Tag Archives: Cyprinus carpio

Nitrogen cycle

GFA nitrogen cycle

GFA nitrogen cycle

 

Ammonia, nitrite and nitrate are the main forms of inorganic nitrogen found in recirculating fish cultures.  The major source of organic nitrogen is the protein-rich supplementary feed that is given daily to the fish.  Ammonia is produced as the main end product of protein catabolism and is excreted by fish through their gills.  Ammonia is also released to the water by the decomposition of uneaten feed and feces by heterotrophic bacteria present in the system. Among the inorganic nitrogen species, ammonia and nitrite are toxic and most often associated with stress or even mortality of fish.  Nitrate is considered to be less toxic than ammonia but may damage fish at high concentrations.  Inorganic nitrogen transformation in closed intensive recirculating systems including G.F.A, is usually mediated microbial and includes two major processes-nitrification and denitrification.

 

 

Nitrification –

 

Nitrification is a two-step aerobic process that is carried out by two autotrophic bacterial species; ammonia is first oxidized to nitrite (reaction I), which is then followed by its oxidization to nitrate (reaction II):

 

I)   2NH3   +   3O2      ->             2HNO2   +   2H2O    (+ energy released)

II)  2HNO2   +   O2     ->             2HNO3                     (+ energy released)

 

The major groups of bacteria carrying out nitrification have been identified in both freshwater and marine environments.  Ammonia-oxidizing nitrifiyers have been found to belong to the b-subdivision of the Proteobacteria and are typified by Nitrosomonas europaea.  Nitrite-oxidizing nitrifiyers belong to the a-subdivision of the Proteobacteria of which Nitrobacter winogradskyi is a representative species.  Until recently it was assumed that species of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are identical in marine and freshwater environments.  However, the use of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-targeted oligonucleotide probes have revealed the identification of a group of nitrifying bacteria responsible for ammonia oxidation in freshwater that are different from the bacteria responsible for ammonia oxidation in seawater.  Recent studies showed that the ammonia oxidizer Nitrosomonas europaea appears to be present at high levels in seawater aquaria and at very low levels in freshwater aquaria.  We have identified both Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira spp. in our warm-water mariculture system.

Several types of biofilter configurations have been used in recirculating aquaculture systems for nitrification.  These include submerged biofilters, trickling biofilters, rotating biological contractors (RBC), bead filters and fluidized-bed filters and each design has advantages and disadvantages.  An advantage to using RBC and trickling biofilters over the others, for example, is the ability of these filters to oxidize water during operation and provide some carbon dioxide stripping.  Submerged biofilters or fluidized-bed filters, on the other hand, require continuous oxidation of water during operation.  G.F.A systems employ trickling filters as the major ammonia removal platform. Its parallel benefits that include ammonia removal, carbon dioxide stripping, water oxygenation and its biological stability, make it the perfect choice for G.F.A systems.

 

 

Denitrification –

 

Biological reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas occurs by denitrification, which is carried out by facultative anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria.  In place of oxygen, these bacteria are capable of using nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide or nitrous oxide as terminal electron acceptors in the presence of an organic carbon source that serves as electron donor (reaction III):

III) HNO3   +   (CH3OH)X  ->   HNO2  ->   N2O(g)  ->   NO(g)  ->   N2(g)

Denitrification closes the nitrogen cycle and releases nitrogen to the atmosphere.  Denitrifiyers are found among many bacterial genera including Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, and Hyphomicrobium.

Since denitrification is inhibited in the presence of oxygen, filtration systems that are established for denitrification are generally preceded by a mechanism designed for decreasing oxygen concentrations.  In some cases, oxygen consumption is coupled to the oxidation of carbon sources through activity of heterotrophic bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. present in nitrifying biofilters.  The oxygen concentration that will completely inhibit denitrification is dependent on the denitrifying bacterial species present in the system.  Oxygen acts via inhibition of both synthesis and activity of enzymes involved in denitrification resulting in the accumulation of denitrification intermediates, NO, N2O, and NO2, depending on oxygen concentration.

As most denitrifying bacteria are heterotrophic, they require organic carbon compounds as a source for electrons and protons.  Such compounds include carbohydrates, organic alcohols, amino acids and fatty acids.  For example, utilization of acetate as a carbon source for denitrification proceeds as follows:

IV) 5CH3COO-   +   8NO3-   +   3H+  ->  10HCO3-   +   4N2 (g)   +   4H2O

The C/N ratio required for complete nitrate reduction to nitrogen gas by denitrifying bacteria depends on the nature of the carbon source and the bacterial species.  As noted above, carbon source limitation will result in the accumulation of denitrification by-products such as NO2 and N2O.  In addition, denitrification rates will depend on the variety of available carbon source.  For example, in anaerobic reactors denitrification was shown to be faster in the presence of acetate compared to glucose and ethanol.  The limiting factor of the process in marine and land sediments is the availability of an organic carbon source.

 

G.F.A technology takes full advantage of the anaerobic water treatment and uses it both for nitrate removal and organic solids digesting. Water from the bottom of the fish tanks rich with organic particles are collected to a central basin were few process are taking place in parallel manner: solids settling and digesting, oxygen uptake and nitrate reduction (denitrification). Thus the organic solids that are usually removed out from recirculating systems as fast as possible, are used in the G.F.A. technology as a “fuel” to activate the nitrate reducing bacteria and allow water to go back to the culture tanks with no losses – zero discharge technology.

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Hrvatska nezainteresirana i bez tehnologije

 

Hrvatska nezainteresirana i bez tehnologije

 Posljednje je desetljeće akvakultura najbrže rastući sektor proizvodnje hrane, već je sad svaka treća riba koja se nađe na tanjuru uzgojena manji su troškovi ulaganja, a veći je prinos ribe i morskih vrsta.

