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ALL ABOUT ALGAE AND THE ORIGIN OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS

ALGAE AND THE ORIGIN OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Life began about 3.5 billion years ago in the oceans with the appearance of prokaryotes.

The oldest reliable date for the appearance of the eukaryotes is about 1.9 billion years ago, when the first members of a group of unicellular organisms called acritarchs appear in the fossil record  in China.

Acritarchs …
Are probably the remains of a group of ancient eukaryotes
Were plankton
Some resemble dinoflagellates while others resemble green algae
Their relationship among living organisms is uncertain

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
http://www.geo.arizona.edu/palynology/ppacrtrc.html

Eukaryotic cells came into existence probably by a process called endosymbiosis.

Mitochondria arose first, as an early eukaryotic cell engulfed but did not digest a bacterium capable of aerobic respiration. The two organisms lived together, one inside the other, and both benefited.

Fungi, plants and animals are all probably derived from protists.

Fungi and animals are eukaryotes organisms that lack plastids.

Another line of evolution, one that had mitochondria, entered another endosymbiosis with a photosynthetic cyanobacterium, which later evolved into a chloroplast.

This line gave rise to algae including green algae, which in turn produced true plants, the embryophytes.

Several clades exist that still have some extant members whose plastids have numerous prokaryotic characters. Chloroplasts of red algae especially resemble cyanobacteria.

The kingdom Protista contains eukaryotes that cannot be assigned with certainty to other kingdoms

The kingdom Protista is an artificial grouping and classification does not represent evolutionary relationships.

This kingdom is also known as Protoctista.

Protists covered in this course are those photosynthetic organisms that function like plants in ecosystems.

They are the “grass of the ocean”.

Protists to be studied include:

Algae: photosynthetic organisms studied by phycologists.
Slime molds and oomycetes: heterotrophic organisms that are traditionally studied by mycologists, although these organisms are not fungi.

Another group of protists not included in this course are the ciliates, flagellates, and other heterotrophs.

The phylogenetic relationship among the different groups of protists is controversial, e.g. the relationship between the green and brown algae.

ORIGIN OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS

DNA Structure

In prokaryotes, proteins do not surround the DNA. Its numerous negative charges are neutralized by calcium ions. In eukaryotes, the DNA is packaged with histones forming nucleosomes. The DNA condenses into chromosomes.

The genome is a short circle of DNA containing about 3,000 genes, and lack introns. In eukaryotes, the DNA molecule carries thousands of genes. The chromosomes of eukaryotes have a homologous and never occur as a single chromosome in normal circumstances. Eukaryotic genes have introns, which do not code for any type of RNA.

Nuclear structure and division

Prokaryotic cells lack nucleus. The DNA circle is attached to the plasma membrane. As the cell grows and the plasma membrane expands, the two daughter DNA molecules are separated.

The nuclei of plants, animals and fungi are very similar in structure, metabolism, mitosis and meiosis. Apparently these three clades diverged after the nucleus had achieved a high level of complexity.

In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is found in the nucleus.

The nucleus is surround by two double-layered membranes with nuclear pores.

A nucleolus is present.

The nuclei are typically haploid or diploid. Mitosis assures that each daughter cell receives one of each type of chromosome to maintain the species number of chromosomes.

Meiosis usually occurs as part of sexual reproduction. The pairing of paternal and maternal homologous chromosomes, followed by crossing over and genetic recombination assures genetic diversity.

Some groups of organisms have a unique mitotic process that may represent an earlier divergence in the history of eukaryotes.

Organelles

Prokaryotes lack membrane bound organelles. They have ribosomes and storage granules, which are not-membrane bound organelles.

Photosynthetic prokaryotes have folded plasma membrane that projects into the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles that compartmentalize the cell and perform different functions simultaneously.

Ribosomes of prokaryotes are 70S, being smaller and denser than the 80S ribosomes of eukaryotes.

Flagella and cilia are uniform in eukaryotes having a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules. A few prokaryotes have flagella, and never have the 9+2 arrangement. They are not composed of microtubules or tubulin.

Endosymbiotic Theory.

This hypothesis attempts to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

In 1905, K. C. Mereschkowsky had speculated that plastids were prokaryotes living inside eukaryotic cells.

In the 1960s, plastids and mitochondria were discovered to have their own DNA and ribosomes, both with prokaryotic features.

Plastids and mitochondria divide similarly to prokaryotes.
They lack microtubules.
Their DNA is small and circular, contains a small number of genes, and is organized like prokaryotic DNA.
Their ribosomes are sensitive to the same antibiotics that interfere with prokaryotic ribosomes.

Chloroplasts and mitochondria could have originated from bacteria that were phagocytized by a large heterotrophic prokaryote.

Mitochondria could have derived from an aerobic prokaryote that was ingested but not digested.
Chloroplasts could have been derived from a photosynthetic prokaryote, probably a cyanobacterium.
Chloroplasts originated several times.
An endosymbionts is an organism that lives within another dissimilar organism.

These bacteria were then adopted as endosymbionts rather than being digested.

With time these endosymbionts became simplified and specialized to perform only photosynthesis or respiration.

The DNA of the endosymbionts and many or its functions were transferred to the nuclear DNA.

The nuclear membrane could have originated from an infolding of the plasma membrane of a prokaryote.

Prokaryotes have their single circular chromosome attached to the plasma membrane.

Infolding of other portions of the plasma membrane may have given origin to the ER and Golgi complex.

Primary endosymbiosis gave rise to a clade containing red algae, green algae and a small group called glaucophytes.

Glaucophyte chloroplasts still produce a thin film of cyanobacterial wall between themselves and the cell.
Red algal chloroplasts have chlorophyll a but not b, and the cyanobacterial pigment phycobilin, organized into particles called phycobilisomes.
Green algal cells do not have traces of bacterial wall or phycobilin, but instead have chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid accessory pigments, all of which are similar to chloroplasts in true plants.

Chloroplasts have chlorophyll a but not bacteriochlorophyll. This suggests that the cyanobacteria and not photosynthetic bacteria is the ancestor of chloroplasts.

Prochlorophytes are a type of cyanobacteria that have both chlorophyll a and b, and lack phycobilins.

The prochlorophytes Prochloron and Prochlorothryx are closely related to chloroplasts and are thought to have a common ancestor. Prochloron exists as an obligate endosymbiont of marine invertebrates called ascidians.

Secondary endosymbiosis happened when a eukaryote engulfed another eukaryote.

Euglenoids originated when a eukaryote engulfed a green alga. The green alga has become so reduced that only the chloroplast remains.

Heterokonts have two different flagella of different length and ornamentation. They appear to be monophyletic.

One flagellum is long and ornamented with distinctive hairs (tinsels).
The other flagellum is shorter and smooth (whiplash).

Heterokonts are also known as stramenopiles.

Molecular sequence and these unique flagella provide evidence for the close relationship of oomycetes, chrysophytes, diatoms, and brown algae.

They were involved in one or several endosymbiosis with entire cells of red algae.

Heterokonts appear to have diversified and then some entered into secondary endosymbiosis and became photosynthetic, whereas others did not. Lack of chloroplasts in these heterokonts is an ancestral condition.

Pigmented heterokonts may have originated through one or several secondary endosymbioses.

Most pigmented heterokonts have chlorophyll a and c, lack phycobilins, and have four chloroplast membranes instead of two as in red algae, green algae, glaucophytes and plants. Some have the remnant of red alga nucleus called the nucleopmorph, which still contains a nuclear envelope and a few genes.

These cells have four types of DNA; heterokont eukaryotic nucleus, red alga eukaryotic nucleomorph, chloroplast prokaryotic DNA circles, a mitochondrion prokaryotic DNA circles.

Types of cytokinesis

Several types of cytokinesis occur in algae.

Cytokinesis may occur by furrowing or by cell plate formation.

In almost all algae with wall, cytokinesis is similar to that of plants.

In some green algae, the phycoplast consists of microtubules oriented parallel to the plane where the new wall will form, which is perpendicular to the orientation of the spindle.

Embryophytes arose from green algae that divide with a phragmoplast rather than a phycoplast.

CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS GROUPS OF ALGAE

The following notes are base on Raven et al, 8th Edition, and Mauseth.

DIVISION CHLOROPHYTA

Also known as green algae.

A diverse group of about 17,000 species.

Most chlorophytes are aquatic, but some green algae can live on the surface of snow, on tree trunks, in soils, or symbiotically with protozoans, hydras or lichen-forming fungi.

Chlorophytes range in size from microscopic to quite large: unicellular, colonies, branched and unbranched filaments, thalloid.

Green algae have chlorophylls a and b and store starch as a food reserve inside their plastids.

Most green algae have firm cell walls composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and peptic substances.

The flagellated reproductive cells of some green algae resemble that of plant sperm.

Based on studies of mitosis, cytokinesis, reproductive cells and molecular similarities, the green algae have been divided into several classes. Three of these classes will be studied here:

Body construction in Green Algae

Motile colonies: aggregation of unspecialized cells; flagella present: this is considered to be an ancestral condition, a plesiomorphy.
Nonmotile colonies: similar to the motile colonies but cells have lost their flagella; this is considered an apomorphy.
Filamentous body: cells divide transversally, but sometimes producing a branch; some parts of their body may become specialized, e.g. holdfast for attachment.
Membranous body: cell division occurs in two planes forming a sheet of cells.
Parenchymatous body: cell division occurs in three planes; cells are interconnected by plasmodesmata and true parenchyma tissue is formed.
Coenocytic or siphonous body: karyokinesis occurs without cytokinesis resulting in a large multinucleate cell; the cell remains unspecialized.

