Tag Archives: healthy local food

10 Tips Nutrition Education Series

Ten Tips Education Series

The Ten Tips Nutrition Education Series provides consumers and professionals with high quality, easy-to-follow tips in a convenient, printable format. These are perfect for posting on a refrigerator.

These tips and ideas are a starting point. You will find a wealth of suggestions here that can help you get started toward a healthy diet. Choose a change that you can make today, and move toward a healthier you. These tips are also available in Spanish.

More tips coming soon!

 

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources  (CCRES)

special thanks to  

The Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, an organization of the U.S. Department of Agriculture

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Answer to Fuel & Food Crises

Aaron Baum at work. All photos courtesy of The Algae Labby Alice C. Chen 

Microscopic spinning orbs and spirals of green goo are the answers to our planet’s energy crisis and arable land shortage. At least that’s what Aaron Baum, a 40-year-old Harvard graduate and Stanford PhD, has concluded.
And Baum should know. After a mid-life crisis of sorts, he spent months researching the types of science that would most benefit the world and concluded that algae are it. Now, he wants to share his passion with the public by creating communities of people with their own algae farms. Imagine that – you can have a personal algae tank that provides fresh, ultra-nutritious food on a year-round basis.
Baum is a research consultant for NASA’s OMEGA project, whose mission is to create massive amounts of algae for biofuel, fertilizer and food. The San Rafael, California algae-phile knows not everyone has access to professional grade equipment – which can cost tens of thousands of dollars – so Baum has started teaching seminars on how to raise spirulina inexpensively and in one’s own home. The day-long workshops cost $150 and he’ll also provide you with a kit that includes a tank, spirulina starter stock, a nutrient mix and other equipment for $200. Through these workshops, Baum hopes to continue forming a collaborative community that shares knowledge about algae farming.

The seminars grew out of Baum’s first venture in algae. In 2008, he created what he says was the world’s first communal algae farm. The project was based in Berkeley and consisted of more than a dozen 55-gallon tanks of algae. It eventually got so massive that it would’ve required full-time staff, so Baum closed it down when he traveled around the world last year to attend algae workshops and visit algae farms. When he returned, he thought it would be more manageable to have the farms in people’s homes. I talked with him about his adventures in algae, and his plans for the future
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Alice Chen: How did you get interested in algae?
Aaron Baum: As a scientist, I’m completely committed to doing good things for the environment. I earned my Phd in applied physics from Stanford in 1997 and worked for several years in Silicon Valley as a program manager on technologies I developed in graduate school. I realized I was working my butt off to make computer chips run faster. I kind of lost faith in what I was doing.
I dropped out of that field, worked as an artist for several years and realized I miss science — the intellectual challenge and making contributions and changing peoples’ lives. I decided to get back into science on my own terms.
I thought about it for a long time and decided I wanted to work in a field where I could be sure I was doing something good for the world. I started doing a lot of research four years ago and after a few months, algae started to stick up out above everything else. Back then if you searched for algae, what came up was how to kill algae and how bad it was because of algae blooms. That was happening for a while but now it’s exponentially worse. I started working in that area. Now if you search for algae (online), about half of what you find is good.
AC: What’s so great about algae?
AB: Algae is a way to grow really high quality food in a small area, on the surface of a body of water or in wastewater. Or you can grow algae in dilute urine which is an easy way to get the right nutrients and reduce your impact on the environment.
Most marine biologists consider that the number one danger to marine life is eutrophication, an excess of nutrients in the water from agricultural runoff due to application fertilizer. When it hits the ocean or lake, there are massive algae blooms. When they decay, they wipe out oxygen and everything dies.
If you can find a way to keep nutrients out of water, you reduce the size of dead zones. You can create controlled algae blooms, harvest algae and eliminate nutrients that way. Or you can take wastewater, give it to algae directly and absorb nutrients. You come out with clean water, fuel, food, fertilizer and extra oxygen. And on a small scale in your own house if you grow it in dilute urine, you reduce the fertilizer load on the local ecosystem.
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AC: Tell me about algae as food. Why are people so into it?
AB: The idea was first proposed in the 1930s in Germany. They were trying to develop it for growing food. You can grow a lot of food in a small area. It’s extremely nutritious on a gram-for-gram basis. You can mix it in with other food. It didn’t take off until spirulina in the 1970s. Now there’s chlorella.
Normally you get spirulina in a powder or pill form. It’s grown in large outdoor ponds normally, and you sieve it out of water. It’s kind of special. It grows in corkscrew filaments making it relatively easy to strain out of water using a special fabric. Most other kinds of algae are too small and roundish, very difficult to filter.
Algae as a food is extremely healthy. It’s high in complete protein, antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and it’s effective against infections. It has defenses against viruses and you can acquire defenses as well. It’s good to protect against environmental toxins. There were dozens of experiments where they fed rats a regular diet and another group with spirulina. They exposed them to mercury, lead, pesticides, radiation and mutagens and found that spirulina-eating rats do much better.
In powder form, spirulina’s great, but when you want to eat a blueberry, you don’t want it powdered. You want it fresh. You can eat fresh spirulina that’s basically alive. It tastes better.
AC: What does it taste like?
AB: The problem with most algae is it tastes like seaweed. A lot of people are not turned on by that taste. I think it’s really good in certain dishes. When you eat it live, fresh, the taste is much lighter, creamy, and buttery. You can spread it on crackers. We mix it with brown rice and guacamole so it’s vegan. The easiest way is in carrot juice.
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AC: Is anyone else doing what you’re doing?
AB: We’re at the very beginning of growing it. A few people have worked on it. Some people in France grow spirulina on a small scale in their house. Outside of France, there’s been very little work. I’m not aware of anyone in the U.S. working on it other than us.
AC: Why haven’t more people already started growing algae in their homes?
AB: There are technical barriers. You need to grow live spirulina. You need a seed reactor, a nutrient mix to put in the water and a special cloth. You must maintain proper balance between acidity and alkalinity, and the proper temperature. What I’m doing is putting together a kit to provide live spirulina.
AC: How is this a communal project?
AB: I’m starting out by building the community and showing people how they can do it themselves. We’ll do it together and share information through our website.
Previously we built a whole algae lab all based on volunteer labor. We built it for about 1,000 times less money than what we spend in places like NASA. What we’re aiming to do is cultivate algae based on free material. We grow algae and are investigating it as fertilizer, biofuel, and growing it in dilute urine.
We’d like to create an international network of people growing all kinds of algae in their homes in a small community scale, sharing information, doing it all in an open source way. We’d be like the linux of algae – do-it-yourself with low-cost materials and shared information.
I get emails from all over world. There’s been a huge wave of interest in algae, driven by biofuels and by the growing awareness of the lack of farmland. If you want to make new farmland, you have to destroy ecosystems. The biggest impact humans have on the world is through agriculture. If we want to grow more food so people can eat better, we either destroy the last remaining ecosystems on the planet or find a new way to do things.

