elsevier:  2004.
The history of channel catfish farming in the United States serves as a model for the development of pond-based aquaculture industries worldwide. In 22 chapters written by active scientists in the field, Biology and Culture of Channel Catfish comprehensively synthesizes over 30 years of research on this American icon. Throughout the book, fundamental biological aspects of channel catfish are linked to practical culture techniques.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
American and International Aquaculture Law: A Comprehensive Legal Treatise and Handbook Covering Aquaculture Law, Business and Finance of Fishes, Shellfish and Aquatic Plants / By Henry D., II McCoy. Peterstown, W. Va.: Supranational:  2000.
Aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of agriculture and the speed of scientific and economic advances during the past decade has outpaced the available literature dealing with legal aspects of aquaculture. This book redresses this imbalance and will provide a thorough and comprehensive reference for those involved in the many aspects of aquaculture where legal information is a vital tool for them to carry out their roles.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Aquaculture and the environment / By T. V. R. Pillay. Oxford, UK ; Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub.:  2004.
The continuing rapid increases in aquaculture production world-wide raise fears of further environmental degradation of the aquatic environment. The second edition of this well-received book brings together and discusses the available information on all major environmental aspects of various aquaculture systems, providing a valuable aid to the preparation of environmental impact assessments of aquaculture projects and showing how potential environmental problems can be reduced or mitigated by sound management. 2nd ed.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Aquaculture law and policy : towards principled access and operations London ; New York : Routledge:  2006.
The book highlights the numerous law and policy issues that must be addressed in the search for effective regulation of aquaculture. This book will appeal to a broad range of audiences: undergraduate and postgraduate students, academic researchers, policy makers, NGOs, practicing lawyers and industry representatives. Edited by David L. VanderZwaag and Gloria Chao.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Aquaculture engineering / By Odd-Ivar Lekang. Oxford ; Ames, Iowa : Blackwell Pub.:  2007.
As aquaculture continues to grow at a rapid pace, understanding the engineering behind aquatic production facilities is of increasing importance for all those working in the industry. This book requires knowledge of the many general aspects of engineering such as material technology, building design and construction, mechanical engineering and environmental engineering. In this comprehensive book, Odd-Ivar Lekang introduces these principles and demonstrates how such technical knowledge can be applied to aquaculture systems.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Environmental best management practices for aquaculture Ames, Iowa : Wiley-Blackwell ; [Baton Rouge, LA] : U.S. Aquaculture Society:  2008.
Best Management Practices (BMPs) combine sound science, common sense, economics, and site-specific management to mitigate or prevent adverse environmental impacts. Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture will provide technical guidance to improve the environmental performance of aquaculture. Edited by Craig S. Tucker, John A. Hargreaves ; with 18 contributing authors. 1st ed.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Molecular research in aquaculture / By Ken Overturf. Ames, Iowa : Wiley-Blackwell:  2009.
Molecular research and biotechnology have long been fields of study with applications useful to aquaculture and other animal sciences. Molecular Research in Aquaculture looks to provide an understanding of molecular research and its applications to the aquaculture industry in a format that allows individuals without prior experience in this area to learn about and understand this important field.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
The whale : in search of the giants of the sea / By Philip Hoare. New York, NY : Ecco:  2010.
Taking us deep into their domain, Hoare shows us these mysterious creatures as they have never been seen before–Hoare’s sparkling account of swimming with these incredible behemoths will delight wildlife aficionados. And following in Ishmael’s footsteps, he explores the troubled history of man and whale; visits the historic whaling locales of New Bedford, Nantucket, and the Azores; and traces the whale’s cultural history from Jonah to Free Willy.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Four fish : the future of the last wild food / By Paul Greenberg. New York : Penguin Press:  2010.
Award-winning writer and lifelong fisherman Paul Greenberg takes us on a culinary journey, exploring the history of the fish that dominate our menus — salmon, sea bass, cod, and tuna — and investigating where each stands at this critical moment in time.
CCCRES AQUAPONICS recommends :
Managing Wisconsin fish ponds / By William Swenson, Stanley Nichols, Scott Craven, et al. Madison, WI : University of Wisconsin Extension:  2000.
This publication aims to provide a source of reliable information for those building new ponds or managing existing ones. This publication replaces the 1960s version, “Wisconsin Farm Fish Ponds.”