Life cycles in Green Algae

The alternation of heteromorphic generations in angiosperms can be traced to green algae.

Monobiontic species consists of only one free-living generation. In some, the haploid phase represents the individual; in others, it is the diploid phase.

In dibiontic species, both stages of the alternation of generations are multicellular

The gametophyte is haploid and the sporophyte diploid.
The two phases may be isomorphic (similar) or heteromorphic (different body plan).
Sporophytes produce spores in sporangia (sing. sporangium).
The sporophyte usually produces spores by meiosis, but some by mitosis – these spores are diploid and produce a new sporophyte in a form of asexual reproduction.
Some gametophytes produce spores by mitosis, which develop into new gametophytes – asexual reproduction.
Gametes are produced in gametangia.
Gametes may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous.

Cytokinesis in the Chlorophyta

The following notes are based on Raven et al.

The classes Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae form a phycoplast during cell division, which is system of microtubules parallel to the plane of cell division.

Nuclear envelope persists during mitosis.
Mitotic spindle forms and then disappears at telophase.
Daughter nuclei are separated by the phycoplast in which the microtubules lie perpendicular to the axis of division.
The role of the phycoplast is presumed to ensure that the cleavage furrow will pass between the two daughter nuclei.
Cytokinesis is by cell plate formation or development of a furrow.
The Chlorophyceae form four narrow bands of microtubules known as flagellar roots, which are associated with the flagellar basal bodies (centrioles) of the flagella.
The Ulvophyceae have a persistent spindle but do not develop a phragmoplast or cell plate.

The class Charophyceae does not form a phycoplast but develop a phragmoplast like land plants.

Formation of a phragmoplast, which is parallel-aligned microtubules and microfilaments at right angles to the forming cell plate, is to generate a guiding and supporting matrix for the deposition of new cell plate.

The phragmoplast is a system of microtubules, microfilaments and ER vesicles that is oriented perpendicular to the plane of division.
It serves in the assembling of the cell plate and the cell wall.
As the cell plate matures in the center of the phragmoplast, the phragmoplast and developing cell plate grow outward until they reach the of the dividing cell. See pages 64-67in Raven et al.
Spindle is persistent through mitosis.
Cytokinesis is by cell plate formation or furrowing, just like bryophytes and vascular plants.

The flagellar root system of microtubules provides anchorage to the flagellum.
The multilayered structure is often associated with one of the flagellar roots.
The type of multilayered structure is often an important taxonomic character.
The flagellar root had multilayered structure of the Charophyceae is very similar to that found in the sperm of bryophytes and some vascular plants.

Class Chlorophyceae

There are approximately 350 genera and 2650 living species of chlorophyceans.

Mostly freshwater species.

They come in a wide variety of shapes and forms, including free-swimming unicellular species, colonies, non-flagellate unicells, filaments, and more.

Cytokinesis may be by furrowing or by cell plate formation.

When flagellate, the flagella are apical and equal in length, and directed forward.

They also reproduce in a variety of ways, though all have a haploid life cycle, in which only the zygote cell is diploid.

The zygote will often serve as a resting spore, able to lie dormant though potentially damaging environmental changes such as desiccation.

Chlamydomonas is motile unicellular chlorophyte.

Two equal flagella.
One chloroplast with a red photosensitive eyespot, or stigma, aids in the detection of light.
Chloroplast has a pyrenoid, which is typically surrounded by a shell of starch.
The cell wall is made of a carbohydrate and protein complex inside which is the plasma membrane; there is no cellulose in the cell wall.
Reproduction is both sexually and asexually.
See the Life Cycle diagram on page 331 in Ravel et al.

Volvox is a motile colony.

The colony consists of a hollow sphere called the spheroid, made up of a single layer of 500 to 60,000 vegetative, biflagellated cells that serve primarily in photosynthesis.
Specialized reproductive cells undergo repeated mitoses to form many-celled spheroids, which are released after producing an enzyme that dissolves the parental matrix.
Sexual reproduction is oogamous.

Chlorococcum is a unicellular, non-motile chlorophyte.

Found in the soil.
Reproduces by forming biflagellated zoospores.
Sexual reproduction happens by the fusion of biflagellated gametes, which fuse in pairs to form zygotes.
Meiosis is zygotic.

Hydrodictyon is a non-motile colony.

The individual cells are cylindrical and initially uninucleated and eventually becoming multinucleated.
The cells form a hollow cylinder.
At maturity, the cells contain a large, central vacuole surrounded by the cytoplasm containing the nuclei and a large reticulate chloroplast with numerous pyrenoids.
It reproduces asexually through the formation of many uninucleated, biflagellated zoospores.
The zoospores are not released but form an arrangement within the parent cell, then lose their flagella and form the components of a mini-net.
Sexual reproduction is isogamous and meiosis is zygotic.

There are also filamentous and parenchymatous Chlorophyceae, e.g. Oedogonium, Stigeoclonium, and Fritschiella.

Class Ulvophyceae

Mostly marine algae with a few representatives in fresh water.

Filamentous septate, filamentous coenocytic (siphonous) or thalloid

Filamentous species have large multinucleate cells separated by septa; some may be netlike others straight chains. They have a netlike chloroplast.
Siphonous algae are characterized by very large, branched, coenocytic cells
Thalloid species have a single nucleus and chloroplast.

Majority has one plane of division, unlike the Ulva with three planes

Spindle and nuclear envelope persist through mitosis.

Flagellated cells may have two, four or many flagella directed forward

Alternation of generations with a haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte.

They have sporic meiosis or a diploid, dominant life history involving gametic meiosis.

Cladophora is a filamentous septate ulvophyte.

It forms large blooms in fresh water.
There are both marine and fresh water species of Cladophora.
Each cell is multinucleated and has one single, peripheral, net-like chloroplast with many pyrenoids. Marine species have an alternation of isomorphic generations.
Most of the fresh water species do not have an alternation of generations.

Ulva consists of a two-cell thick flat thallus that may grow up to a meter in length.
It is known as sea lettuce.
Ulva is anchored to the substrate by a holdfast produced by extensions of the cells at its base.
The cells of the thallus are uninucleate and have one chloroplast.
Ulva is anisogamous and has an alternation of isomorphic generations.

Codium and Halimeda are examples of siphonous marine algae.

Very large, coenocytic cells that are rarely septate characterize siphonous algae.
Cell walls are only produced during reproduction.
Siphonous green algae are diploid, with gametes being the only haploid stage.
Halimeda has calcified cell walls.

Examples to study:
Thalloid: Ulva.
Siphonous: Acetabularia, Codium, Ventricaria, Halimeda.
Filamentous septate: Cladophora.

Class Charophyceae

Growth habit may be unicellular, filamentous, colonial or thalloid (parenchymatous).

Considered closely related to plants due to structural, biochemical and genetic similarities.

The orders Coleochaetales and Charales have plant-like characteristics. These include:

Asymmetrical flagellated cells always have two flagella.
Breakdown of the nuclear envelope at mitosis
Persistent spindles or phragmoplast at cytokinesis.
Presence of phytochrome, flavonoids and chemical precursors of the cuticle.
Other molecular features.

Spirogyra is an unbranched, filamentous charophyte.

Found in fresh water, often forming blooms.
Cells uninucleate.
Filaments are surround by a watery sheath.
Chloroplasts one or more, flat ribbon-like with numerous pyrenoids.
Asexual reproduction occurs by fragmentation.
There are no flagellated cells at any stage of its life cycle.
Sexual reproduction takes place through the formation of a conjugation tube.
The cytoplasm of one cells migrates to the other cell and function as isogametes.
A thick wall of sporopollenin surrounds the zygote.
Meiosis is zygotic.

Desmids are a large group of fresh water charophytes.

Lack flagellated cells.
Desmid cells consist of two sections of semi-cells joined by a narrow constriction.
Sexual reproduction is similar to Spirogyra.

Two orders of Charophyceae, the Coleochaetales and the Charales, resemble bryophytes and vascular plants.

They have plant-like microtubular phragmoplast operating during cytokinesis.
They are oogamous and their sperm are ultrastructurally similar to those of bryophytes.

Morphological and molecular studies indicate that an early basal split in the green algae gave rise to a chlorophyte clade containing most of the green algae, and a streptophyte clade that includes the Coleochaetales and Charales, zygnematalean green algae, and land plants (bryophytes and vascular plants).

Coleochaetales

Include branched filamentous and discoid genera.
Growth occurs at the apex or peripheral cells, and the plant is anchored in mud or silt by translucent rhizoids.
Coleochaete has uninucleate vegetative cells that each contains one large chloroplast with an embedded pyrenoid.
It reproduces asexually by zoospores that are formed singly within cells.
Sexual reproduction is oogamous.
The zygotes remain attached to the parental thallus, which stimulate the growth of a layer of cells that covers the zygotes.
These parental cells have wall ingrowths are believed to function in nutrient transport between gametophyte and sporophyte.

Charales

The thallus in some stoneworts is encrusted with white lime, giving a crusty texture (hence the name brittlewort).
The Charales exhibit apical growth.
The thallus is differentiated into nodal and internodal regions.
The nodal regions have plasmodesmata.
Sperms are produced in multicellular antheridia.
Eggs are produced in oogonia enclosed by several long, tubular, twisted dells.
Sperms are the only flagellated cells in their life cycles.
Zygotes are surround by sporopollenin.