Uskoro bi zbog ekspanzije čovječanstva, zbog kojeg se svakodnevno izlovljava sve više i više ribe za prehranu, moglo doći i do nestašice te prehrambene namirnice, ali isto tako i zbog sustavnog zagađenja mora kemijskim spojevima koji također uništavaju riblju populaciju u prirodi. Zbog toga su mnoge zemlje morale preći na kontrolirani uzgoj u kojem je veći postotak preživljavanja ribe, bolja iskoristivost hrane te brži napredak ribe, te su razvile akvakulturu, uzgoj organizama u vodenoj sredini pod kontroliranim uvjetima.
Posljednje je desetljeće akvakultura najbrže rastući sektor proizvodnje hrane. Naime, smatra se kako će već za desetak godina više od polovice prehrambenih proizvoda iz mora biti uzgojeno, a prema nekim podacima, već je sad svaka treća riba koja se nađe na tanjuru uzgojena. Naime, u akvakulturi su manji troškovi ulaganja, a veći prinos ribe i morskih vrsta.
U primjeni akvakulture poseban je svjetski ugled stekao Izrael, koji je uz veliku nestašicu vode upravo u pustinjskim područjima napravio velike uzgojne bazene. Izraelska se akvakultura intenzivno razvija te danas obuhvaća uzgoj različitih slatkovodnih i morskih vrsta.
Jedna od specifičnosti izraelske primjene akvakulture su tzv. recirkulacijski sustavi, odnosno sustavi uzgoja akvatičnih organizama u recirkulacijskom protoku vode s minimalnim izmjenama i gubicima vode. Posebno praktična metoda u područjima udaljenim od izvora vode, osobito pustinjskim predjelima. Svaka se kap vode, naime, maksimalno iskoristi. Izrael ima velikih problema zbog nedostatka prirodnih vodenih resursa, a više od polovice njegova teritorija su kamene pustinje.
O tehnologiji akvakulture razgovarali smo sa znanstvenim novacima, dr. vet. med. Josipom Barišićem s Instituta Ruđer Bošković, te mag. ing. Danielom Matulićem s Agronomskog fakulteta. Upravo su njih dvojica bili na jednomjesečnoj stipendiji »Akvakultura: Proizvodnja i upravljanje« Izraelske agencije za razvoj međunarodne suradnje, tijekom koje su se susreli s raznim vrstama akvakulture. Tako su usred pustinje boravili uz natkrivene lančano povezane bazene s morskom ribom. Pokraj bazena su biološki filtri, odnosno sustav različitih kultura bakterija. U prvom bazenu riba dobiva hranu, ali isto tako i ispušta izmet, odnosno štetne produkte. Ta se voda potom propušta kroz biološke filtre, koji sprečavaju prolaz kemijski toksičnih supstancija u drugi bazen i tako redom. Gubici vode, ali i isparavanja su minimalni, pa se svakodnevno svježe vode doda samo jedan do tri posto od ukupnog volumena vode u bazenima. Budući da se u takvim uzgojnim bazenima voda neprestano pročišćava, sustav nije izložen mogućim negativnim utjecajima iz otvorenih voda, kao što su unos uzročnika bolesti, predatori, različiti oblici kontaminacije, odnosno posljedice industrijskog zagađivanja.

Uspješni u proizvodnji kavijara premda ga ne jedu

Izraelci su poznati i po proizvodnji i prodaji kavijara za što uzgajaju jesetru. Naime, kako ikra potrebna za kavijar ne smije biti prezrela, posebnom se tehnikom obavlja biopsija i provjerava zrelost ikre. Nakon toga iz zrele se ribe izvadi ikra od koje se napravi kavijar, za čiji kilogram treba izdvojiti i tisuću eura. Razvili su i brži uzgoj jesetre, jer su je doveli iz hladnog Kaspijskog jezera u svoje toplije bazene, što je pridonijelo bržem sazrijevanju ribe, a time i većoj proizvodnji čime su se plasirali među vodeće zemlje proizvođače kavijara izvrsne kvalitete.

U bazenima se od slatkovodnih vrsta, među ostalim, uzgajaju tilapije, šarani, pastrve, jesetre, te od morskih vrsta orada, brancin, ježinci, morske alge, razne vrste školjkaša. Sve su one u sustavu recirkulacije, dok se pastrva uzgaja na brzim protočnim rijekama. Načelo takvog uzgoja je da se iz rijeke provede kanal, odnosno dio vode preusmjeri na farmu na kojoj takva voda potrebna za uzgoj prolazi kroz mehaničke (štetne čestice ostaju na stjenkama filtra) i biološke filtre do te mjere da kad se vrati u matičnu rijeku ne predstavlja nikakvu opasnost za njen ekosustav. Farme su privatne, a naročito je važna suradnja znanosti i privrede te je ona u Izraelu na visokoj razini. Naime, zbog svih problema s kojima se susreću, uzgajivači se obraćaju znanstvenicima, koji im uz adekvatnu naknadu ponude rješenje problema. Na taj se način unapređuje privreda.
Valja istaknuti da se, primjerice, kalifornijske pastrve uzgajaju samo u rijeci Dan u regiji Kibbutz Dan na sjeveru zemlje, te da se na samo jednoj farmi u prosjeku na godinu proizvede i do 500 tona ribe. Također je zanimljivost da uzgoj šarana u Izraelu vuče korijene iz naše zemlje. Naime, sedamdesetih je godina prošlog stoljeća u Izrael uvezena linija šarana nastalog u Hrvatskoj, našički šaran, što je Izraelcima poslužilo kao matično jato u počecima intenzivnog uzgoja. Križanjem linije »Našice« s izraelskom linijom šarana »Dor 70« dobiven je hibrid s vrlo dobrim performansama rasta. Do današnjih se dana našički šaran u Izraelu održao u izvornom genetičkom obliku.