AC: What’s the market like for spirulina?
AB: The world consumes about 100,000 tons of spirulina a year. It’s used for animal feed and it’s a nutraceutical (that is, a food that provides health benefits). It’s kind of expensive, usually about $80 per pound for powder. It’s a very nutrient dense food. When I eat spirulina – I eat vegan – I don’t have cravings for meat or sugar. Food is more satisfying when it has spirulina. I eat a lot, 15 grams a day. Most people would consider 5 grams a day to be fairly high. If you’re eating 10 grams a day, you’re spending about $200 a year on it.
AC: How did you transition into algae as a career?
AB: I got interested in algae and decided to create an algae farm project at Burning Man in 2007. I got together a community of people and we created an installation on a trailer. We had 16 bioreactors with live algae that was eating the exhaust of a generator. They grew great – it was very successful. We had a lot of educational material. There were big posters jammed full of text explaining what we were doing and why it was interesting.
I’ve worked at the Exploratorium. They’ll tell you that anything beyond one to two sentences, there’s no way you’re going to get anyone in the public to read anything more than that. On the night of the Burn, the craziest night of all with partying and dancing, I went to the installation. We had forgotten to turn the lights on. In the dark, I was surrounded by people all using headlamps, leaning close and reading every single word we’d written. As soon as they knew I was part of it, they started peppering me with questions. A guy from NASA was inspired by this project and then joined the OMEGA project. And then he gave me a call.
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AC: What are you doing for NASA?
AB: We’re developing large-scale systems that are combining biofuel and fertilizer production with wastewater treatment and production of fresh air and fresh water. We’re using large membrane enclosures floating in bodies of water. It’s a low-energy, low-resource way of growing algae.
One budding thing of NASA technology – we’re working on a clever way of removing algae from water.
We’re focused on the biofuel aspect at NASA. For biofuel, you want a species that produces a lot of oil. Many species of algae can produce huge amounts of oil — they can be more than 50 percent oil by weight, compared to normal plants that only produce a few percent.
Algae can produce about 100 times more than typical oil plants like soybeans, on a per acre basis. You can grow enough algae to replace all of the fossil fuel in an area that’s small enough to be manageable. You don’t need to use farmland, there’s not much remaining in the world ready to be used, and you don’t need fresh water. The nice thing about algae is while they cleans water and air, they can produce very valuable things like fuel, fertilizer and food. They’re precursers for bioplastics, cosmetics and medicines.
It’s a new kind of farming, potentially very low impact and sustainable.
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AC: So what’s your vision — to see every household have algae?
AB: I don’t see why not. It should be easier than a vegetable plot. Algae is such a super food. It’s so productive on a daily basis that with one tank in a window you can significantly supplement the diet of one person. If you use a whole window, you could probably do two to three tanks year round and have even more. Every day you could be eating algae.
Algae is an incredible resource we haven’t tapped into. Human beings haven’t gone there yet because it’s microscopic. I didn’t know what algae were until quite a bit later in life. They don’t really teach you about it in school. It produces approximately 70 percent of the oxygen we breathe. It’s the basis of 95 percent of life that’s in oceans.
Even people with no dirt can grow fresh food for themselves. If you’re in an apartment complex on the 25th floor, you can still grow fresh food.

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources
 special thanks to 
Alice C. Chen 
 

Alice C. Chen developed her storytelling skills while exploring the Amazon Rainforest as an undergraduate at Stanford University. She went on to earn her master’s degree from Northwestern University’s Medill and is now an award-winning journalist.
Alice has nearly a decade of experience across media and has produced stories for the web, print, TV and radio. Her pieces have appeared everywhere from the San Francisco Chronicle to BNET and Newsweek.com. Alice’s specialties include business and health care reporting, and she’s also interested in narrative writing, profiles and inspirational stories.
Previous to Alice’s freelancing career, she was an education reporter at the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, one of the largest daily newspapers in the country. Alice resides in the San Francisco Bay Area.

More info about AlgaeLab on
CCRES SPIRULINA 
project of 
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources
(CCRES)
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Build an Aquaponics Grow Bed

  • Measure the length and width of the aquarium with the measuring tape.
  • Cut the plywood with the saw to the dimensions of the aquarium you measured in Step 1.
  • Cut four beams the same length and width of the plywood you cut in Step 2.

  • Drill holes into two beams and screw them together at a 90-degree angle. Lay the other two beams across the aquaponics grow bed.

  • Cut legs for the aquaponics grow bed frame. Place the frame where you will use it and measure and cut the legs to the length you need, keeping in mind the need to make them longer if there is a slope.

  • Drill holes into the legs. Keep them flush with the edge of the frame and screw them into place securely. Place the frame onto the plywood you cut in Step 2.

  • Place the grow bed right next to the aquarium or pond. Line the grow bed with pond foil the same length and width of the grow bed. Pour gravel on top of the pond foil in the grow bed. Cut a hole through the center of the grow bed and pond foil with the saw.

  • Place the water pump in the fish tank or pond and connect the water-in pipe to the pump.

  • Pull the water-in pipe through the hole in the grow bed. Install the overflow drain into the grow bed and set it to a few inches above the height of the grow bed to prevent water from overflowing.
  • Fill the aquarium or pond with water and place plants into the gravel of the grow bed.
CCRES AQUAPONICS special thanks to Zeljko Serdar for presentation of “How-To” module.
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CCRES promotes Elken Spirulina

Best Food for The Future – Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Spirulina contains nutrition not found in other food sources and is able to fulfill nutrition deficiency as well as neutralize our body’s acidic condition. Spirulina has been consumed by the Japanese for decades and has been proven to increase health and promote longevity.