Examples to study:

Filamentous: Spirogyra, desmids.
Thalloid: Coleochaete.
Branched filamentous: Chara

Division Rhodophyta

Red algae are mostly marine organisms found in tropical and warm waters. Fewer than 100 species occur in fresh water. Some occur in cooler regions of the world.

Many species are found in very deep water.

There are 4100 to 6000 known species.

Red algae are mostly structurally complex multicellular organisms with very few species unicellular or microscopic filaments.

They may grow attached to the substrate, submerged vegetation and a few are free floating.

Unique Features Of Cells

Their cell wall lack plasmodesmata but they have pit connections. It is not known if these pits are used for intercellular transport.

Red algae do not produce flagellated cells, and lack centrioles.

Most red algae cell walls are made of cellulose microfibrils that are densely interwoven and are held together by mucilage.

The mucilage is a sulfonated polymer of galactose such as agar and carageenan.

Some species called coralline algae, deposit CaCO3 in their walls.

Coralline algae play an important role in coral reef building.

Many produce toxic terpenoids that deter herbivores.

Food reserves are stored as floridean starch in granules.

Floridean starch resembles glycogen.

Chloroplasts are reddish (rhodoplasts) and contain chlorophyll a, α and β-carotene, accessory water-soluble pigments called phycobilins (phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, allophycocyanin).

These pigments absorb well green and blue-green wavelengths that penetrate deep into the water.
Chloroplast chemicals resemble those found in cyanobacteria and may have originated from this group by endosymbiosis.

Complicated Life Histories

Many reproduce asexually by discharging spores, called monospores, into the water.

All red algae have complex life cycles, reproduce sexually and have no flagellated stages.

Gametophyte, carposporophyte, tetrasporophyte.

The simplest form of sexual reproduction involves the alternation of a haploid gametophyte and a diploid sporophyte.

The gametophyte produces spermatangia (sing. spermatangium) that release nonmotile
The female gamete or egg is produced in the carpogonium, on a same gametophyte.
The carpogonium develops a protuberance called the trichogyne for the reception of the spermatia.
The spermatium fuses with the trichogyne and the nucleus travels to the female nucleus and fuses with it.
The resultant diploid zygote then produces a few diploid carpospores, which are release into the water.
Carpospores produce sporophytes that form haploid spores, which in turn produce new gametophytes.

In some red algae, the zygote produces a carposporophyte generation, which remains attached to the parent gametophyte.

The carposporophyte divides mitotically and eventually produces carpospores.
The carpospores are released and settle onto a substrate, and grow into separate diploid sporophytes.

In many red algae, the diploid zygote is transferred to another cell of the gametophyte called the auxiliary cell where it proliferates into many carpospores.

The carpospores produce a new generation called the tetrasporophyte.
Meiosis occurs I in specialized cells of the tetrasporophyte, called the tetrasporangia.
Each tetraspore germinates into a gametophyte.

Division Phaeophyta

Phaeophytes are also known as brown algae

It is an entirely marine group especially abundant in temperate and cold waters.

Common in the intertidal and subtidal zones; dominant alga of rocky shores.

About 1,500 species.

The Thallus

Size – few are microscopic, most much larger – up to 60 m. Larger forms with complex structure.

There are no known unicellular or colonial representatives of this group.

The simplest form of plant is a branched, filamentous thallus (pl. thalli): a relatively undifferentiated vegetative body.

The thalli range in complexity from simple branched filaments to aggregation of branched filaments called pseudoparenchyma.

Adjacent cells are connected by plasmodesmata without desmotubules connecting the ER.

Pigments

Cells contain numerous disk-shaped, golden-brown plastids that are similar both biochemically and structurally to those of chrysophytes and diatoms.

Chlorophyll a and c (no Chlorophyll b), ß-carotene, fucoxanthin and other xanthophylls.

Food reserves are typically complex polysaccharides, sugars and higher alcohols and sometimes fats.
Glucose and mannitol are polymerized together as laminarin.
Mannitol is a six-carbon sugar-alcohol; it is linked together with glucose in a beta-1,3 linkage.

The principal carbohydrate reserve is laminarin and true starch is absent.

There are two groups based on the presence or absence of pyrenoids.

Kelps

Kelps (Macrocystis and Nereocystis) and rockweeds have a highly differentiated bodies

The walls are made of cellulose and algin, an alginic acid, a long-chained heteropolysaccharide.
Some have stem-like, root-like, leaf-like organs.
Since they do not have vascular systems, these structures are not true stems, roots, or leaves. Termed rhizoid, holdfast, stalk or stipe, and blade.
Kelps have a meristematic region between the stipe and the blade.
Sargassum and Fucus grow from repeated divisions from a single apical cell.
Some species have floatation bladders.
Some free-floating species have lost the holdfast.

Some of the kelps have modified elongated cells in the center of the stipe that are capable of conducting carbohydrates from the blades near the water surface to the lower parts of the alga.

Some brown algae have evolved sieve tubes comparable to those found in food-conducting tissue of vascular plants. These are called trumpet cells.

Sieve tube elements are joined end-on-end by the sieve plates.

Of great economic importance: fertilizer, food especially in Japan, source of algin – stabilizer & moisture retainer in many products such as ice cream, cake frosting, paint, pharmaceuticals, processing of natural and synthetic rubber.

Life Cycle

Their life cycle involves an alternation of generation, and meiosis occurs during spore formation (sporic meiosis).

The ends of the branches are called receptacles and are swollen with large deposits of hydrophilic compounds. Scattered over the surface of the receptacles are small openings that lead to cavities called conceptacles. Gametangia develop in the conceptacles.

The gametophytes of the primitive brown algae produce reproductive structures called plurilocular gametangia. They may function as male or female gametangia or produce flagellated haploid spores that give rise to new gametophytes.

The diploid sporophyte produces both plurilocular and unilocular sporangia.
The plurilocular sporangia produce diploid zoospores that produce diploid sporophytes.
Meiosis takes place in the unilocular sporangia producing haploid zoospores that germinate to produce haploid gametophytes.

Zoospores have tinsel and whip flagella.

Some groups (e.g. Fucus) do not form spores and have a gametic life cycle without alternation of generations.

Phylum Bacillariophyta

An ancient group that appeared in the fossil record about 250 million years ago, and became abundant in the fossil record about 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous.

Diatoms are unicellular or colonial organisms that form an important component of the phytoplankton.

They may count for as much as 25% of the primary production of the earth.

There may be as many as 100,000 species, some of the most diverse and abundant algae on earth.

Diatoms are the primary source of food for many marine animals; they provide essential carbohydrates, fatty acids, sterols, and vitamins to the consumers.

Diatoms live in both freshwater and marine habitats, but are especially abundant in cold marine waters.

Diatoms can also inhabit terrestrial habitats such as damp cliff faces, moist tree trunks and on the surfaces of buildings.

The Walls Of Diatoms Consist Of Two Halves

Cell wall in two parts known as frustules, are made of polymerized silica (SiO2  H2O, 95%) and carbohydrates especially pectin (5%).

The shell is composed of an upper and lower half, with the lower half fitting neatly within the upper, like a Petri dish.

The shell is highly ornamented and perforated with microscopic holes so precisely spaced that they are used commercially to test the resolution of expensive microscope lenses.

These holes connect the living protoplast with the external environment.

Freshwater forms are usually cylindrical in shape: pennate.
Marine species are usually spherical or circular: centric.

Chrysophytes form sometimes “brown blooms” in fresh and salt water.

Diatoms have chlorophyll a and c, and the golden-brown carotenoid fucoxanthin.

Two large chloroplasts are present in pennate diatoms, and many discoid chloroplasts in centric species.

Food is stored in the form of oils and chrysolaminarin, a soluble polysaccharide stored in vacuoles.

Some species are heterotrophic absorbing organic molecules from the environment. Other heterotrophs live symbiotically in foraminiferans.

Fossil frustules make the diatomaceous earths mined for use as filters, insulating material and abrasive polish.

Reproduction In Diatoms Is Mainly Asexual

Reproduction is usually asexual. Changes in the environment or critical small size triggers sexual reproduction.

Yellow-green algae

Some phycologists as a division or class consider the yellow-green algae different from the chrysophytes. Others include them in the chrysophytes.

They have a variety of body shapes: unicellular, filamentous, siphonous or large multicellular body form.
They have chlorophyll c.
Asexual reproduction occurs by isogamy in Vaucheria.
Sexual reproduction consists of biflagellated sperms and a multinucleated egg.
The zygote breaks off and after a period of dormancy germinates forming a new “tube” filled with haploid nuclei.

Division Chrysophyta

Also know as the golden-brown algae.

Chrysophytes are photosynthetic, unicellular colonial organisms; some plasmodia, filamentous and tissue-like forms. About 1000 known species.

Abundant in freshwater and marine environments worldwide.

Chrysophytes contain chlorophylls a and c, and accessory pigment fucoxanthin, a carotenoid.

Cells usually have one or two chloroplasts.

They store food in a vacuole in the form of polysaccharide chrysolaminarin, which is stored in a vacuole usually found in the posterior of the cell.

Some species are heterotrophic ingesting bacteria, algal cells and organic particles.

Some species have cell wall containing cellulose and impregnated with minerals. Others are without walls. One group has silica plates on the cell surface.

Reproduction is mostly asexual by means of zoospores with unequal flagella of similar structure.

Some species can reproduce sexually.

Resting cysts are formed as a result of sexual reproduction at the end of the growing season.

In many ways, golden algae are biochemically and structurally similar to brown algae.