Hrvatska nezainteresirana i bez tehnologije

U Hrvatskoj akvakulturu najvećim dijelom čini uzgoj toplovodnih i hladnovodnih vrsta poput šarana i pastrve u kontinentalnim dijelovima zemlje te uzgoj orade, brancina i školjkaša u marikulturi. Hrvatska je izuzetno bogata vodenim resursima, ali zbog nedostatka tehnologije i slabe zainteresiranosti nije razvila veću proizvodnju. Naročito bi se u Hrvatskoj moglo poraditi na povećanju uzgajališta pastrve prema načelu dobre filtracije vode na farmama, čime bi se povećala i produktivnost rijeka. Isto tako zbog sve većeg zagađenja morskog ekosustava za očekivati je u skoroj budućnosti da će i hrvatska marikultura morati iskoristiti tehnike recirulacijskih sustava kako bismo umanjili štetne učinke kaveznog uzgoja i prekomjeran izlov ribe te tako očuvali prirodne ljepote našeg mora i biološku raznolikost. Kako su nam rekli Barišić i Matulić, znanja koja su stekli u Izraelu pokušat će primijeniti u Hrvatskoj osmišljavanjem i velikog broja ideja i pokušajem njihova provođenja u praksu kako bi se unaprijedila sama tehnologija akvakulture i povećala svijest nacije o njenoj važnosti.

Izraelci su poradili i na transportu akvarijskih ribica sa što manje vode, jer kako vole reći, ne prodaju vodu nego ribu. Na projektu kako u što manjem volumenu vode dostaviti što više ribe na svjetska tržišta, radili su godinu dana.
Na jugu zemlje posebno je razvijena marikultura, odnosno uzgoj morskih organizama primjenom specifičnog multitrofičnog sustava. Naime, u takvim se sustavima uzgaja više različitih organizama u odvojenim bazenima kao što su orada, morski ježinac, kamenica te različite vrste algi i trava. Svaka karika u sustavu iz vode koristi ostatke riblje hrane i štetnih tvari, čisteći tako vodu koja se na taj način može višestruko iskoristiti te se u gotovo čistom obliku, u kakvom je ušla u sustav, vraća u more. Mogući štetni utjecaji na okoliš svedeni su na minimum, kao i troškovi uzgoja, dok je proizvodnja višestruko povećana.
Izraelci su vođeni poslovicom »necessity is the mother of invention«, odnosno »nužnost je majka izuma«, a primjenom recirkulacijskog sustava protoka vode kroz filtre iz bazena u bazen, polikulture i multitrofičnog sustava, uspjeli u uzgoju i proizvodnji ribljeg mesa u područjima bez izravne povezanosti s prirodnim vodenim resursima, kao što je primjerice u pustinji, ali i na velikoj udaljenosti od mora.

Šarani selektirani prema uzoru na japansku zastavu

Izraelska akvakultura uključuje i uzgoj akvarijskih ribica za kućne ljubimce, prije svega koi šarana koji su dosta skupi i njihova se cijena kreće i do nekoliko tisuća eura. No ono što je posebno i zanimljivo za zahtjevnije kupce je proces kojim su genetičkom selekcijom dobili koi šarana bijele boje s pravilnim crvenim krugom na sredini glave, što izgleda kao japanska zastava. Stoga je upravo ta ribica vrlo popularna u Japanu. Jaka je grana i uzgoj zlatnih ribica.
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Koi and Japanese Culture

Koi and Japanese Culture

Have carp been raised in Japan since the time before Christ? Judging from the fact that some carp bones have been unearthed from shell heaps of the Yayoi period, it is considered that carp have inhabited in the rivers and swamps of Japan for at least 2000. Ancient people might have started catching carp for food and began keeping them for provisions.

Japanese people have also enjoyed carp as ornamental fish. The oldest record regarding carp keeping can be seen in the “Nihonshoki” (Chronicle of Japan). The Emperor Keiko fell in love with Otohime princess and tried to make her visit his place. He would happily view carp in the pond at the Kukurinomiya Palace. The princess finally visited the pond to see the carp and the Emperor fulfilled his long-cherished dream with the aid of his carp. The story was written in 734. In Heian period (794~1185), viewing carp in garden ponds was common among the aristocracy. Later around the end of Edo period (early 19th century), there were Higoi (red carp), Shirogoi (white carp) and Shirogoi with some red markings on the various parts of the body seen in Japan. They are all ancestors of today’s Kohaku. It was the farmers of Echigo (current Niigata Prefecture) who transformed mutant carp into beautiful Nishikigoi. By the way, there is a record of red, white and yellow carp in China. However, regarding Nishikigoi as “Living jewelry”, it can be said that Japanese people have improved upon it. Nishikigoi are worthy of being called the national ornamental fish of Japan (Kokugyo). Today it is considered to be one of the leading figures of ornamental fish in the world.

The Chinese character for carp “Koi” was, of course, introduced from China. It is made up of three separate parts, called radicals. The left one means fish, the upper part of the right means rice field and the bottom means earth. The right parts together mean the marked off land which further means the condition of beautiful organization. A fish representative that has a beautiful law of scales is the Nishikigoi, while the animal counterpart with a fine coat of hair is determined a raccoon dog, according to Chinese characters.

Koi is said to be a fish that succeeds in life. This came after a historical event in China where carp were the only fish that could swim up a waterfall, called Ryumon (dragon gate) at the upper reaches of the Yellow River, and became dragons. The saying, “koi-no-taki-nobori”, a carp swimming up the rapids, also came later.

Koi are also worthy of being called “bushi-gyo” (Japanese warrior fish) because of their serene and sometimes tremendous manner of swimming. They even have a habit of jumping up in the air. The figure of high splashing water after they jump and land looks very powerful. While placed on a chopping board, koi never make a scene. Even when a chopping knife is placed in the body it stays without moving a muscle. The manner reminds Japanese people of a samurai with an air of composure.