To maintain healthy body, we need nutritious food which consists of 80% alkaline food, and 20% acidic food. Alkaline food presents only in vegetables, fruits, cheese, egg white and algae. Others are all acidic in nature. To make matter worse, modern food tends to be high in carbohydrates, calorie, glucose, fat and cholesterol, and at the same time, low in vitamin, minerals and proteins which are what our cells need the most. These conditions create nutrition-deficiency and acidic body condition.

Our body cells require 46 different types of nutrition in well balanced amount. These vitamins and minerals cannot be produced by our body and is used up daily. Therefore, we need to have them in our diets. Since the various types of nutrition may have dependencies among themselves, a lack in one element might cause another to be wasted.
Unbalanced nutrition may cause semi-healthy states, such as fatigue, susceptible to illness, lack of concentration, allergic, gastric and others.

Nutrisi tidak seimbang dan kondisi tubuh yang asam dapat mengakibatkan keadaan tubuh setengah sehat

Spirulina contains complete and balanced set of nutrition that is easily available to our cells for faster absorption and to strengthen our body’s immune system.

How to preserve health? Our body needs food in the following proportion to remain healthy: 80% alkaline food and 20% acidic food. Modern lifestyles and diets consist of mostly acidic food such as meat, seafood, grains and others. The choice of alkaline food is very limited and consist only of vegetables, fruits, algae, cheese and egg white. Spirulina is the best out of alkaline food as it is 100% alkaline and is very nutritious.

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
special thanks to
Hakim Hauston from Indonesia
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Nutritional elements contained Spirulina

 

 

CCRES SPIRULINA PROJECT

Amino-acids composition of bulk spirulina powder

Essential
amino acids
per 100 grams
of bulk
spirulina powder
Isoleucine 3.17g
Leucine 5.02g
Lysine 2.70g
Methionine
+ Cystine
2.19g
Phenylalanine
+ Tyrosine
5.00g
Threonine 2.78g
Tryptophan 0.84g
Valine 3.48g
(Total amount
of essential
amino acids)
(25.18g)

MORE INFO HERE

Non-essential
amino acids
per 100 grams
of bulk
spirulina powder
Arginine 3.60g
Alanine 4.11g
Aspartic acid 5.47g
Glutamic acid 8.02g
Glycine 2.85g
Histidine 1.09g
Proline 2.04g
Serine 2.74g
(Total amount
of non-essential
amino acids)
(25.18g)

Pigment contents of bulk spirulina powder
(per 100 grams)

Components per 100 grams of bulk spirulina powder
Chlorophyll-a 1.29g
Total carotenes 157mg
Xanthophylls 81mg
Phycocyanin 7.56g
Major carotenoids β-carotene 201mg
Zeaxanthin 72mg
Lutein ND

Spirulina consists of the wide range of healthy/nutritional elements, more than 50 different kinds.

 β-carotene, Zeaxanthin, Chlorophyll, Phycocyanin, Polysaccharide

Amino acids

Valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, tryptophan, threonine, cystine, tyrosine, histidine, arginine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and serine.

Vitamins

Beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin K1, vitamin K2, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B12 and inositol.

Minerals

Zinc, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur, selenium, cobalt, cupper, chromium and manganese.

Other nutritional elements

Dietary fiber, polysaccharides, linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, phycocyanin, zeaxanthin, chlorophyll a, nucleic acid and SOD.

 

Generally, some nutrients function better in concert with vitamins, minerals and amino acids.

 

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

 special thanks to 

Mr. Atsushi Egashira

 President of DIC LIFETEC Co.,Ltd

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Growing Spirulina at Home

 

The popular image of algae farming is bubbling green columns and white-coated scientists, and seems out of reach for ordinary people. Is the experience of algae farming limited to professionals? A growing network of DIY algae farmers is proving that we can all participate, by creating successful algae ponds and growth tanks in our own homes.

These are not mere science projects. Because of the high rate of algae growth and their potential nutrient density, it is possible to produce enough in a single window to significantly supplement an ordinary person’s experimentalist’s diet.

 

Helping these folks is the mission of our lab and website, Algaelab.org. Although there are many kinds of algae, and we’re committed to helping people grow any strain they’re interested in, we believe that Spirulina is the best species for DIYers to start with, for three main reasons:

Spirulina in microscope

Spirulina in microscope

 

1. The unique health value of live, fresh Spirulina, even at small doses.

Just a few grams of Spirulina powder a day have been shown to have definite health benefits. Spirulina is by far the most-studied nutritional algae, both in terms of its benefits and lack of harm. It has been shown to make a difference in preventing and treating ailments from obesity to malnutrition, cancer to heart disease.

These studies are on powdered Spirulina. Though it hasn’t been studied, it seems obvious that the live, fresh stuff—which is only available if you grow it yourself—would be even healthier. Personally, I find that eating a few grams of Spirulina with every meal makes the meal more satisfying, smoothes out sugar highs and lows, and gives me extended endurance and stamina.

 

2. Spirulina is safe and easy to grow.

As innocent as it may seem, Spirulina is in fact an extremophile, capable of growing in extremely alkaline water inhospitable to almost every other organism. Most other algae grow in essentially pH-neutral water, which supports the growth of a vast range of algae—including types that produce toxins—as well as doing nothing to inhibit the growth of other potentially harmful organisms such as bacteria. In my biofuel-algae work, we’re constantly fending off invasive species. It’s not just an academic concern. Since it is generally hard to control the growth of possibly harmful stuff (and although it’s fun, we think you should look at your culture under the microscope every day), this aspect of Spirulina cultivation is pretty key to growing pure and safe cultures on a DIY basis. One of the best aspects of growing your own Spirulina is knowing that the product that you are growing is as pure and free of contamination as possible.

 

3. Ease of harvest, and no need for further processing.

Harvesting Spirulina with a cloth filter

Harvesting Spirulina with a cloth filter

Even when an algal culture looks nice and thick, it’s probably still about 99.9% water. Separating the desired .1% from all that water can be a real trick. As a general rule, algal cells are tiny, roughly spherical, and devilishly difficult to pull out of the water without some special (read: expensive) tech. This is where the corkscrew shape of Spirulina cells comes in; when a culture is poured through nothing more complex than a fine cloth, it filters out easily, leaving a thick paste, which can be consumed immediately. Contrast that with the need for cell rupturing, drying, and product extraction in typical algal production systems, and it’s easy to see why Spirulina is a good place to start.