Division Dinophyta

The dinophyta are also known as dinoflagellates.

Molecular evidence indicates that the dinoflagellates are closely related to ciliate protozoa such as Paramecium and Vorticella, and to apicomplexans, a group of parasitic flagellates whose cells contain a non-pigmented plastid, e.g. Plasmodium that causes malaria.

Apicomplexans, dinoflagellates and others form a group called alveolates.

Most are unicellular biflagellates.

About 4000 known species, most of which are members of the marine phytoplankton.

Their flagella beat in two grooves, one encircles the cell and the other extends lengthwise.

The nonmotile dinoflagellates produce flagellated cells that beat in grooves.

Their chromatin is always condensed into chromosomes.

Many are covered with cellulose plates forming a theca.

About half of the dinoflagellates lack photosynthetic apparatus and feed by ingesting food particles or absorbing dissolved organic compounds.

They have chlorophyll a and c, β- and γ-carotenes, a carotenoid called peridinin,  fucoxanthin, a yellow-brown carotenoid, and other xanthins..

Some pigmented flagellates carry out photosynthesis and also feed by absorbing carbon compound through a protruded peduncle; this is called myxotrophy.

When dinoflagellates are symbionts, they lack theca, e.g. zooxanthellae of giant clams, corals, worms, etc.

Dinoflagellates store their food as oils and starch.

Under adverse periods of low nutrient levels, dinoflagellates form resting cysts that are carried by currents.

Reproduction is mostly asexual but sexual reproduction has been observed in some species.

Some species produce bioluminescence and powerful neurotoxins that are accumulated by fish and mollusks.

They have a characteristic type of nuclear and cell division.

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/dinoflagellata.html
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/dinoflagellate.html
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/alveolates.html
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/apicomplexa.html
http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/projects/dinoflag/

Phylum Oomycota

Oomycetes is a distinct heterotrophic group of about 700 species.

Unicellular to highly branched, coenocytic and filamentous forms.

Oomycetes are either saprobes or symbionts.

They inhabit aquatic environments: marine, freshwater or moist terrestrial habitats.

Their cell wall is made of cellulose.

Their food reserve is in the form of glycogen.

Asexual reproduction is by means of motile zoospores, which have the characteristic two flagella of heterokonts.

Sexual reproduction is oogamous: one gamete large and nonmotile, the other small and motile.

Eggs are produced in the oogonia.
The antheridium contains many male nuclei.
The fertilized egg forms a thick-walled zygote called the oospore.
The oospore serves as a resting stage during stressful conditions.

Oomycetes are also called water molds, white rusts and downy mildew.

Water Molds Are Aquatic Oomycetes.

Abundant in fresh water.

Mostly saprophytic and a few parasitic including species that cause diseases to fish and fish eggs.

Species may be homothallic or heterothallic.

Saprolegnia and Achlya are common water molds that reproduce sexually and asexually.

Some Terrestrial Oomycetes Are Important Plant Pathogens

Terrestrial oomycetes produce motile zoospores when water is available.

Terrestrial oomycetes are important plant pathogens; the genus Phytophthora is particularly destructive to plants.

They attack important crops like grapes, pineapples, onions, strawberries, apples, citrus fruits, cacao, etc.

Phytophthora cinnamomi killed millions of avocado trees in southern California, and destroyed thousands of hectares of Eucalyptus timberland in Australia.
Phytophthora ramorum was the cause of the disease called “the sudden oak death.” It attacks many species of oaks and also 26 other species of plants including firs and coastal redwoods.
The great potato famine in Ireland (1846) was caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans.
A gene has been found in a species of wild potato, Solanum ulbocastanum, from Mexico, that is resistant to potato blight. The resistant gene has now been inserted in the commercial potatoes, Solanum tuberosum.
The genus Pythium attacks and rot seeds in the wild (preemergence damping-off) and seedling (postemergence damping-off)

Before a diatom can undergo mitosis, it must be living in an environment with sufficient silicon to allow it to construct a new shell.
The diploid protoplast undergoes typical mitosis within the shell, and then the two-shell halves separate.
One protoplast gets the top half, and the other gets the bottom half.
In either case, the protoplast then secretes a new “bottom” to the “Petri dish”(i.e., a new half fitting inside the old half).
This means that after every mitotic division, one of the resulting diatoms is smaller than the original. This can go on for several generations.
Eventually, the protoplast inside the tiny shell undergoes meiosis rather than mitosis. Four haploid gametes are released from the shell, which is discarded.
When two gametes meet and fuse, the resulting diploid cell is called an auxospore (zygote).
The auxospore grows into a normal size of the species.
It then secretes a silica case of the original size…and the cycle begins anew.
Sexual reproduction in centric diatoms is usually oogamous, and in pennate diatoms non-motile isogamous.

Division Euglenophyta.

Mostly unicellular fresh water organisms; one colonial genus.

Molecular evidence indicates that earlier euglenoids were phagocytic.

About one third of euglenoids contain chloroplasts; their chloroplasts resemble those of the green algae and suggest that they were formed from endosymbiotic green algae.

About two thirds of the genera are colorless heterotrophs that depend on particle feeding and absorption of dissolved organic compounds.

They are mostly freshwater organisms living in waters rich in organic compounds and particles.

Cell structure:

Cell membrane, with pellicle immediately beneath the membrane.
Lack cell wall; one genus has a wall-like covering made of manganese and iron minerals.
The pellicle is made of  protein strips arranged in the form of a helix; it may be rigid or flexible.
Single flagellum for movement coming from the reservoir, and a second non-emergent flagellum.
Flagellar swelling and the stigma or eyespot makes the light-sensing system.
Contractile vacuole used in maintaining water balance.
Pyrenoids are found in chloroplasts. It is a region where rubisco is found and paramylon, a polysaccharide is stored.
Pigments present: chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids and several xanthophylls.
Euglenoids grown in absence of light have been known to lose their chloroplasts and become heterotrophic.
Reproduction in euglenoids is asexual, by mitotic cell division. Sexual reproduction is unknown.
The nuclear membrane remains intact during mitosis in a way similar to the fungi.
About 900 species are known.

An intact mitotic nuclear envelope is probably a primitive condition. The break down of the nuclear membrane is probably a derived condition that appeared after euglenoids separated from the main stack of protists.

http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/courses/botany_130/Diversity/Euglena/Euglena.html
http://www.life.umd.edu/labs/delwiche/PSlife/lectures/Euglenophyta.html
http://www.csupomona.edu/~jcclark/classes/bot125/resource/survey/euglenophyta.html

ECOLOGY OF THE ALGAE

The Ecology of the algae is not found in your textbook.

Algae are dominant in salt and fresh water habitat.

Everywhere they grow, they play a role similar to that of plants in terrestrial habitats.

Along rocky shores, the large and more complex members of the brown, red and green algae grow forming bands that reflect the ability of the seaweeds to withstand exposure.

Seaweeds in this intertidal zone are exposed twice a day to large fluctuations of humidity, salinity and light, in addition to pounding action of the surf and forceful, abrasive water motions.

Polar seaweeds endure months of darkness under the sea ice.

Seaweeds are the food source to a host of herbivores and parasites.

Large beds of seaweeds provide a safe habitat for many aquatic organisms, e.g. kelp beds off the coast of California.

Plankton refers to all suspended drifting organisms found in all bodies of water.

Planktonic algae and cyanobacteria constitute the phytoplankton found in oceans and fresh water.
Heterotrophic plankton and usually swimming microorganisms are called zooplankton.
Bacteria and some heterotrophic protists form the bacterioplankton.

Phytoplankton is found at the base of the food chain.

Colonial and single-celled chrysophytes, dinoflagellates, diatoms and green algae are the most important organisms at the base of the food chain in freshwater habitats.
Unicellular and colonial haptophytes, dinoflagellates and diatoms are the primary producers of the ocean.

In both marine and freshwater habitats, phytoplankton populations are kept in check by seasonal climatic changes, nutrient limitation and predation.

Phytoplankton is the major producers of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Phytoplankton reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by fixing it during photosynthesis.

Phytoplankton is important in the deposition of CaCO3 deposits on the ocean floor.

The CO2 fixed by photosynthesis and the calcification process is replaced by atmospheric CO2

Several types of multicellular algae are important members of coral reefs and deposit a substantial amount of calcium compound important in coral building.

Some haptophyte protists produce substantial amounts of sulfur oxides that are added to the atmosphere and reflect sunlight helping to maintain a cooler temperature.

CCRES ALGAE TEAM
part of
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources

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FUCOSE

FUCOSE

#Fucose is an essential hexose deoxy sugar the human body needs to optimally communicate from cell to cell. Simply put, it plays an important role in transmitting information in the brain. Research studies show that this sugar stimulates brain development and can also influence the brain to be able to create long-term memories. This is further supported by studies in which doctors inhibited protein containing fucose; amnesia was the result.

Fucose is found in a number of places in the human body. Its location in the male testes suggests that it may play an important role during reproduction. Also found in the epidermis, it may help in maintaining skin hydration. Beyond these locations, this sugar is found at the articulation between each nerve, in the tubules of the human kidney, and in significant quantities in human breast milk.

It’s important not to confuse this with the similar sounding fructose. While both are sugars that can be commonly found in the body, fructose is a simple monosaccharide sugar found in many foods. For example, you can find a high amount of fructose in baby food, salad dressing, blackberries, tree fruits, honey and even some root vegetables. On the other hand, fucose, as previously stated, can be found in the human body naturally.