Japanese people consider setting up one’s own house a grave affair. After building a house, many make a pond in the garden. Keeping koi in the garden makes the master of the house feel fulfilled. In this way, the refreshing atmosphere of koi meets the temperament of Japanese people. However, today not only the Japanese but also many people outside Japan are attracted by koi.

Koi are often compared to a natural big tree, while tropical fish can be compared to flowers in a flower garden and goldfish to a dwarf tree. The air of Nishikigoi is suitable to the king of ornamental fish. There are many words that describe Nishikigoi, such as heroic, tremendous, sturdy, magnificent, vigorous and so on. Their composed figure is a suitable object for painting and sculpture.

 

Koi and Japanese Culture

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The Background of Nishikigoi Born

The Background of Nishikigoi Born  There are so few literature existed about Nishikigoi breeding, it is however in the back of year A.D. 720 only Nihonsyoki stated that Keikou tennnou (Emperor)saw Nishikigoi in the Kukuriyano miya pond and also Suiko tennnou (Emperor) year of A.D. 620 that he saw the Nishikigoi swimming in the Pond of Sogano Umeko’s pond on the Garden as well.
1) Geographical environment
In the age of no road is well prepared for mass transportation the ship is utilized as one of the way to carry mass volume goods.
It is understood that the river running southern Niigata Prefecture Uono gawa river,for instance,also it is utilized for carring daily life goods and also it includes local products and fishes for commercial bases.
One of local town and city who has historiography museum, where you will be able to see ancient fishing tools and farming tools so that they tell some kind of trade among towns and cities in local district.
It is told also in the winter ship is useless so the river should have been crowded to carry / to pass the winter goods and salmon fishing vessel before comming winter/snow seasons.
Under these environments river fishes are treated as fresh fish and also sold as processed food to the other local region.
The origin of Nishikigoi,Yamakoshi hamlet is deeper snowy place in mountain area where faces to Kita Uonuma county and snow pile up to over five(5) meters,one one(1)meter or more snow falling over a night is often experienced.
In January the snow month,communication often disconnected even with adjacent villages.
The Nishikigoi for food is a valuable source of Protein under these severe meteorogical conditions and they are kept in a farming pond in the summer time for building seeds of Nishikigoi.
It is also so called TANADA (Terraced Paddy Fields) breeding, this way keep continuing from ancient time and from the year around 1970 the pond was converted to breeding pond for adjustment on the rice productions policy,it is thought the rice terrace breeding will be continued until such time the rice farming policy is changed.
The kind of fish is rich in Uono Gawa river which being start flowing Mt. Tanigawa dake summit in boarder of Gunnma and Niigata prefecture.
The quality of water is fine and just fit for breeding so the Nishikigoi captured is further developped and trade activities followed before snow falling.
The Koi for food is MAGOI and three different kind and the ASAGI MAGOI is majority in this region then TETSUMAGOI and DOROMAGOI can not be seen.
In this category,the relation with MAGOI is deeper and evolution from ASAGI MAGOI has longer history, by mutation in latter Edo era AOI KOI was born and this leads to ASAGI Koi.
BY way of Jyu Ni Daira Gawa river the origin of Uono Gawa river start flow and TETSUMAGOI carried to Yamakoshi hamlet wuth HI GOI products a key of born the KOHAKU.
It is referred to us that the word origin of UONO being AINU word of 500 ponds and it means the place with many ponds.
The era of war in Japan, Nitta Yoshisada changed the name to IONUMA and in the MEIJI era the district on Kita Uonuma ,Minami Uonuma and Naka Uonuma gunn were consolidated and governed as one.
The area in this region testifys the existence of many ponds such name as Wanagashima,Aosima,and Shimojima and local name that conveys word/name of island (Shima) and surrounding on them piling up of soil makes farming land and they lead living people around in longer history.
The stratums on the Uono Gawa vicinity is much of gravel so the ASAGI Koi conveyed by Uonuma fits to Yamakoshi county’s stratums and his quality of water and moreover it is said that the changement of the color tone is essential matter to live the fish having a factor to have imperfect protection color for which gives effectiveness on Nishikigoi’s born.