So if you or someone you know wants to get involved, what is necessary? Nothing more than a sunny window, some sort of transparent container, and a kit of supplies like we sell at AlgaeLab.org. If you want to assemble your own kit, we can set you up with spirulina starter, growing tips, and any other equipment you might want. To get in touch with the growing community of algae home-grow enthusiasts, as well as get your questions answered, join or visit this public forum: http://www.algaelab.org/phorum/

…and have a look at the ever-expanding Home-Grown Spirulina FAQ @ http://www.algaelab.org/faq/. Let us know about your algae adventures!


“...eating a few grams of Spirulina with every meal makes the meal more satisfying, smoothes out sugar highs and lows, and gives me extended endurance and stamina.”

Some FAQs about growing algae at home:

How long does it take to grow from the kit with the 1 liter starter bottle, until I can start harvesting from my tank?

Grow-up proceeds in stages—see the instructions; you put half the contents of the bottle into one quarter of the tank (2.5 gallons for a 10-gallon tank) to start with, which results in a very thin culture at first, which will thicken over time. After a couple of weeks, the algae should be thick enough that you can double the culture volume, then after a week or so, double again, so that the tank is full. Once the tank is full, the algae are thick (3cm Secchi or less, see below), and the pH has been at least 10 for 24 hours, you should be able to harvest. This process can take from 3 to 6 weeks.

 

AlgaeLab DIY Spirulina Growth Kit

AlgaeLab DIY Spirulina Growth Kit

 

Can I harvest multiple times?

Once you have a thriving culture (which typically takes a few weeks), you can harvest from it regularly (how often depends mostly on how much light the algae get, the more the better); each time you harvest, you add a little Make-Up Mix to the culture to make up for the nutrients that are taken out in the harvested algae.

 

What kind of water should I use to make the growth medium?

We use tap water, filtered through activated carbon (such as a Brita) or through a ceramic filter (such as a Berkey). Algae are quite sensitive to chlorine (which is why it’s used in the first place!), so tap water is only usable if the chlorine has been removed—which can be done using products sold for fish aquariums. The afore-mentioned filters, and de-chlorination, leave minerals in the water, which is generally a good thing; if you want to use de-mineralized water such as distilled or reverse osmosis water, or if your water is particularly soft, you may get better growth if you add some combination of 0.1 g/L magnesium sulfate, 0.5 g/L potassium sulfate, and/or 0.1 g/L calcium chloride (or lime or plaster). That said, we have yet to hear of anyone having trouble growing in non- or de-chlorinated drinking water of any kind.

 

How much Spirulina will I be able to harvest from my tank, how often, and for how long?

If you follow the instructions and thus provide proper temperature, pH, and nutrients, yield will depend mostly on the hours of bright light the tank receives. This generally means sunlight. (See below for a discussion of artificial lighting.) 
In a south-facing window with plenty of direct sun exposure, you can get roughly a tablespoon of live Spirulina harvest from a typical 10-gallon tank every other day. Two or three such tanks (or bigger) can fit in a window for daily harvest.

For how long? If the proper amount of make-up mix is added back to the tank after every harvest, the nutrient balance can be maintained for a high level of growth for about four to six months, at which point the pH will have risen too high (11+) for good growth. At this point you simply mix up a new batch of medium, harvest all your Spirulina, and immediately put them in the new medium.  After a couple of weeks your culture should be full, dense, and ready for harvest again, ready to start the 4-6 month cycle. So, you need enough starter mix to renew your culture every 4-6 months, though it’s a good idea to keep some on hand in case anything else might go wrong with your medium (though this is unusual). There is no reason why you shouldn’t be able to keep going this way indefinitely. The formulae for the starter and make-up mix are in the instructions if you want to make your own.

 

How do I use the Make-Up Mix?

As described above, the make-up mix is used only at harvest time (or when removing dead algae). Add an amount of make-up mix proportional to the harvested algae—one teaspoon of the mix per tablespoon of harvested algae, plus a dash of iron juice. This makes up for the nutrients lost in the harvested algae, thus the name.

How do I keep my Spirulina alive when I go on vacation?  Can they be “parked” for a while?

The trick is to slow down their metabolism by lowering the tank temperature. This can be done simply by turning off the heater. The tank should also be kept from strong direct light during this time as well, although it does need some light. If kept in this way, it should be fine for several weeks or more. When bringing it back from this state, raise the temperature and light in stages, over a few days, and the algae will be fine.

 

Can I use artificial lights to grow my algae?

Some algae-nauts have had good results from using artificial illumination, but it’s worth remembering that direct sunshine is about 100x brighter (~100,000 lux) than the light in what would be considered a very well artifically-lit room (1000 lux). It’s hard to compete with the sun. If using artificial lighting, it’s smart to take advantage of the heat generated by the light fixture as well. See below for a discussion of the optimal color for an artificial light source.
Do I need to tell you to be very careful about combining water and electricity? Watch for dripping water going along power cords – keep plugs high so you won’t get shocked!

 

What are the health benefits of eating Spirulina?

Too many to mention here; take a look around the Web for a more complete picture. In a nutshell, because it lacks a cell wall or any other indigestible components, Spirulina is a super-concentrated, highly available nutrient source, which enhances the nutrition of any food eaten with it. Spirulina is about 65% complete protein, and the remainder is packed with anti-oxidants, essential omega-3 fatty acids, and other compounds with healthful anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. As a blue-green algae, its nutritional value is unique, since blue-green algae split evolutionarily from green plants approximately a billion years ago.

My experience with Spirulina (I eat about 15 grams a day) is that it greatly improves my stamina, raises and levels out my mood, and speeds up all kinds of healing. The first two effects are consistent with clinical studies that show a large reduction (up to 50%)in the glycemic index of foods eaten with even a small amount (2.5%) of Spirulina.

 

Is live Spirulina better for you than the powder or pills I can get at the health food store?

All studies of the health benefits of Spirulina have been on the dead, powdered stuff. It stands to reason, though, that the live, fresh version of such a highly perishable food would have superior properties, and this is my experience, having eaten both. Purveyors of the powder claim that they take every precaution to preserve the nutritional properties of the algae, but what would you rather eat, a fresh blueberry, or a powdered blueberry?

 

How long does the live, fresh Spirulina last? How can I preserve it?