Studies also show that fucose may play a role in certain diseases, such as cancer and its infection method. Though research is not yet conclusive, there is promise shown for using fucose to inhibit both breast cancer and leukemia, in addition to tumor growth, in general. Some studies have even gone as far as to conclude that this hexose deoxy sugar seems to be among the most effective sugars at attempting to prevent cancer cells from growing.

Research indicates that even taking in fucose in extremely high amounts does not seem to present any real ill side effects, though recommendations are that the average 150-pound (68.2 kg) human adult can safely handle 34 grams of this sugar on a daily basis. During urination, fucose leaves the body, so people who urinate frequently can experience a deficiency in fucose. People with rheumatoid arthritis also generally are deficient in this kind of sugar. Many people opt to take supplements to ensure they have the right amount in their body. Seaweeds such as kelp, beer yeast, and medicinal mushrooms are also a good alternative to supplements and for people who have difficulty taking pills.

#CCRES #ALGAE TEAM

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FUCUS TREATMENTS

Fucus Treatments

Fucus Treatments

Our best source of biological iodine and our best protection against thyroid disruption is to body-load with iodine contained in iodine-rich whole raw seaweeds as regular daily consumption. If our bodies have an ongoing full complement of I-127, we can better resist taking in incidental I-131. This means that eating seaweeds regularly in the diet, especially the big northern kelps, to provide both dietary iodine and protection against the ongoing I-131 hazards.
No land plants are a reliable natural source of iodine. 

Garlic grown near the sea often has relatively high amounts of biological iodine. Besides garlic, root crops, such as turnips, carrots, potatoes, parsnips, and sweet potatoes, are plant sources of iodine. However, the best natural source of biological iodine is seaweed. Any seaweed contains more available dietary iodine than any land plant. The seaweeds with the most available iodine are the giant kelps of the northern hemisphere. The highest concentrations of iodine occurs in Icelandic kelp (8000 ppm), Norwegian kelp (4000 ppm), and Maine and California kelp (1000-2000 ppm). The seaweeds with the least amounts of iodine are nori (about 15ppm) and sargassum (about 30-40 ppm). The amounts of iodine in land plants can be greatly increased by fertilizing food plants with seaweeds applied directly to the soil as topical mulch or tilled into the soil.
The complexity of many thyroid dysfunction cases precludes a simple set of all-purpose formulas. Each thyroid patient has a unique thyroid presentation. I try to compose an individualized functional treatment plan for each, using a few basic methods. Diet and behavior modification also are very important in thyroid case management. What follows are some of my treatment approaches and some general guidelines and notes:

Treatment Guideline 1: Rather uncomplicated seaweed therapy seems to help relieve many of the presenting symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. Some of the results are very likely from whole body remineralization (especially potassium, zinc, calcium, magnesium, manganese, chromium, selenium, and vanadium), in addition to thyroid gland aid from both sustained regular reliable dietary sources of biomolecular iodine and from thyroxin-like molecules present in marine algae, both the large edible seaweeds and their almost ubiquitous epiphytic micro-algae, predominantly the silica-walled diatoms. Seaweeds provide ample supplies of most of the essential trace elements required for adequate enzyme functioning throughout the body but especially in the liver and endocrine glands.

Treatment Guideline 2: Regular biomolecular seaweed iodine consumption is more than just thyroid food: it can also protect the thyroid gland from potential resident I-131-induced molecular disruption and cell death when the thyroid gland is fully iodized with I-127. The fear of eating seaweed that might be contaminated with I-131 is easily mitigated by allowing the seaweed to be stored for 50 days prior to dietary consumption; this will give enough time for most (99%) of any I-131 to decay radioactively.
A simple folk test for iodine deficiency or at least aggressive iodine uptake is to paint a 2-inch diameter round patch of USP Tincture of Iodine (strong or mild) on a soft skin area, such as the inner upper arm, the inside of the elbow, the inner thigh, or the lateral abdomen between the lowest rib and the top of the hip. If you are iodine deficient, the patch will disappear in less than 2 hours, sometimes as quickly as 20 minutes; if it fades in 2 to 4 hours, you may just be momentarily iodine needy. If it persists for more than 4 hours, you are probably iodine sufficient. Iodine deficiency seems to predispose to thyroid malignancy; this could explain the apparent thyroid cancer distribution “fans” downwind of nuclear facilities in previous ‘goiter belt’ areas. This test is of course easier to use with Caucasians and may not offer sufficient color contrast in brown-skinned people.

Treatment Guideline 3: Many patients with underactive thyroid glands complain of a sense of “coldness” or feeling cold all of the time; often they are over-dressed for warmth according to ‘thyronormal’ people’s standards. They may also present a low basal body resting temperature, as measured by taking their armpit temperature before rising in the morning. (Remember to shake down the thermometer the night before). Other symptoms may include sluggishness, gradual weight gain, and mild depression. For these patients, add 5 to 10 grams of several different whole seaweeds to the daily diet; that is, 5 to 10 grams total weight per day, not 5 to 10 grams of each seaweed. I usually suggest a mix of 2 parts brown algae (all kelps, Fucus, Sargassum, Hijiki) to one part red seaweed (Dulse, Nori, Irish moss, Gracillaria). The mixed seaweeds can be eaten in soups and salads or easily powdered and sprinkled onto or into any food. I recommend doing this for at least 60 days, about two lunar cycles or at least two menstrual cycles; watch for any changes in signs and symptoms and any change in average daily basal temperature.
Note that patients can have a normal 98.6°F temperature and still feel cold and also present many of the signs and symptoms of functional hypothyroidism. Do not insist that all hypothyroid patients must have abnormally low basal resting temperatures. If no symptoms improve or the temperature remains low (less than 98.6°F), continue seaweeds and request a TSH and T4 test. If TSH and T4 tests indicate low circulating thyroxin levels, continue seaweeds for another 2 months. It may take the thyroid that long to respond positively to continual regular presentation of adequate dietary iodine. Powdered whole seaweed may be much more effective than flakes, pieces, or granules. The powdered seaweed is best added to food immediately prior to eating; do not cook the seaweed for best results.
All corticosteroids tend to depress thyroid function. Before trying to fix the thyroid, be sure to inquire about both internal and topical steroid use, including Prednisone and topical creams. These, as well as salicylates and anticoagulants, can aggravate existing mild hypothyroidism.

Treatment Guideline 4: Partial thyroidectomy cases can be helped by regular continual dietary consumption of 3-5 grams of whole seaweeds three to four times a week. By whole seaweed I mean untreated raw dried seaweed, in pieces or powder, not reconstructed flakes or granules.

Treatment Guideline 5: Patients with thyroid glands on thyroid replacement hormone (animal or synthetic) can respond favorably to replacing part or all their entire extrinsic hormone requirement by adding dietary Fucus in 3 to 5 gram daily doses, carefully and slowly. Fucus spp. has been the thyroid folk remedy of choice for at least 5000 years. The best candidates are women who seek a less hazardous treatment than synthetic hormone (after reading variously that prolonged use of synthetic thyroid hormone increases risk for heart disease, osteoporosis, and adverse interactions with many prescribed drugs, particularly corticosteroids and antidepressants).
Fucus spp. contains di-iodotyrosine (iodogogoric acid) or DIT. Two DIT molecules are coupled in the follicular lumina of the thyroid gland by a condensing esterification reaction organized by thyroid peroxidase (TPO). This means that Fucus provides easy-to use-prefabricated thyroxine (T4) halves for a boost to weary thyroid glands, almost as good as T4. European thalassotherapists claim that hot Fucus seaweed baths in seawater provide transdermal iodine; perhaps hot Fucus baths also provide transdermal DIT.
The best results with Fucus therapy are obtained with women who were diagnosed with sluggish thyroid glands and who are or were on low or minimal maintenance replacement hormone dosages. They may remark that they miss, forget, or avoid taking their thyroid medication for several days with no obvious negative short-term sequelae; others claim to have just stopped taking their medication. I do not recommend stopping thyroid medication totally at once. Thyroxin is essential for human life and all animal life; it has a long half-life in the body of a week or more, so that a false impression of non-dependency can obtain for up to 2 months before severe or even acute hypothyroidism can manifest, potentially fatal.
Even though I personally do not recommend it, women regularly stop taking their thyroid replacement hormone, even after years of regularly and faithfully taking their medication. In many cases, their respective thyroid glands resume thyroxine production after a 2- to 3-month lag time with many of the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism presenting while their thyroid glands move out of inactivity. This complete cessation of taking thyroid replacement can only be successful in patients who have a potentially functioning thyroid gland. Those who have had surgical or radiation removal of their thyroid glands must take thyroid hormone medication containing thyroxine to stay alive.
Fucus can be easily added to the diet as small pieces, powdered Fucus in capsules, or freeze-dried powder in capsules. Sources of Fucus in capsules are listed under Seaweed Sources at the end of this paper. The actual Fucus is much more effective than extracts. A nice note is that Fucus spp are the most abundant intertidal brown seaweeds in the northern hemisphere. This is of especial interest to those patients who might be trading one dependency for another, as seems to be the case for some. A year’s supply can be gathered in an hour or less and easily dried in a food dehydrator or in hot sun for 10 to12 hours and then in a food dehydrator until completely crunchy dry. Fucus dries down about 6 to 1 (six pounds of wet Fucus dry down to about one pound). It has a modest storage life of 8 to 12 months in completely airtight containers stored in the dark at 50° F. A year’s supply at 4 grams per day is slightly more than 3 pounds dry. Encapsulated Fucus is available from Naturespirit Herbs, Oregon’s Wild Harvest, and Eclectic Institute.