2) The history of Nishiki Goi.
The Nishikigoi ASAGI carried into Yamakoshi hamlet by Uonuma district being strange kind in this region and it was told that wealthy farmer wanted but due to clay quality of water the residual Blue color on the back close to white with no color is most of them which is quite differ from remaining on Uonuma district.
Due to this, ASAGI Koi tend to be breed together with KOI for food, it is however this leads accidental happening to born Nishikigoi.
The TETSUMAGOI was breeding for food in the farming pond in Yamakoshi hamlet,the HIGOI happened to born by close relation crossbreeding and being treated as present on a happy events.
It is however,around end of Edo era year 1818-1829 red color with white body among white colored MIZU ASAGI and HIGOI were emerged.
Based upon this ,ancestor of a kind of KOHAKU born in MEIJI era but on year 1830-1843 emerged NIshikigoi with half red color on the head and also red color around a mouth.
On year 1874-1875, Beni Hakusyu (variety) based light rouge type was emerged and it was dispersed locally.
On year 1899, Mr. Kunizou Hiroi, Yamakoshi Higasiyama village developed and fixed the kind,and its family is distributed in the local district,also improvement was carried and finally KOHAKU was completed.
And, moreover some activities were carried between KOHAKU and Koi with Aka Kuro pattern by close relation crossbreeding,and TAISYOU SANSYOKU,Taisyou era year 1917 and also KUROKO ,RAN GI were born which leaded the kind of Koi now a day.
On the way to improve the kind for the Nishikigoi,the German Koi accelerated its activities much. Fourty fishes with AISYU GURTEN kind were presented by Dr. Buruno Hopha of Fish Disease Laboratory in Munich Germany to Mr. Shinnnosuke Matsubara of Fishery Training Chef and they were given to Nagano prefecture mainly to improvement on KOi for food.
Of the two, Mr. Kichigorou Akiyama in Fukagawa Tokyo did crossbreeding it with ASAGI and got DOITSU(German)ASAGI this is called SYUU SUI and also by crossbreeding among SYUU SUI,KOHAKU and Taisyou SANSYOKU goes via decade of generation the KAGAMI UROKO and TAISYOU SANN SYOKU on the DOITSU KOHAKUwere developped.
The unique on the DOITSU (German) is that it has the strong heredity and being relayed to its type the KAGAMI UROKO, KAWAGOI with no scale and also so called WAGOI and its intermidiate type of YOROI GOI for which there are three types.
Whichever the body shape is contrast from WARINN and they are brought up for keeping superior body shape with efficient feeding developed for which the DOITSUGOI was essential KOI indeed and moreover All Japan Nishikigoi Promotion Association takes a role to supervise the Nishikigoi exhibition under the indipendent division.
Talking to the NISHIKIGOI after year 1945,the development on OUGON,KIN GINN RINN and its fixing of type is essential and can not be aside.
On year 1947, the new one with OUGON GOI features the chest fin/gold leaf was developped by Mr. Sawata Aoki,Yamakoshi Takezawa village(now Nagaoka city).
The show up of this Golden colored Koi gave astonishiment to breeder in Yamakoshi hamlet/village,it is however,evolution were advanced rapidly in 50 years.
The blood having golden colored Nishikigoi has now 26 varieties and the one who produced/developed could be memorized forever.
Also, person who did the settlement on gold and silver scale to promote Nishikigoi as splendid and elegantly would need recording in the history.
In year 1965, the Nishikigoi that has scales with gold colors and silver which have not have over neck thru tail was developed by Mr. Uedera.
Many of breeders have introduced Silver Scale,and made crossbreeding with KOHAKU, TAISYOU SANSYOKU,SYOWA SANSYOKU and further crossbreeding with golden system would accelerate evolution.
The activities on Nishikigoi to improve stands by settlement of a kind, introduction of German Koi to get Goldengoi and also settlement of Gold Silver scale,the history stands also by its application on them.
The kind tells that biological stand point,like as HIKARI MUJI system,all the child fishes born by the same mother Koi should have the same character classification, but in Nishikigoi world a kind classification is the name of heredity expression and it is not saying by a kind determination.
Presently,there are 82 different kind of Nishikigoi and breeders are pursuing splendid and elegent expression’s.
All Japan Nishikigoi Promotion Association has over 16 countries with about 70 professional members ,the Nishikigoi as Japan Nationa fishes being exported over 40 countries and we expect the Nishikigoi takes a role as visitor’s with peace mission over the world keeping good communication among peoples.

3) Nishikigoi Competitive Exhibition and its significance
The said competitive Exhibition was opened in order to exhibit the products by breeders in back year 1912,it was opened at elementary school at Kawaguchi town,Kita Uonuma Gunn in Niigata prefecture,in year 1914,Nishikigoi were exhibited in Tokyo as Taisyou Exhibition for which it is told us it is the first Nishikigoi exhibition in Japan wide.
By the trigger on the exhibition,breeding associations were establishied in Higashi Murayama, Takezawa Mura, and Ohta Mura village for which they run the exhibition yearly bases in turn.
It is also told that some of local activities such time that harvesting crops in autumn open small sized competitive exhibition.
It is thought after activities were took place any breeders could participate freely to such exhibition so the Nishikigoi breeding activities were spread over Niigata prefecture.
The Nishikigoi competition was not took place during war,but in order to make reconstruction many of local did the exhibition in parallel with reconstruction activities.
The first competitive exhibition in Niigata prefecture took place on year 1962, the Nagaoka city is one of frequent and the competition now count for 53rd as of year 2006.
The city who opened Nishikigoi Competitive Exhibition so far ranked Nagaoka city,Yamakoshi village (now Nagaoka city),and Kawaguchi town who runs 45 times and for Hiroshima prefecture with 42 times.
The exhibition runs prefecture bases so the breeder get together to demonstrate their products and have a meeting opportunities to information exchange.
As the other association, Zen Nippon sougou Nishikigoi competition by Zen Nippon Rinn Yuukai and also Zen Nippon Ai Rin Kai competition are also run so the Nishikigoi is now dispatching Japan national fishes with terminology of Nishikigoi are all Japanese word.
The competitive exhibition now opens frequently in overseas with Nishikigoi exported from Japan and also born oversea locally and got higher level of appreciation.

Author: Mr. Satoru Hoshino

More info at :

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CCRES AQUAPONICS promotion association


CCRES AQUAPONICS promotion association


ALL JAPAN NISHIKIGOI PROMOTION ASSOCIATION
ZNA : ZEN NIPPON AIRINKAI
・・Pref.・・

NARITA KOI FARM
ARITA NOUSAN
OHKI FISH FARM
ODAKAN
OMOSAKO NISHIKIGOI FARM
KATO FISH FARM
KANOH
KINKOHEN
KONISHI KOI FARM
TANI FISH FARM
Tedori Fishland
NARITA KOI FARM
BEPPU FISH FARM
MATSUE NISHIKIGOI CENTER
MATOGATA KANGYOEN
MUTOH KOI FARM
YOKOHAMA NISHIKIGOI
Hinago Yogyojo
Shinohara Nisikigoi

KAMIHATA FISH INDUSTRIES
Kyorin
NIHON REFRESH

SHIN NIHON KYOUIKUTOSHO
KINSAI SHUPPAN

GOLDEN KOI CENTRE
PAN INTERCORP
KOI WATER BARN
海港錦鯉企業集團 Harbour Koi Group
‘tviske
Koi san Europe
SAMURAI KOI CENTRE
Thai Nippon Fish Farm
Mungkorn intercorpration
KOI CASTLE