CCRES AQUAPONICS
part of NGO
CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

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How Do I Get Started in Aquaculture?

 

CCRES AQUAPONICS

 

As part of our aquaculture initiative, the Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES) has started the CCRES aquaponics  program. This Web site is part of that program. We have attempted to include as much information as possible for beginning and experienced fish farmers. While the information compiled here is not all-inclusive, we have tried to be as thorough as possible, covering all the various types of aquaculture relevant to Croatia. If you would like to submit any information for our Web site, please contact us.

 

Specal thanks to :

Indiana Soybean Alliance

5730 W 74th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46278
1-800-735-0195

for giving us great source of informations.

 

How Do I Get Started in Aquaculture?

 

The most important activity anyone considering fish farming should conduct is developing and writing a business plan.

 

Here are some of the basic steps.

 

Business Planning    

 

Writing a business plan is the single most important step a farmer can take when determining if aquaculture is something they want to explore as a viable economic investment. A well-developed business plan will cover all aspects of an aquaculture business, from species and production systems, to economics and marketing. Failing to complete a business plan is one of the primary reasons for business failure!

 

Feed Management   

 

Feed management, from buying the correct feed and proper feeding rates to properly storing feed, is essential to managing fish health and growth. Excellent feed managers not only save money by not wasting feed, they also optimize production potential on their farms. Every farm will likely have a different feed management strategy as production criteria like feeding rates and growth rates will be impacted by species selection, production system, environmental conditions, among other things. Proper feed management should be implemented as part of an overall best management practices plan.

 

Financing      

 

Aquaculture in Croatia doesn’t have a well-established track record like other forms of agriculture, so acquiring funds and insurance from traditional farm sources can be difficult.  Lenders and insurers will want to see a well-developed business plan with income and cash flow statements before they consider funding/insuring an aquaculture operation.  They may also want to see a best management practices plan.  Please visit the other sections to get more information covering these and other topics.

 

 

Economics

 

Filling out financial statements is one of the critical steps in developing a viable business plan. The following spreadsheets were developed to help new producers manage a business venture in aquaculture. There are different spreadsheets available depending on production system: Recirculating (RAS), pond or cage. There are examples provided as well, but these should only be used as a guide as many of the numbers will vary depending on your business specifics. The following material can be used to help plan and build a successful business in aquaculture.

 

 

Fish Health

Animal health is perhaps more of a challenge in aquaculture than any other type of livestock agriculture. There are very few veterinarians actively involved in fish health, thus it is often difficult for fish producers to obtain veterinary services. There are also few approved drugs available to treat sick fish. For these reasons, it is critical for fish farmers to implement a best management practices (BMP) plan that encourages fish health. The most common cause of fish disease is stress, and a well-developed BMP will help farmers minimize stress to their livestock.

 

Marketing

As with most specialty and niche crops, fish farmers in Croatia typically have to market their own product. This can be done in a variety of ways from local farmers markets and restaurants, to ethnic markets and restaurants in large metropolitan cities. Farmers should always have more than one market identified for their fish to be sure that they will always be able to sell product. This is especially critical for farmers who want to acquire funds from traditional agricultural lenders. Another option is for a group of farmers to start a marketing cooperative that can allow them to enter larger markets that would not be open to individual farmers because of the smaller scale of their business.