Treatment Guideline 6: Aggressive attempts to replace thyroid replacement hormone with Fucus involve halving the dose of medication each week for 4 weeks while adding 3 to 5 grams of dried Fucus to the diet daily from the beginning and continuing indefinitely. If low thyroid symptoms appear, return to lowest thyroid hormone maintenance level and try skipping medication every other day for a week, then for every other 2 days, then 3 days, etc. The intent is to establish the lowest possible maintenance dosage by patient self-evaluation and/or to determine if replacement hormones can be eliminated when the patient ingests a regular reliable supply of both biomolecular iodine and DIT. Thoughtful, careful patient self-monitoring is essential for successful treatment.

Treatment Guideline 7: A more conservative replacement schedule is similar to the aggressive approach, except that the time intervals are one month instead of one week, and the Fucus addition is in one gram increments, beginning with one gram of Fucus the first month of attempting to halve the replacement hormone dosage, and increasing the amount of Fucus by a gram each succeeding month to 5 grams per day. The conservative schedule is urged with anxious patients and primary caregivers.
There is some concern that excess (undefined) kelp (species either unknown or not mentioned) consumption may induce hypothyroidism. It seems possible. The likely explanation is an individual’s extreme sensitivity to dietary iodine: Icelandic kelp can contain up to 8000 ppm iodine; Norwegian kelp can contain up to 4000 ppm iodine. Most kelps contain 500 to 1500 ppm iodine.
The only definitive study I have seen is a report from Hokkaido, Japan, where study subjects, at a rate of 8% to 10% of total study participants, presented with iodine-induced goiter from the consumption of large amounts of one or more Laminaria species (Kombu) of large kelps, known to be rich (more than 1000 ppm) in available iodine. Reduction of both total dietary iodine and/or dietary Kombu led to complete remission of all goiters. The apparent iodine-induced goiters did not affect normal thyroid functioning in any participants. Two women in the study did not care if they had goiters and refused to reduce their Kombu intake. Note that the Japanese have the world’s highest known dietary intakes of both sea vegetables and iodine.
Reduction or elimination of seaweeds from the diet is indicated for at least a month in cases of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, to ascertain if excess dietary iodine is a contributing factor to a disease condition. Other dietary iodine sources, particularly dairy and flour products, should also be reduced and or eliminated during the same time period. Some individuals do seem to be very dietarily iodine-extraction efficient and iodine sensitive simultaneously.

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CCRES FUCUS

6a81b-20140922_170027

Fucus vesiculosus, may be an effective alternative treatment for hypothyroidism for some people as it contains iodine found naturally in the sea. Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid, is a condition where the thyroid gland fails to produce enough thyroid hormone. This results in one’s metabolism falling outside of the desired range. There are a wide range of thyroid medications available, both natural and pharmaceutical. As with all medicines, Fucus can occasionally cause side effects, so always consult your healthcare practitioner before starting treatment.

#Hypothyroidism

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common form of hypothyroidism. It is considered to be an autoimmune disease as the body mistakes the thyroid gland for a foreign body and sends antibodies to attack it which eventually destroy it over time. This leaves the body without essential thyroid hormones that are required for controlling body temperature, appetite and rate of metabolism. If left untreated, hypothyroidism can lead to serious health disorders that could prove fatal.

Symptoms

Symptoms of an underactive thyroid include tiredness, reduced heart rate and pulse, weight gain, dry skin and hair, hair loss, sensitivity to cold, confusion, anxiety, depression, joint pain, headaches, numbness in the extremities and menstrual problems. However, as these symptoms can be attributed to any number of health problems they are often overlooked. If you are experiencing a combination of the aforementioned symptoms without any obvious cause, contact your doctor immediately for a check-up.

#Iodine

According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, those who experience hypothyroidism due to a iodine deficiency may be able to treat their condition with kelp. Iodine, found naturally in kelp, is required to enable the thyroid gland to function correctly. The majority of people in the western world use iodized salt and therefore do not need to supplement with iodine unless they suffer from hypothyroidism.

#Fucus

Fucus is rich in iodine and is available in many different forms including tinctures and standardized extracts. According to the NYU Langone Medical Center, fucus is often referred to as kelp as it is present in a large number of kelp tablets. However, kelp is not considered to be the same as fucus as it is actually a different form of seaweed. The University of Maryland Medical Center recommends a dose of 600mg fucus one to three times per day to stimulate thyroid activity. It is not recommended to self-treat hypothyroidism with fucus.

#CCRES #ALGAE TEAM

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2015年の総市場規模は16億ドルを超える見通し

CCRES ALGAE TEAM
㈱グローバル インフォメーションは、米国の市場調査会社SBI Energy (aka Specialist In Business Information)が発行した報告書「藻類バイオ燃料技術:世界市場および製品動向(2010年~2015年)」の販売を開始しました。

2005年から2007年までの藻類バイオ燃料産業への企業の参入は、原油の高値および環境上の懸念から拍車がかかり、550%と記録的に跳ね上がりました。しかしそれ以来、原油価格は下落し、先頃の金融危機が多くの産業の障害となっています。同レポートによれば、「藻類バイオ燃料への関心は現在も維持されています。しかし同時に、産業は期待の先走りに苦しめられてもいます。」と報告されています。藻類によるバイオ燃料製造技術の現在の市場は、相当量の開発活動と規模を縮小した試験で構成されています。今後はデモンストレーションと商業利用が進められ、藻類によるバイオ燃料製造の各種新技術が2015年には総市場の3分の1を占めるに至るでしょう。

なぜ 藻類なのか?

藻類は原料油としての使用が可能です。つまり、藻類はバイオディーゼル、再生可能ディーゼル、再生可能ジェット燃料、藻油、航空用バイオ燃料、バイオガソリン、エタノール、バイオメタン、ブタノール、水素など、実に多くのバイオ燃料の製造用に加工が可能ということであり、これはすばらしいメリットです。また、藻類によるバイオ燃料製造は、ケイソウ類・ラン藻類・緑ソウ類の遺伝子組み換え、養殖用オープンポンドまたは光バイオリアクター、燃料処理用リファイナリー・ダイジェスター・ファーメンター、抽出用プレスおよび遠心分離機といった幅広い技術を必要とします。

藻類バイオ燃料の製造技術市場の今後の展望とは?

藻類バイオ燃料の製造技術市場は、養殖技術の売上が大半を占めると予測されています。残りの市場は採取、抽出、燃料製造設備の区分が占める見通しですが、これらは2015年には、合計で16億ドルを超える市場規模に成長すると予測されています。同レポートによれば、「2010年には推計2億7,100万ドルとされる同市場のこの成長は飛躍的なもので、約43%との年間成長率の予測もあわせ、この数値は同産業が急速に変化を遂げ、進化する産業であることを明確に示すものです」と報告されています。

市場調査レポート: 藻類バイオ燃料技術:世界市場および製品動向(2010年~2015年)Algae Biofuels Technologies – Global Market and Product Trends 2010-2015

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Merry Christmas

Merry Christmas

As 2014 comes to a close, I’d like to take this opportunity to thank you for supporting our work. It’s because of people like you that countless individuals around the world are now living better life stories. With your support, we’re able to take meaningful and measurable action in a number of ways.
Thank you again for helping to empower individuals and strengthen green communities in Croatia, and around the world. Together, we’re building the kind of world we want all our children and grandchildren to live in.
From everyone at the Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (#CCRES) – Merry Christmas, and have a happy holiday season.

Sincerely,  Željko Serdar

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The Effects of Astaxanthin – Cardiovascular Health

 

The Effects of Astaxanthin – Cardiovascular Health

 

Atherosclerosis: 

A Silent Cardiovascular Condition that Kills 1 Person Every 3 Seconds

Atherosclerosis: A Silent Cardiovascular Condition that Kill 1 Person every 3 SecondsHigh blood pressure, high levels of triglycerides, oxidation of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and lowering levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are the primary cause that leads to oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in the vessels. This condition emerges at early age and gradually compromises vascular integrity leading to atherosclerosis at a later stage of a person lifespan. Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular condition in which fat deposits and become oxidized along the inner lining of the artery walls. This silent yet deadly build up progressively thickens, hardens and eventually blocks the arteries leading to sudden and severe circulatory complications including vascular ischemia, stroke or heart attack. Cardiovascular and circulatory deaths related to atherosclerosis accounts for 29% of all deaths globally; the primary cause of death in EU (42%), Eastern Europe (48%), UK (39%), North America (49%), China (34%), South America (31%); Middle East (31%) and India (29%) – World Health Report, 2010.

Salmon Consumption and Lower Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases Among Japanese. Just a Coincidence?

Salmon Consumption and Lower Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases Among Japanese. Just a Coincidence?The cardiovascular and circulatory benefits of natural astaxanthin are evident among Japanese who are the uppermost consumers of food containing astaxanthin (AX) in the world and have the lowest incidences of heart diseases amongst developed countries. As the French paradox of cardiovascular health is connected to “sipping red-wine” and Italians longevity to “olive oil dressed” salads, Japanese cardiovascular resilience can be associated with consumption of “astaxanthin-soaked” salmon. In fact, a growing number of scientific evidence points to a robust link between natural astaxanthin and cardiovascular health – 30 cardiovascular specific research publications including 10 clinical studies. Research suggests that oral supplementation of astaxanthin may reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases by reducing hypertension while enhancing blood rheology, capillary circulation and vascular resilience.