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42nd All Japan Combined Koi Show by CCRES AQUAPONICS

CCRES AQUAPONICS

promotes

42nd All Japan Combined Koi Show(2011)

Grand
Champion

90bu Kohaku

Kris Kasemsarn (Thailand)

Parent M Kohaku
handling by Thai Nippon Fish Farm

Mature
Champion

70bu Sanke

Didi Wikara (Indonesia)

Parent  Hiryu
handling by Samurai Koi Center

Young
Champion
40bu Kohaku

Edy Yonathan (Indonesia)

handling by Narita Koi Farm
Samurai Koi Center

Kokugyo Prize
85bu Kohaku

David&Kelvin (Singapore)
Parent  Miss Japan
March, 2007 Auction koi
handling by Narita Koi Farm
Max Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
80bu Kohaku

Mitsuzo Kaneko (Nagano)

Parent  Yamato
handling by Nagashima Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
70bu Kohaku

譚 永権 (China)

Parent  Zipangu
handling by Narita Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
65bu Sanke

P&T (Thailand)

Parent Hiryu
December, 2010 Auction koi
handling by Narita Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
65bu Male Kohaku

Saburo Iizuka
(Yamanashi)

handling by Narita Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
60bu Kohaku

Tadashi Nakanishi
(Hiroshiama)
Parent Yamato
March, 2010 Auction koi
handling by Yasuai Gyoen

Kokugyo Prize
25bu Sanke

Mr Fujimoto (Aichi)

i
handling by Narita Koi Farm

Sakura Prize
Best in Variety
85bu Hikari Utsuri

Jonkie Budiman (Indonesia)

December, 2008 Auction koi
handling by Samurai Koi Center

Best in Variety
85bu Sanke

Jitsuro Takagi (Fukuoka)

Parent Rainbow
October, 2007 Auction koi
handling by Narita Koi Farm

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Treatment of Nitrite Toxicity – CCRES AQUAPONICS

Why do some fish remain hardy and almost bullet-proof and others die at the slightest disruption to their routine?
We have a fish well suited to Aquaponics called the Murray Cod that has the reputation of being the sort of fish that dies at the most inopportune time in backyard aquaponics systems.

Many people avoid stocking this fine eating fish in systems for that very reason.
Not all fish are the same and some fish are finally tuned specimens that are unable to tolerate the ups and down of wild pH swings and sudden surges in biological activity in recirculated aquaponics systems.

The Murray Cod is one such specimen. Having said that, experienced aquaponics enthusiasts who monitor the chemistry of their water regularly have successfully grown Murray Cod right out to maturity without problem. Its a fine dining fish but there are some guidelines to growing these fish successfully out.
So how do you get the best of health out of your fish? What are the aquaponic secrets the pros use to grow their fish well?

Murray Cod

Nitrite Toxicity

New aquaponic system are more prone to the shock of a spike in ammonia especially if the beneficial bacteria have not had a chance to establish themselves. These natural occurring bacteria commonly need a few weeks for the system to cycle before your fish are introduced. The Ammonia spike is closely followed by a Nitrite spike which most fish can tolerate in low dosage.
However Nitrite toxicity is not limited to just new systems. Over feeding of fish and allowing the feed to settle to the bottom of the tank can result in a secondary surge resulting in sudden shocks to the well being of the fish. The plants will do just fine and keep growing. But the fish might be affected and start to die.

Nitrogen Cycle

A sudden surge in Nitrite can also occur in anaerobic grow beds.
The media in the lower layers is too dense with fish muck. Aerobic bacteria (the oxygen loving kind) is unable to colonize this segment and a meaner strain of bacteria able to live in stagnant no oxygen conditions begins to thrive. Like an engine in reverse this strain of bacteria begins to break the muck converting the Nitrate (the good stuff that plants like to eat) back to Nitrite.

Nitrite toxicity is also known as Brown Blood disease. The blood in the fish turns brown because it cannot absorb the oxygen into the blood stream. The fish are weakened and begin to suffer. Stressed fish struggle to keep alive by frantic gill movement, loss of balance and frantic effort to suck more oxygen into their system by gulping on the surface of the water.

The Danger SignsHealthy fish are sprightly and dart around the tank at speed when startled. Fish that exhibit Nitrite toxicity will be sluggish and exhibit some of these tell tale signs.

  • Rapid gill movement
  • Fish begin to gasp for air at the water surface
  • Fish stay limp and listless near water outlets
  • Tan or brown gills
A healthy aquaponics system shows no Nitrite activity (blue)

Fish that have been exposed to low levels of Nitrite for prolonged periods of time will eventually deteriorate in condition as secondary diseases begin to make an appearance. Fin rot, ich and bacterial infections suddenly occur resulting in a spiral string of sudden fish deaths.

Monitoring your system

Try and keep your aquaponic system clean of uneaten food stuff floating at the bottom of the tank. Make sure you have enough bio-filtration (grow beds) to strip impurities out of the water when recirculating the water. The water should never look foamy and cloudy. Make sure your pump is sufficient in size and capable of turning over the water in the fish tank at least four or five times per hour in volume capacity. Make sure you regularly test the water for Nitrite. Testing for Nitrite is very simple. A $40 dollar API Master test kit will supply all the equipment necessary to conduct the test. Five drops of Nitrite test solution in a vial of fish water will instantly tell you the condition of your water by the colour. A healthy system will turn blue. A bright scarlet colour spells trouble ahead.

So how do we combat this problem and what are the solutions we can employ to grow healthy fish?

In an emergency situation, partial water changes will eliminate the Nitrite – after you’ve eliminated any food found at the bottom of the tank. The addition of salt has a beneficial influence on the fish and will reduce the influence of the Nitrite to strip oxygen from the blood cells. Increase the aeration going to the fish. If necessary an extra aerator with plenty of air bubbling in the water will help keep the fish alive.