 

 

Production Systems

 

More information about specific production systems :

 

Cage Systems           

 

Cage farming is simply raising fish in a large, submerged cage that can be used in a pond that otherwise might not be ideal for farming. An ideal location for a cage production farm would be in a pond/private lake that is too large for traditional pond aquaculture or is unsuitable for another reason (perhaps it is too deep, or cannot be drained). Cages can be floated throughout the pond and accessed either via a dock or boat.

 

160fs – What is Cage Culture.pdf

161fs – Cage Site Selection Water Quality.pdf

162fs – Cage Construction Placement Aeration.pdf

163fs – Cage Species Suitable.pdf

164fs – Cage Handling and Feeding.pdf

165fs – Cage Problems.pdf

166fs – Cage Harvesting Economics.pdf

281fs – Cage Tilapia.pdf

FA04800 – Cage Management.pdf

tb110-CageCultureNCR.pdf

 

 

Larval Feed

Feeding larval fish can be difficult and depending on the species of fish, commercially formulated diets might not be available. Many fish farmers rely on feeding live feed to their larval fish until they are big enough to start eating formulated feeds. Farmers can rely on the natural productivity of ponds to grow their live feed, or they can utilize indoor production systems. These production systems are often smaller and specialized for raising small, often microscopic, live feed organisms.

 

701fs – Larval Feed.pdf

702fs – Artemia.pdf

 

 

 

Pond Systems           

 

Pond aquaculture is the most traditional type of aquaculture in the world. It has been producing fish in Asia and Africa for thousands of years. Most of the available fish farming information is based on pond aquaculture.

 

100fs – Levee Pond Site Selection.pdf

101fs – Levee Pond Construction.pdf

102fs – Watershed Pond Site Selection.pdf

103fs – Calculating Area Volume.pdf

280fs Pond Tilapia.pdf

395fs – Pond Inventory Assessment.pdf

460fs – Pond Clay Turbidity.pdf

462fs – Pond Nitrite.pdf

463fs – Pond Ammonia.pdf

464fs – Pond Water Quality Considerations.pdf

466fs – Pond Algae Blooms.pdf

468fs – Pond Carbon Dioxide.pdf

469fs – Fertilizing Fry Ponds.pdf

470fs – Pond Effluents.pdf

471fs – Pond Fertilization.pdf

700fs – Pond Zooplankton Larval Feed.pdf

Aquatic Weed Control in Ponds.pdf

FA00800 – Pond Copper Use.pdf

FA02100 – Pond Aeration.pdf

FA02800 – Pond Lime Use.pdf

FA03200 Pond Potassium Permanganate.pdf

PONDS.pdf

TB114 – Plankton Management.pdf

wrac-104 – Pond Fertilization.pdf

wrac-106 – Settling Basin.pdf

 

 

 

 

Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are the newest form of fish farming production system. RAS are typically an indoor system that allows for farmers to control environmental conditions year round. While the costs associated with constructing a RAS are typically higher than either pond or cage culture, if the system is managed properly to produce fish on a year round basis, the economic returns can make it worth the increased investment. RAS are the most complex aquaculture systems and beginners should plan on making a significant time commitment to learning how to operate a system.

 

103fs – Calculating Area Volume.pdf

451fs – RAS Critical Considerations.pdf

452fs – RAS Management.pdf

453fs – RAS Component Options.pdf

455fs – RAS Pond Systems.pdf

456fs – RAS Economic Spreadsheet.pdf

AA21200 – Energy Costs.pdf

FA05000 – RAS Principles.pdf

facts5 – RAS Prudence Pays.pdf

 

 

 

Barn Conversion

There has been a lot of interest in converting livestock buildings to fish production. While a “model” has yet to be developed, the material below has been presented at several different workshops focusing on converting livestock barns to aquaculture.

 

Barn Conversions for Aquaculture 3-8-07.asx

Chuck-IPVideoWorkshop.pdf

Hicks-Workshop.ppt

hogbarn.ppt

Laura-HogbarnWorkshop.pdf

Shawn-BarnConversion.pdf

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