The Effects of Astaxanthin on Atherosclerosis Prevention and Development

The Effects of Astaxanthin on Atherosclerosis Prevention and Development

Astaxanthin Increase HDL Cholesterol and Decrease Serum Triglycerides

For every 1 mg/dl increase in good cholesterol HDL, the risk of cardiovascular diseases drops by 3%. In fact, baby boomers with low-HDL (> 40mg/dL) increase their chances of experiencing coronary events by 50%. Recent studies suggest that individuals with low HDL cholesterol who also have high triglycerides levels are 11 times more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases. Achieving a significant increase of HDL is notoriously hard because it requires drastic lifestyle changes, so often ending with modest results or sudden relapses.
Recent research suggests that astaxanthin supplementation can support lifestyle changers by synergizing HDL increasing effect with decreased level of serum triglycerides. Two recent studies demonstrated that astaxanthin consumption can steadily increase HDL cholesterol in both healthy and less healthy individuals -both as preventive and therapeutic use. Yoshida et al., (2009) conducted the first ever randomized, placebo-controlled human study to evaluate astaxanthin effect on dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Sixty-one hyper-triglyceride subjects between 42-47 years old (BMI 24 mg/kg), received 0 (placebo), 6 mg, 12mg, 18mg of astaxanthin daily for 12 weeks. While the placebo group did not change their existing condition, the astaxanthin groups increased their HDL cholesterol by 11%, 15% and 7% respectively and decreased their serum triglycerides level by 17%, 25% and 24% respectively (figure 1).

Figure 1. Astaxanthin increase HDL cholesterol and decrease Serum Triglycerides (STR). Subjects with lower levels of HDL and higher levels of STR are 11 times more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases (Yoshida et al., 2009) Figure 1. Astaxanthin increase HDL cholesterol and decrease Serum Triglycerides (STR). Subjects with lower levels of HDL and higher levels of STR are 11 times more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases (Yonei et al, 2010) 61 hyper- triglyceride subjects between 42-47 yo; (BMI 24 mg/kg), received 0 (placebo), 6 mg, 12mg, 18mg of astaxanthin per day for 12 weeks

In a recent clinical study, 73 subjects between 20-60 years of age who received 4mg of natural astaxanthin per day for 4 weeks had their serum triglycerides level decreased by 25 %(Satoh et al., 2009). In another study conducted in Japan, 15 healthy adults increased their HDL by 6% after ingesting 9mg/daily of astaxanthin for 8 weeks (Matsumaya et al., 2010). In 2007, Hussein et al., has shown that astaxanthin reduced the size of fat cells in rats, which lead to a lower risk of cardiovascular complications and chronic inflammation (figure 2).

Figure 2. Astaxanthin reduced the size of fat cells. Large cells usually indicate higher risk of fat-oxidation chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which are the leading causes of cardiovascular diseases (x10) (Hussein et al., 2006) Figure 2. Astaxanthin reduced the size of fat cells. Large cells usually indicate higher risk of fat-oxidation chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which are the leading causes of cardiovascular diseases (x10) (Hussein <em>et al.</em>, 2006)

Astaxanthin Decrease Red Blood Cells Oxidation and Lipid-Peroxidation

Astaxanthin Decrease Red Blood Cells Oxidation and Lipid-PeroxidationHigh levels of triglycerides and low levels of HDL also increase the likelihood of fat-oxidation in vessels and formation of “wounds” in the inner lining of artery walls (endothelium) leading to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress; this situation causes degradation, narrowing and thickening of arteries. Three recent clinical studies have robustly pointed to astaxanthin ability to reduce fat peroxidation in blood plasma. In a randomized-double-blind placebo study, 33 overweight subjects received 5mg or 20mg astaxanthin daily for 3 weeks. Their lipid peroxidation markers plasma MDA Level (mmol) and plasma ISP (ng/mL) decreased by 30% and 60% in average (Choi et al., 2011).
In another randomized double blind placebo controlled study, 30 subjects between 50 and 69 years of age received 0 (placebo), 6 or 12mg astaxanthin daily for 12 weeks (Nakagawa et al., 2011). The amount of oxidized red blood cells (PLOOH um0l/ml) decreased by 17% and 24% respectively(figure 3).

Figure 3. Astaxanthin reduces red blood cells oxidation (RBCO) in senior subjects. RBCO cells has high correlation with neuro-degenerative (eg. dementia) and cardiovascular diseases (eg. heart attack) (Nakagawa et al., 2011) Figure 3. Astaxanthin reduces red blood cells oxidation (RBCO) in senior subjects. RBCO cells has high correlation with neuro-degenerative (eg. dementia) and cardiovascular diseases (eg. heart attack) (Nakagawa <em>et al.</em>, 2011) 30 subjects (15 F and 15 M) between 50 and 69 years of age , BMI 27·5 kg/m2 received 0 (placebo), 6 or 12mg astaxanthin per day for 12 weeks

In 2007, Karppi et al., conducted a randomized double blind conducted placebo controlled study with 40 non-smoking subjects between 19-33 years of age who received 0 (placebo) or 8mg of astaxanthin daily for 12 weeks. Their lipid peroxidation markers -plasma-15-hydroxy fatty acidsdecreased by 60% and plasma-12-hydroxy fatty acids by 36%. In 2000, Iwamoto et al., has also shown that astaxanthin inhibited LDL oxidation in human subjects. Professor Aoi from Kyoto Prefectural University, has shown that astaxanthin limits exercise-induced cardiac oxidation damage in mice.

Astaxanthin Enhance Biomarkers of Anti-oxidant Healthiness in the Blood Plasma

Low antioxidant activity in the blood correlates with high incidences of stroke, neurological impairment in stroke patients and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is crucial to monitor the biomarkers of antioxidant capacity in the blood when assessing the efficacy of an active ingredient. In a randomized double blind study, 33 overweight subjects received 5mg or 20mg astaxanthin daily for 3 weeks. Their plasma Superoxide Dismutase Level (SOD) (U/mL) and Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) Level (mmol) increased 45% and 19% respectively. (Choi et al., 2011) (figure 4).
Other studies have produced similar results using different assessment methods. In an open label clinical study, 35 postmenopausal women were treated with astaxanthin daily dose of 12 mg for 8 weeks (Yonei et al., 2009). Astaxanthin supplementation increased biological antioxidant potential in the blood plasma by 5% in 8 weeks. In addition, Camera et al., suggested that astaxanthin protects and synergize with our endogenous antioxidant systems (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione) from early degradation when subjected to oxidative stress (Camera et al., 2008).

Figure 4. Astaxanthin increases Plasma SOD Level and Plasma TAC level. Low levels of SOD and TAC correlates with higher incidences of stroke, neurological impairment and cardiovascular diseases (Choi et al., 2011) fig4 33 subjects received 5mg or 20mg astaxanthin x day for 3 weeks; BMI (25.0 -30.0 kg/m2) – aged 25.Normal Body Subjects – 10 non-intervention subjects (20.0 < BMI≤24.9 kg/m2) age 26

Astaxanthin Decrease Chronic Inflammation that comprise Blood Vessels Integrity

In the presence of oxidized cells in the endothelial lesions, macrophages white blood cells infiltrate in affected areas to clear away pathogens and dead cells. Yet, in the attempt to clean up the oxidized areas, macrophages may get overweighed with excessive lipoproteins and unable to leave the artery walls. This peculiar but common situation triggers a cascade of chronic inflammatory responses and pro-oxidant activities that degraded the structural integrity of the vessels. Therefore, up-regulated activity of oxidized LDL via macrophage induced inflammation is central to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. They are closely associated with plaque development, aggravation and ruptures.
A recent study shows that astaxanthin decreased macrophage occupied lesion areas and therefore inflammation in the vessels of rabbits by 40% compared to control group (figure 5). Furthermore, rabbits that ingested 4mg astaxanthin everyday for 24 weeks decreased programmed cell death (apoptosis) by 42% and cell death (necrosis) by 17% in the aorta (Li et al., 2004).

Figure 5. Astaxanthin decrease chronic inflammation and cell death in the inner lining of the vessels. Chronic inflammation and apoptosis in the endothelium dramatically accelerates vascular degradation and atherosclerotic plaque formation. (Li et al., 2004) Figure 5. Astaxanthin decrease chronic inflammation and cell death in the inner lining of the vessels. Chronic inflammation and apoptosis in the endothelium dramatically accelerates vascular degradation and atherosclerotic plaque formation. (Li <em>et al.</em>, 2004) Rabbits ingested 4mg of placebo, Vitamin E or astaxanthin everyday for 24 weeks.

In-vitro study provides further evidences that astaxanthin (5-10uM) decreases macrophages related activation (SR-A and CD36) by 48% and 58% respectively (Kishimoto et al., 2009). A recent animal studies show that astaxanthin could ameliorate endothelial dysfunction by significantly improving the level of substances important for the regulation of vascular integrity. In more details, treatment with astaxanthin for 42 days decreased serum oxidized LDL cholesterol, aortic MDA levels, attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilatory to acetylcholine, up-regulate eNOS expression and decreased LDL cholesterol receptor expression (figure 6).

Figure 6. Astaxanthin treatment improved markers of endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidation of LDL cholesterol and MDA. Higher levels of LDL oxidation and MDA expression highly correlates with structural damages in blood vessels and impairment of blood flow. (Zhao et al., 2011) Figure 6. Astaxanthin treatment improved markers of endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidation of LDL cholesterol and MDA. Higher levels of LDL oxidation and MDA expression highly correlates with structural damages in blood vessels and impairment of blood flow. (Zhao <em>et al.</em>, 2011) Diabetic rats were treated with 10 mg/kg of astaxanthin or olive oil for 42 days.