Fresh Spirulina, once removed from the preserving alkaline environment of the tank, is like raw eggs in its perishability—it should be eaten or refrigerated within an hour or so of harvest. It will last in the fridge for up to three days. If frozen, it lasts indefinitely; if dehydrated (and kept dry), it will last for about a year, longer if kept in an airtight container. It’s not hard to tell if it does go bad—it smells like rotten eggs.

 

Is there an optimal artificial light to use for growing Spirulina?

As a general rule, a plant or alga (or anything else for that matter) absorbs the wavelengths (colors) that are not present in its apparent color, which is made up of the wavelengths that it bounces out without absorbing. So, the chlorophyll of green plants absorbs mainly red and blue light, and bounces out green light. Green plants need both red and blue light to thrive. Blue-green algae, such as spirulina, have special accessory pigments called phycocyanins and allophycocyanins, which allow them to capture more red and orange light (and to a lesser extent yellow and green) than green plants. They do have chlorophyll (only slightly different from green plants’ chlorophyll), so they also use blue light.

For these reasons, ordinary “grow lights”, which are optimized for green land plants, are not particularly good for growing Spirulina or other blue-green algae (though they will work). A light with more red and orange light—i.e. a “warmer” color—would be more efficient for growth, as a higher fraction of the light will be absorbed. Another approach would be to use white light supplemented by a red-orange light source (peaking at 620-650 nm), to hit the phyco-pigments better. I have used the “warmer” colored compact fluorescents with some success, but haven’t done any side-by-side testing. In general, though, the color of the light source is not as important in my experience as getting the nutrients and temperature right, and providing LOTS of light, which is a lot easier using sunshine!

 

CCRES AQUAPONICS special thanks to Dr. Aaron Baum, of AlgaeLab.org

 

CCRES AQUAPONICS 

Project of NGO

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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What is Spirulina ?

 

                                                                  Spirulina Algae

 

 

 

What is Spirulina Algae ?

 

Spirulina is a microscopic blue-green algae that exists as a single celled organism turning sunlight into life energy.

It is one of the first life forms designed by nature more than 3.6 billion years ago. Spirulina contains billions of years of evolutionary wisdom in its DNA and is an offspring of earth’s first photosynthetic life forms.

Under the microscope, Spirulina is a blue-green color and has the appearance of a spiral of long thin threads. 

 

Spirulina is exceedingly adaptable and occurs in a wide variety of environments including fresh water, tropical springs, saltwater and saltpans.

Spirulina is full of nutrients and very easily digested. Commercially, Spirulina is available as a powder, tablet and capsule or added to foods and health tonics.

There are many forms of valuable algae and in the last 40 years Spirulina has been singled out for its nutritional properties. Long before it became a favorite of the health food industry, Spirulina was eaten regularly by North Africans and Mexicans centuries ago. Now many people around the globe realize that Spirulina is a powerful food with huge potential as a whole food source, medicine and biochemical resource.

A great deal of research has concentrated on the cultivation and harvesting of what is affectionately referred to as ‘the green’. It has been described as ‘probiotic’ and a ‘superfood’.

The cultivation of Spirulina has also brought interest because, as with most micro algae, Spirulina is extremely adaptable, often thriving in extreme conditions. With its rich nutritional goodness and ability to grow in adverse conditions, Spirulina has a huge potential to be a food source that will help feed and nourish the worlds population.

As a plant, Spirulina is incredibly rich containing a balance of nutrients that make it virtually a ‘whole food’ capable of sustaining life without the need for other foods.

Spirulina provides vitamins, many minerals, essential amino acids, carbohydrates and enzymes. Spirulina is at least 60% vegetable protein, which is predigested by the algae, making it a highly digestible food. It is higher in protein than any other food. Its outstanding nutritional profile also includes the essential fatty acids, GLA fatty acid, lipids, the nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), B complex, vitamin C and E and phytochemicals, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll (blood purifier), and phycocyanin (a blue pigment), which is a protein that is known to inhibit cancer.

A breakdown in nutritional terms of a few of the most commonly available supplements reveals an impressive comparison. 

                                                   Fresh Spirulina


How is it grown?

 

Spirulina thrives in natural alkaline lakes. Spirulina farming is part of the new era of ecological agriculture. The key component in the production of Spirulina is sunlight and attention is given to measurement of temperature and oxygen levels.

Because pesticides and herbicides would kill many microscopic life forms in a pond, algae scientists have learned how to balance pond ecology without the use of these harmful substances.

This form of aquaculture represents one of the solutions needed to produce food while restoring the planet.

 

 Why Certifed Organic ?

Humans create toxic waste, spill oil in the oceans, fill the air with acid rain and car exhaust and dump herbicides and pesticides into the soil. Unfortunately, this story of destroying our planet is still unfolding, and we are all its authors. There’s no question that lives will be much poorer if conventional farming continues to pollute water, changing historic landscapes into arable deserts, reducing the ozone layer for the sake of a few more strawberries and allowing the return of diseases that modern society believed it had beaten. For healthy human race with happy prospects and for sake of our planet, choose organic food.

 

                                                  Spirulina in water


Ensures no Pesticides are used

‘Pesticides’. People simply don’t understand how dangerous they are, most of the commonly used manmade pesticides are potential carcinogens…some of them are related to nerve gases and all of them are poisonous. They have to be — they are designed to kill. But what we don’t know is what the accumulation of potent pesticide residues do to us. Studies suggest that low-level exposure to pesticides over several years can cause health problems. The health effects of pesticides in our food and the environment are slowly becoming clear; immune suppression, hormone disruption, neurological damage,birth defects, cancer and nerve damage.

 

 Additives

As if pesticides in our food were not enough, we are forced to ingest food additives. Have you ever wondered what is added to food before it is packaged? Or, have you ever found yourself perplexed by words like tocopherol, propionic acid, or carrageenan on a food label?

Food additives are defined as substances that are added to food during processing, but are not normally consumed by themselves as foods. But the larger question is why do food companies use additives in any amounts? And, why should we purchase foods that contain these additives if there is even the slightest health risk? Since artificial colours aren’t necessary to preserve the food or enhance food safety and quality, (and may cause medical problems in some people) it’s best to do without this particular type of additive.

The seven thousand artificial additives permitted in non-organic foods are used to make food last beyond its natural sell-by date, make it appear brighter or more colourful, and/or taste sweeter, saltier or just plain better than the manufacturer could manage without these crutches. At best, these additives are unnecessary and annoying to those who question their use and usefulness. At worst, they are possible carcinogens and could be causing damage that no one has bothered to study.