Treatment of Nitrite Toxicity
  • Change the Water
  • Add salt
  • Stop Feeding
  • Remove uneaten food.
  • Clean the tank
  • Increase aeration

Keeping your system clean and not overfeeding your fish will generally keep your system running fine and healthy. Regular small feeds throughout the day are preferable to sudden large feeds. Fish sometimes go off their feed for a day or two. Thats okay and nothing to be concerned about. Remove uneaten food. Observe the general tone and condition of your fish.More info at solarserdar@gmail.com.

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KOI Fish Varieties by CCRES AQUAPONICS

CCRES AQUAPONICS

Many people keep koi fish in ponds or tanks, but only some can easily identify the types of Koi that are swimming around in them. In this video, we show 38 different types of Koi, including some rare varieties. Use this video to help you learn how to identify Koi when you see them.

Koi types included in this video:
Kohaku
Sanke
Showa
Shiro Utsuri
Hi Utsuri
Ki Utsuri
Kin Shiro Utsuri
Asagi
Shusui
Platinum Ogon
Ai Goromo
Budo Goromo
Sumi Goromo
Yamato Nishiki
Kujaku
Doitsu Hariwake
Kikusui
Gin Matsuba
Aka Matsuba
Ochiba Shigure
Kumonryu
Beni Kumonryu
Beni Kin Kikokuryu
Benigoi
Kabuto Ogon
Haijiro
Aka Haijiro
Chagoi
Kigoi
Midorigoi
Soragoi
Cha Utsuri
Tancho Goromo
Tancho Goshiki
Tancho Kohaku
Tancho Sanke
Tancho Showa
Tancho Yamato Nishiki

Varieties that are missing from this video:
Ki Matsuba
Bekko Varieties
Orenji Ogon

More info at: solarserdar@gmail.com

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Aquaponics Case Studies

Case Studies

The Able Project, Wakefield

case1

The ABLE project provides an outdoor learning facility for young people whose needs are not met in mainstream education as well as community service participants. The ABLE project combines areas of willow coppice, with a wood chip biomass boiler, a recirculation aquaculture system growing tilapia, carp, sturgeon and catfish, out door vegetable plots, an orchard, beehives, a BMX track and aquaponics greenhouses to provide an interdiscipli nary learning environment catering for a wide variety of interests.

Aquaponics UK designed, supplied, helped build, and commissioned the aquaponics greenhouse systems as well as providing training and continued support.

The Old Mills Project, Elgin

case2

The Old Mills project is designed to produce between 10 15 tonnes of tilapia a year as well as consistent year round production from 600m2 of climate controlled aq uaponics greenhouses.

The site itself includes a water mill that dates back to 1010AD and in the 1200’s was owned by Macbeth. The watermill will be central to the projects aims towards sustainability producing electricity from the three lades that flow through the site, to power pumps and supple mentary lighting.

Learning, employment opportunities and training will be core values of the project as a whole and the site will also include a farm shop, a visitor center and function as a participatory resource for the local community and visitors alike.

Urban Aquaponics, Shoreham

case3

Aquaponics UK, designed an urban aquaponics system for a household in Shoreham Sussex, the system is de signed to incorporate their requirements for fresh herbs, salad crops and duck’s eggs as well as fish for ornamen tal purposes.

The system is also intended to provide a learning re source for afterschool clubs and classes as well as dem onstrating sustainable urban food production.

Commercial trial system, Colchester

case4

A trial system growing oriental herbs and tilapia is being used as a proof of concept for a larger commercial system which will when operational, supply high value London restaurants through the Low Hub food distribution chain.

The Able Project, Heckmonwike

case5

Aquaponics UK has been working with the ABLE project and a Sustainable Aquaculture MSc student from the University of Stirling to develop a proposal for the integration of aquaponics into the redevelopment of a brown field site. The project would create community assets, recycle local green wastes, providing training and employment and sustainably produce food for local consumers.

Sanford Housing Coop, New Cross, London

case6

Aquaponics UK are advising members of the Sanford housing cooperative on adopting aquaponics to meet the salad and fresh herb requirements of the 130 strong community.

The buildings on site are currently being heated by biomass boilers and solar thermal systems and aquaponics is seen as a further way in which the community can lower their footprint and produce more of their own food.

Aquaponics in schools with the ABLE project.

case7

Aquaponics UK hosted an Erasmus student from the Basque country for three months alongside an MSc student from Stirling. During this time, the students worked with staff from both the ABLE project, ABLE to Build and Aquaponics UK to develop a number of small scale demonstration systems and helped install them in a variety of schools, colleges and offices across Yorkshire under the ABLE Aquaponics scheme.

Over the same period we also collectively promoted aquaponics at the 2009 Harrogate Flower Show and received a great deal of interest from schools, community projects, garden designers and growing enthusiasts alike.

Aquaponics at Stirling University

case13

Aquaponics UK designed and supplied a low energy lighting system for the research greenhouses and their use in bumble bee research. The installation of a variety of aquaponic systems around the institute of aquaculture is in it’s planning phase.

The installations will provide both intriguing and captivating learning resources and the will be used to demonstrate how the architectural and design elements of aquaponics can be combined with hard science, to provide diverse and highly productive food growing systems for all involved.

The institute of Aquaculture at Stirling and more specifically the Systems Research Group, has been an extremely valuable pool of knowledge, ideas, contacts and has been instrumental in the establishment of Aquaponics UK.

Charlie Price from Aquaponics UK has also been working through the Institute with CEFAS to provide information to the growing UK tilapia industry both on aquaponics and renewable energy systems, and in Oct09 will give a presentation to key stakeholders including representatives from DEFRA on the role aquaponics can play in the future of our collective food supplies.