 

Eco-Domaine Ferme de Bouquetot

 

 

CCRES AQUAPONICS 

project of NGO

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

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Sustainable feed resources

Fish farming is very efficient in terms of the conversion of protein, which means an important ecological advantage in light of the sustainability of fish feed resources.

One of the most-frequently cited issues with the sustainable development of aquaculture is the capture of other fish as raw material to be used as fish feed in the form of fish meal and fish oil. It is seen as an issue because a food production sector is in part relying on a capture fishery for the supply of raw materials for the production of aquaculture feed.

Typically, these other fish species are small, oil-rich, bony pelagic fish that are not normally used for direct human consumption. Two decades ago, the majority of fish meal and oil was used to make feeds for land animal production. At present, over 50 percent of fishmeal and over 80 percent of fish oil is used for aquaculture.

If aquaculture is to fill the gap in demand for seafood, this raises important sustainability issues as to the availability of sufficient feed supply. This is particularly relevant given the fact that fishmeal and fish oil production has been, and is likely to remain, relatively constant at around 6 million and 0.9 million tonnes per year, respectively.

However, as the demand for fishmeal and fish oil in aquaculture has increased, so the price has risen. This has driven both terrestrial agriculture and aquaculture to seek nutritional alternatives to fishmeal and fish oil. This is an on-going process and estimates made by the International Fishmeal & Fish oil Organisation (IFFO) show that the growth of aquaculture and the substitution of fishmeal and fish oil can continue together. The IFFO has started to produce datasheets on fisheries for fish meal and fish oil and these are available at the IFFO web site.

Conversion of caught wild fish to farmed fish

It has been noted that certain types of fish, particularly salmon, are net consumers, requiring in the region of 3 kg of wild fish as feed to produce 1 kg of farmed fish. While it is true that growing high-quality salmon requires considerable amounts of fishmeal and oil, improved technology in fishmeal and oil production as well as better feeding practices on farms have reduced the ratio over time.

Salmon are an exception, because their diets require large amounts of fish oil. For aquaculture overall, the ratio is now well below one: less fish is used for feed than is produced at farms. For carnivorous species, the ratio is still decreasing and expected to reach 1.0 around 2012 (IFFO).

These figures do not include recent gains thanks to the recovery of meal and oil from aquaculture waste. Increasingly in Europe, waste from aquaculture is collected and processed, redirecting around 50 percent of the harvested weight to valuable products.

It should also be noted that wild carnivorous fish also need food. It is estimated that it takes 10 kg of forage fish to produce 1 kg of salmon caught in the wild6. If by-catch values are added to the equation, another 5 kg of forage fish has to be added. Hence, even a 3 to 1 ratio for farmed salmon would be significantly better than a 10-15 to 1 ratio of salmon caught in the wild.

 Efficiency of food conversion in farmed fish

The ‘food conversion ratio’ (FCR) is defined as the weight of food that is required to produce one kilogram of fish. In the early days of aquaculture, farmed fish were fed with whole ‘trash’ fish and FCRs were more than 20 to 1. Through the years, the ratio has dramatically declined. With the advent of dry, pelletised feeds and modern extrusion technologies, FCR levels are now almost 1 to 1. Certain trout and salmon farms achieve an FCR of less than 1:1, making them far more efficient converters of marine protein than their wild counterparts.

As fish feeds represent an increasingly high share of total production cost, fish farmers have every interest in using feeds as effectively as possible, thereby also reducing the potential environmental impacts of non-consumed feeds. Overfeeding or underfeeding would increase the FCR. Therefore, many farms are equipped with underwater surveillance and monitoring systems as well as devices controlling the supply and delivery of feed.

Replacement of marine protein sources by (terrestrial) plant protein

For various reasons, fishmeal and oil are gradually being replaced by plant proteins in feed that is used in fish farms. Plant proteins can be less costly and they are free of potential contaminants like dioxin, PCB or mercury.

However, fishmeal is an important ingredient in fish feed and can only to a limited extent be replaced by vegetable proteins without reducing feed efficiency and growth. After all, carnivorous or ‘piscivorous’ fish naturally feed on other fish. The fatty acid composition in the flesh from farmed fish will also reflect the feed composition and inclusion of vegetable oil will reduce the level of omega-3 fatty acids.

Although the introduction of plant protein into the feed can be seen as a way of reducing the sector’s dependence on fish meal and fish oil, some have questioned the trend because:

  • carnivorous fish do not naturally feed on plants;
  • plant proteins may have anti-nutritional effects on fish;
  • there is a maximum level of replacement, after which the texture and eating quality
  • of the fish is compromised;
  • some plant proteins could be derived from GMOs.

Generally speaking, though, marine plants have enormous potential to act as fish feed ingredients. Initial research has confirmed this potential and our knowledge in this area is starting to build.

Decontamination of fish meal and fish oil
Fishmeal and fish oil are produced from fish that may contain contaminants. Various research projects are ongoing to look into the feasibility of de-contaminating fish meal and fish oil. One such project is carried out at the Fiskeriforskning Institute in Norway.

Fish stocks of concern in the northern European industry are sprat and herring from the Baltic Sea, and herring, sprat, sand eel and blue whiting in the North Sea. The differences in dioxin and PCB levels reflect the general pollution levels in the respective fishing areas and will disfavour the North European fishmeal and oil producers in the world market. This is already the case in aquaculture, where most fishmeal is sourced from the southern hemisphere.

The main objective of the project is to develop a new oil extraction process to reduce the persistent organic pollutants level in fishmeal. The research will aim to identity optimal processing conditions with respect to both decontamination efficiency and preservation of fishmeal and oil quality. The new oil extraction process is expected to have several advantages compared to a standard hexane extraction process. This will include the possibility of easy integration in an existing fishmeal processing line, use of a safe and non-flammable extraction medium and lower investment and operation costs.

Do farmed fish contain artificial colouring?

The natural red/orange colour of salmon results from carotenoid pigments, largely astaxanthin in the flesh. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant that stimulates the development of healthy fish nervous systems and that enhances the fish’s fertility and growth rate. Wild salmon get these carotenoids from feeding on small crustaceans, such as prawns and shrimp. Astaxanthin does not naturally occur in fish feeds and thus must be added. The astaxanthin which is added to feed is identical to the natural pigment.

Food miles

In recent years, there has been increasing emphasis on energy resources needed to ship in food from afar. Although the relationship between transport and overall sustainability can be complex, it can be said that where food supply chains are otherwise identical, reducing food transport improves sustainability.

Therefore, generally speaking, European aquaculture production could be seen as more efficient in terms of “food miles” than imports of the same species from countries far away.

However, there is a food mile issue with the use of fish meal and fish oil produced in the southern hemisphere and used in Europe, although this is itself a trade-off of not using fish meal produced in Europe due to issues of species in recovery (e.g. sandeel and capelin) and contamination of fish meal and oil (e.g. Baltic herring).

However, as stated before, comparisons can be complex, involving differences between food supply systems that often involve trade-offs between a diverse variety of environmental, social and economic factors. The impact of food transport can be offset to some extent if food imported to an area has been produced more sustainably than the food available locally. For example, a case study showed that it can be more sustainable (at least in energy efficiency terms) to import tomatoes from Spain than to produce them in heated greenhouses in the UK outside the summer months.

In the case of fishmeal and fish oil, the world’s largest producers of fishmeal and fish oil are in South America. There, fishmeal and fish oil are mass-produced very efficiently and shipped overseas (already with a reduced water content in the case of fishmeal) to Europe to be used as feed in aquaculture. Surely, this has to compare favourably to using airplanes to import fresh fish from Asia or South America.

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Greenhouse with tilapia, lettuce, herbs and cucumbers

 

A completely integrated food production system using retractable roofs to create optimal growing conditions using the advantages of the natural outdoors and a greenhouse.

Green Sky Growers, a rooftop farm, is located on top of the Garden Building in Winter Garden, Florida, and is the first Certified Green building in the world with commercial-scale, Aqua-Dynamic farming on the rooftop. Green Sky Growers produces tons of fresh vegetables and fish on an annual basis without the use of harmful pesticides.

  • Environmentally friendly growing practices include the harvesting of rainwater that is recycled in the Aqua-Dynamic growing systems.
  • All the growing systems continuously recycle 100% of the nutrients and water.
  • The majority of food produced is available to the local Winter Garden community, thus providing healthy, locally grown and low carbon-footprint food.

    CCRES AQUAPONICS 
    project of NGO

    CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

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Should You Attempt Fish Farming?

 

Considerations for Prospective Fish Growers

Louis A. Helfrich, Fisheries Extension Specialist, and George S. Libey, Associate Professer, Aquaculture; Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Tech

Introduction

Fish farming is an ancient practice that can provide many profitable opportunities today. The raising and selling of fish on a commercial basis has proven to be economically successful throughout the United States. In Croatia, fish farming is growing in popularity. Increasing recognition that fish is a healthy food, low in calories and cholesterol levels, but rich in protein has increased consumer demand in both restaurants and supermarkets.
Fish are excellent animals to rear. They can convert feed into body tissue more efficiently than most farm animals, transforming about 70 percent of their feed into flesh. Fish also have excellent dress-out qualities, providing an average of 60 percent body weight as marketable product and a greater proportion of edible, lean tissue than most livestock. Fish can be intensively cultured in relatively small amounts of water. In Virginia, they can be farmed at densities near 2,000 pounds/acre with careful management. Farm-reared fish offer a new alternative agricultural crop that can potentially replace those which are declining in popularity or profitability. Healthy farm-reared fish, guaranteed free of diseases, pesticides, and other harmful toxicants, are a more desirable substitute for wild fish from potentially polluted waters.

Fish farming is, like most other types of farming, a risky business that requires special knowledge, skills, and careful considerations. Some of the most important factors to consider in determining whether you should begin a fish farming business are listed below. Answering yes to all or most questions does not insure success. Similarly, answering no to all or most questions does not guarantee failure. Individuals with little or no experience in fish farming and few resources available can become successful fish farmers, but they should start small and expand slowly, and be willing to invest lots of time and effort.

Answer Yes or No

Economics:
1.
Do you have sufficient financial resources available?
2. Do you own suitable land with a good source of high-quality water?
3. Do you own enough land and water necessary for a profitable venture?
4. Is there a high demand and sufficient market for your product?
5. Do you have the equipment and machinery necessary?
6. Is expected profit from fish farming greater than other land uses?
7. Can you really devote the money, time, and labor necessary?
8. Do you know the costs involved with the following items:

Capital CostsLand & buildings
Building ponds/raceways
Trucks & tractors
Plumbing & pipes
Tanks & aerators
Oxygen meters
Nets & boots
Operating CostsPurchasing eggs/fingerlings
Fish feed
Electricity & fuel
Labor & maintenance
Chemicals & drugs
Taxes & insurance
Telephone & transportation

Marketing:
l.
Is there an established market for your fish?
2. Is the market demand sufficient year-round?
3. Do you have an alternative marketing strategy to rely on?

Physical:
l.
Do you have a continuous source of clean, high-quality water?
2. Does your soil have enough clay content to hold water?
3. Is the water temperature optimal for the fish species reared?
4. Do you have space sufficient to build enough ponds or raceways?
5. Do you have good and easy pond access for feeding and harvesting?
6. Are the pipes sufficient in size for quick draining & easy filling?
7. Is your residence near enough for direct observation and security?
Production:
l.
Have you had your water tested (chemical and bacteriological)?
2. Do you have a reliable source of fingerlings or eggs at affordable prices?
3. Do you have a reliable source of feed at reasonable cost?
4. Do you have dependable labor available at affordable wages?
5. How long is your growing season (days/year)?
6. What’s your production capacity (pounds/year)?
7. What’s the best fish species for you to grow?
8. Are you aware of fish reproductive biology and nutritional needs?

Legal:
l.
Are you aware of the federal and state laws about fish farming?
2. Do you know where to apply for the necessary permits and licenses?
3. Are you familiar with the personal liability concerns involved?

Risk Assessment:
l.
Can you afford to lose your entire fish crop?
2. Can you conduct water quality tests?
3. Is fish-disease diagnostic-help readily available?
4. Do you know about off-flavor and its causes?
5. Is pesticide, metal,or oil contamination possible?
6. Can you deal with poachers and vandals?
7. Do you know where to go for information and help?

Fish Farming Publications

Magazines/ Newsletters
Aquaculture Digest
9434 Kearney Mesa Rd.
San Diego, CA 92126
Monthly–$50/yr.