Birmingham Regeneration Plan, CAT

Aquaponics UK has been advising a sustainable architecture student on a visionary proposal for the redevelopment of an industrial site in Birmingham. The proposal includes the reuse of industrial buildings into food production systems and the site being made into a functional and aesthetically pleasing space for the communities involved. The student is working with the Center for Alternative Technology in Wales and the project is in the preliminary design and concept stage.

International

Aquaponics in Afghanistan

case8

We are currently supporting an initiative in Afghanistan, being coordinated by US marines based in the Helmand province. The initiative is aimed at providing aquaponics resources for training local villagers and school children and is ultimately viewed as a viable high value alternative to opium production.

Aquaponics UK provided free equipment to the project with the support of Hydrogarden and Oase, as well as continued support to ensure the project reaches its full potential. A demonstration farm incorporating aquaponics is planned in Lashkar Gar with the support of USAID. Aquaponics UK, along with a variety of stakeholders, will work together to ensure methodologies are adopted appropriately and to the direct benefit of the Afghan people.

WOTR, India

case9

Aquaponics UK are working with “Pathways to Empowerment” within the WOTR project programme. Huge problems exist in many of India’s rural communities in which the WOTR work, due to a variety of issues ranging from soil infertility to the over extraction of ground water resulting in, amongst other things, poorer livelihoods for the farming communities and some alarming suicide rates (183,000 in the last 15 years).

WOTR have implemented 728 watershed projects, in 996 villages and impacting on the lives of 740,000 people across India. We are currently in the early stages of helping to design a variety of systems for a demonstration farm at the WOTR center.

Baobab Farm, The Haller Foundation, Kenya

case10

One of our newest staff members, Rebecca Bainbridge, is working with the Haller Foundation at Baobab Farm. Rebecca, under a scholarship from Aquaponics UK, will work with staff from the Baobab Farm from Sept-Dec 09 to develop household scaled aquaponics systems suitable for sub Saharan applications.

The Baobab farm is based in an old quarry and provides a unique demonstration farm exhibiting integration on many levels and providing a training facility for local farmers. We will keep you informed of Becky’s progress on the website in the coming months.

Aquaponics In Uganda

We are working with an organisations in Uganda to develop a commercial scale aquaponics farm producing tomatoes and around 5 tonnes of tilapia per year.

The system is designed to act as a demonstration and training facility as well as exhibiting the commercially viable nature of aquaponics in areas where soil fertility and water scarcity are an issue.

University of the Virgin Islands, USA

case12

The University of the Virgin Islands was the first academic institution to conduct prolonged and detailed research in the field of aquaponics. UVI has a proven track record and runs yearly short courses in Aquaponics and green water systems.

The founder and director of Aquaponics UK, Charlie Price, spent some time at UVI back in 2006 and also completed their short course. Over the coming few years Aquaponics UK through the Institute of Aquaculture at Stirling, aims to develop research projects with UVI to develop our knowledge base further.

Katho University, Belgium

Aquaponics UK have been helping advise staff at Katho University of the setting up of a small scale trial system growing salad crops and tilapia. The system is intended as a first step towards developing educational aquaponics within the university. Progress is ongoing.

These are just some of our recent and current projects, and are listed in order to give you an idea of the range of applications and work that we do. There are numerous other people and projects to which we provide information and advice, and in time we aim to provide detailed information on the case studies in order from us all to learn from each other experiences, to share ideas and to collectively move things forward.

More info : solarserdar@gmail.com

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CCRES Application Tips

CCRES Application Tips

Net Pots

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Net Pot Example 1 Net Pot Example 2 Net Pot Example 3
Hold seedling at the top of the pot. (Rinse dirt from roots if started in soil.) Carefully add Expanded Shale around the roots to the top of the pot. Moisten the Expanded Shale to prevent the roots from drying.
Flood & Drain (Ebb & Flow) NFT
Flood & Drain Example NFT Example
Flood nutrient water every 1-1.5 hours for 10-15 minutes. Flood more frequently under hot conditions. Insert wick while adding Expanded Shale. Nutrient water should continuously flow over wick.

Grow Beds

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Grow Bed Example 1 Grow Bed Example 2 Grow Bed Example 3
Pour Expanded Shale into grow bed and level. To reduce evaporation and algae growth, keep maximum flood level 1″ below the surface. Like traditional soil, dig a hole and place seedling in hole. (Rinse dirt from roots if started in soil.) Carefully backfill hole. If seeding directly, following seeding instructions on package. Keep Expanded Shale moist until roots develop or seeds sprout. Flood nutrient water every 1-1.5 hours for 10-15 minutes. Flood more frequently under hot conditions.

Vertical Towers

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Filling Growing Tower Grow Tower Seedling Filling Growing Tower
Add Expanded Shale to the base of the growing tower. Place a filter around drain to prevent clogging. Insert seedling and carefully place Expanded Shale around the roots. Continue adding growing media to the next level.
Step 4 Step 5 Notes
Watering Seedling Growing Tower Flood
  • Continue watering plants until roots develop and can get enough moisture from the flood cycle.
  • Occasionally check towers for root-bound plants and clogged drain.
Moisten the Expanded Shale at each seedling to prevent the roots from drying. Flood nutrient water every 1-1.5 hours for 10-15 minutes. Flood more frequently under hot conditions.

Other Notes:

  • Expanded Shale will retain moisture in its pockets and fisures. Many people have found that it is not necessary to run their systems at night.
  • The above diagrams are generic samples and don’t pertain to any particular setup. Every system is different depending on the environmental conditions, plants, and nutrients.
  • Flood and drain times can vary depending on environmental conditions or sizes/types of plants.
  • Do you have a question about using Expanded Shale? Please contact us on solarserdar@gmail.com
  • CCRES AQUAPONICS
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