Aquaculture Magazine
P.O. Box 2329
Asheville, NC 28802
Bimonthly–$15/yr.

Aquafarm Letter
3400 Neyrey Drive
Metairie, LA 70002
Bi-weekly–$70/yr.
Arkansas Aquafarming
University of Arkansas
Cooperative Extension Service
Box 391
Little Rock, AR 72203
Quarterly–Free

California Aquaculture
University of California
Cooperative Extension Service
Aquaculture Extension
Davis, CA 95616
Monthly–Free
Canadian Aquaculture
4652 William Head Rd.
Victoria, British Columbia
Canada, V8X3W9
Quarterly–$14/yr.

Carolina Aquaculture News
P.O. Box 1294
Garner, NC 27529
Bimonthly–$12/yr.

Farm Pond Harvest
Professional Sportsman Pub.Co.
Box AA
Momence, Illinois 60954
Bimonthly-$10/yr.

Fish Farmer
Business Press International
205 E. 42nd St.
New York, NY 10017
Bimonthly-$56/yr.

Fish Farming International
Heighway House
87 Blackfriars Road
London SE 1814B England
Monthly–$35/yr.

Fish Farming International
110 Fleet St.
London EC4A England

For Fish Farmers
Mississippi State University
Cooperative Extension Service
Mississippi State, MS 39762
Monthly–Free
Georgia Fish Farmer
University of Georgia
Cooperative Extension Service
Athens, GA 30602
Quarterly–Free

Salmonid Magazine
U.S. Trout Farming Asso.
506 Ferry St.
Little Rock, AR 72203
Quarterly–Free

South Carolina Aquaculturist
Clemson University
Cooperative Extension Service
Room 102, Long Hall
Clemson, SC 29631
Quarterly–Free

Texas Aquaculture
Texas A&M University
Cooperative Extension Service
102 Nagle Hall
College Station, TX 77843
Quarterly–Free

The Catfish Journal
Catfish Farmers of America
P.O. Box 1700
Clinton, MS 39056
Monthly–$20/yr.

Timely Tips-Fisheries
University of Tennessee
Cooperative Extension Service
P.O. Box 1071
Knoxville, TN 37901-1071
Quarterly–Free

Water Farming Journal
3400 Neyrey Drive
Metairie, LA 70002
Monthly–$15/yr.

World Aquaculture News
P.O. Box 150129
Arlington, TX 76015
Monthly–$20/yr.
Journals/ Technical Publications
Aquaculture
American Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co.
52 Vanderbilt Ave.
New York, NY 10017
32 issues/yr.–$640/yr.

Aquaculture Engineering
Elsevier Applied Science
52 Vanderbilt Avenue
New York, NY 10017
Monthly–$132/yr.

Journal of Shellfish Research
National Shellfisheries Association
Oyster Biology Section
Gulf Coast Research Lab.
Ocean Springs, MS 39564

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
178 Pleasant Hill
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803

Progressive Fish Culturist
American Fisheries Society
5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 110
Bethesda, MD 20814-2199
Quarterly–$16/yr.

Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
American Fisheries Society
5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 110
Bethesda, MD 20814

Selected Fish Farming Books

  • A Guide to Integrated Warm Water Aquaculture. D. Little and J. Muir. Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland.
  • Aquaculture Engineering. 1977. F.E. Wheaton. R.E. Krieger Publishing Company, Kreiger Dr., Malabar, FL 32950.
  • Aquaculture: The farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organisms. 1972. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY.
  • Cage Aquaculture. 1987. M. Beveridge. Unipub, 4611-F Assembly Drive, Landham, MD 20706-4391. Phone (301) 459-7666. ($38)
  • Commercial Catfish Farming. 1973. Interstate Printers and Publishers. Danville, Il.
  • Crustacean and Mollusk Aquaculture in the United States. J.V. Huner and E.E. Brown. AVI Publishing Co., Inc., 250 Post Road East, P.O. Box 831, Westport, CT 06881.
  • Fish Farming Handbook. 1980. AVI Publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Ct. 06881.
  • Fish Hatchery Management. 1986. American Fisheries Society, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 110, Bethesda, MD 20814.
  • Guidelines for Striped Bass Culture. 1976. American Fisheries Society, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 110, Bethesda, MD 20814-2199.
  • Principles and Practices of Pond Aquaculture. 1986. American Fisheries Society, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 110, Bethesda, MD 20814-2199, Phone (301) 897-8616. ($39.95)
  • Principles of Warmwater Aquaculture. 1979. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY.
  • Principles of Warmwater Aquaculture. 1979. American Fisheries Society, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 110, Bethesda, MD 20814-2199. Phone (301) 897-8616 ($39.95)
  • Recent Advances in Aquaculture. J. Muir and R. Roberts. Westview Press Inc., 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301.
  • The Aquaculture of Striped Bass. 1984. Maryland Sea Grant Program, 1224 Patterson Hall, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.
  • Trout and Salmon Culture (Hatchery Methods). 1980. California Fish Bulletin Number 164. University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.
  • Trout Farming Handbook. 1973. Scholtum International Inc. Flushing, NY.
  • Water Quality in Warmwater Fish Ponds. 1984. C.E. Boyd. Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36830. ($8)

Organizations

American Fisheries Society
5410 Grosvenor Lane
Suite 110
Bethesda, MD 20814-2199
301-897-8616

Catfish Farmers of America
P.O. Box 36
Jackson, MS 39205
601-353-7916
National Ornamental Goldfish Growers Asso.
6916 Blacks Mill Rd.
Thurmont, MD 21788
301-272-7475

National Shellfisheries Association
Edwin Thodes
National Marine Fisheries Service
212 Rogers Ave.
Milford CT 06460
203-783-4200

Shellfish Institute of North America
National Fisheries Institute
2000 M Street, NW, Suite 580
Washington, DC 20036
202-296-5170

U.S. Trout Farmers Association
515 Rock Street
Little Rock, AR 72202
501-372-3595

World Aquaculture Society
341 Pleasant Hall
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
504-388-3137


CCRES AQUAPONICS special thanks to Michelle Davis, Research Associate, Fisheries and Wildlife


Virginia Cooperative Extension materials are available for public use, re-print, or citation without further permission, provided the use includes credit to the author and to Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, and Virginia State University.

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