Animal studies have also shown that astaxanthin ameliorated structural changes in the blood vessels – reduction in wall thickness by 47% and improved vascular tone by 36% in spontaneously hypertensive rats (Hussein et al., 2006). Such structural changes was observed in the reduction of the number of branched elastin bands and improved vessel wall to lumen thickness ratio.
In another study, 24 weeks supplementation of natural astaxanthin reduced levels of MMP3 expression in the aorta of rabbits – a crucial factor that lead to a degradation of elastin and collagen structures which determines the mechanical properties of connective tissues in the vessels (figure 7). In the experiment, astaxanthin enhanced plaque stability leading to a significant reduction of plaque ruptures (Li et al., 2004).

Figure 7. Astaxanthin inhibit MMP over-expression in the thoracic aorta. Over-expression of MMP is a crucial factor that leads to the degradation of vascular integrity and escalation of atherosclerotic plaque ruptures (Li et al., 2004) Figure 7. Astaxanthin inhibit MMP over-expression in the thoracic aorta. Over-expression of MMP is a crucial factor that leads to the degradation of vascular integrity and escalation of atherosclerotic plaque ruptures (Li <em>et al.</em>, 2004) Animal Study – Rabbits ingested AX 4mg/ Kg of body weight daily x 24weeks

Astaxanthin Improving Vascular Resilience and Capillary Blood Flow

Astaxanthin Improving Vascular Resilience and Capillary Blood FlowGood circulation, quality of blood and resilient vessels are the key features required to fight development and progression of atherosclerosis. Blood rich in antioxidants bring nutrients and oxygen to organs while removing waste through a smooth vascular resilience and capillary flow.
Recent human studies suggest that 6mg daily of astaxanthin can enhance blood flow by 10% in terms of capillary transit time -how fast the blood runs through the vessels (Miyawaki et al., 2008). Another complementary study showed that astaxanthin decreased lower limb vascular resistance by 17% – the degree to which the blood vessels impede the flow of blood (Iwabayashi et al., 2009).(figure 8) High resistance causes an increase in blood pressure, which increases the workload of the heart. In 2005, Nagaki et al., conducted another randomized double-blind study in which 36 subjects who received oral astaxanthin, 6mg/day for 4 weeks experienced a 4% improvement in capillary blood flow (Nagaki et al., 2005).

Figure 8. astaxanthin decreased lower limb vascular resistance (LLVR) – the degree to which the vessels impede the flow of blood. LLVR increase blood pressure and circulatory complications that lead to peripheral vascular diseases, venous thrombosis and painful claudication (Yonei et al., 2009) Figure 8. astaxanthin decreased lower limb vascular resistance (LLVR) – the degree to which the vessels impede the flow of blood. LLVR increase blood pressure and circulatory complications that lead to peripheral vascular diseases, venous thrombosis and painful claudication (Yonei <em>et al.</em>, 2009) 35 healthy postmenopausal women (BMI 22.1) were included in the study, treated with astaxanthin daily dose of 12 mg for 8 weeks.

Astaxanthin Reduces Hypertension

A series of human studies suggest that astaxanthin decreases blood pressure by improving blood flow and vascular tone. In a recent clinical study, 73 subjects, between 20-60 years of age, who received 4mg of astaxanthin for day for 4 weeks showed a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (Satoh et al., 2009). In another study, 15 healthy subjects, between 27-50 of age, who received 9mg/day of astaxanthin for 12 weeks had their diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (Matsuyama et al., 2010).
A series of animal studies have largely replicated the effects of astaxanthin found in human studies (e.g. Ruiz et al., 2010; Preuss, 2011).

Outlook

Clinical studies suggests that oral supplementation of natural astaxanthin (4mg-12mg) may reduce the risk cardiovascular complications by enhancing blood rheology, lipid-metabolism, capillary circulation, vascular resilience and the endogenous antioxidant defense. Other clinical studies have also shown that astaxanthin reduce lipid-peroxidation, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and DNA damage. Mechanism of action includes inhibition of macrophage-induced inflammation in the endothelium, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and MPP-induced-structural degradation of the vessels. Furthermore, recent studies have also outlined that astaxanthin ameliorates nitric oxide dependent vessels dilation and reduce sensitivity to the angiotensin.

References

  1. Aoi et al., (2003). Astaxanthin limits exercise-induced skeletal and cardiac muscle damage in mice. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 5(1):139-44.
  2. Hussein et al., (2005b). Antihypertensive potential and mechanism of action of astaxanthin II. Vascular reactivity and hemorheology in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28(6):967-971.
  3. Hussein et al., (2006b). Antihypertensive potential and mechanism of action of astaxanthin: III. Antioxidant and histopathological effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 29(4):684-688.
  4. Hussein et al., (2005a). Antihypertensive and Neuroprotective Effects of Astaxanthin in Experimental Animals. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28(1): 47-52.
  5. Iwabayashi et al., (2009). Efficacy and safety of eight-week treatment with astaxanthin in individuals screened for increased oxidative stress burden. Journal of Anti-Aging Medicine., 6(4):15-21
  6. Iwamoto et al., (2000). Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by astaxanthin. Journal of Atherosclerosis Thrombosis. 7(4):216-22.
  7. Karppi et al., (2007). Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on lipid eroxidation. Int J Vitam Nutr Jan; 77 (1): 3-11.
  8. Kishimoto et al., (2009). Astaxanthin suppresses scavenger receptor expression and matrix metalloproteinase activity in macrophages. European Journal of Nutrition., 49(2):17-26
  9. Li et al., (2004). Alpha-tocopherol and astaxanthin decrease macrophage infiltration, apoptosis and vulnerability in atheroma of hyperlipidaemic rabbits. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology., 37:969-978.
  10. Matsuyama et al., (2010) A Safety Study on the Long-Term Consumption of Astaxanthin in Healthy Human Volunteer. Japanese Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine., (7):43-50. (Translated from Japanese)
  11. Miyawaki et al., (2005). Effects of Astaxanthin on Human Blood Rheology. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics and Medicines., 21(4):421-429.7.
  12. Murillo (1992). Hypercholesterolemic effect of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in rats. Arch. Latinoam Nutr., 42(4):409-413.
  13. Preuss et al., (2009). Astaxanthin lowers blood pressure and lessens the activity of the eroxi-angiotensin system in Zucker Fatty Rats., Journal of Functional Foods., I:13-22
  14. Yoshida et al., (2010). Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia., 209 (2): 520-3.
  15. Nakagawa et al., (2011). Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes British Journal of Nutrition., (31):1-9
  16. Choi et al., (2011). Effects of Astaxanthin on Oxidative Stress in Overweight and Obese Adults Phytother. Research (in-press).
  17. Satoh et al., (2009).Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of Toxicity and Efficacy of a New Astaxanthin-rich Hameotoccus Pluvialis. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 44: 280–284.
  18. Hussein et al., (2007). Astaxanthin ameliorates features of metabolic syndrome in SHR/NDmcr-cp. Life Sci., 16;80(6):522-9.
  19. Preuss, et al., (2011). High Dose Astaxanthin Lowers Blood Pressure and Increases Insulin Sensi-tivity in Rats: Are These Effects Interdependent?., 8(2):126-138.
  20. Ruiz et al., (2010). Astaxanthin-enriched-diet reduces blood pressure and improves cardiovascular parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pharmacological Research., 63(1):44-50
  21. Zhao et al., (2011). Ameliorative effect of astaxanthin on endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats. Arzneimittelforschung., 61(4): 239-246.

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Nutrient data for Spirulina

Nutrient data for Spirulina

CCRES Spirulina, raw

Nutrient Unit Value per 100.0g
Proximates
Water g 90.67
Energy kcal 26
Protein g 5.92
Total lipid (fat) g 0.39
Carbohydrate, by difference g 2.42
Fiber, total dietary g 0.4
Sugars, total g 0.30
Minerals
Calcium, Ca mg 12
Iron, Fe mg 2.79
Magnesium, Mg mg 19
Phosphorus, P mg 11
Potassium, K mg 127
Sodium, Na mg 98
Zinc, Zn mg 0.20
Vitamins
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid mg 0.9
Thiamin mg 0.222
Riboflavin mg 0.342
Niacin mg 1.196
Vitamin B-6 mg 0.034
Folate, DFE µg 9
Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00
Vitamin A, RAE µg 3
Vitamin A, IU IU 56
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) mg 0.49
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0
Vitamin D IU 0
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) µg 2.5
Lipids
Fatty acids, total saturated g 0.135
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.034
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.106

CCRES Spirulina, dried

Nutrient Unit Value per 100.0g cup
112g
tablespoon
7g
Proximates
Water g 4.68 5.24 0.33
Energy kcal 290 325 20
Protein g 57.47 64.37 4.02
Total lipid (fat) g 7.72 8.65 0.54
Carbohydrate, by difference g 23.90 26.77 1.67
Fiber, total dietary g 3.6 4.0 0.3
Sugars, total g 3.10 3.47 0.22
Minerals
Calcium, Ca mg 120 134 8
Iron, Fe mg 28.50 31.92 2.00
Magnesium, Mg mg 195 218 14
Phosphorus, P mg 118 132 8
Potassium, K mg 1363 1527 95
Sodium, Na mg 1048 1174 73
Zinc, Zn mg 2.00 2.24 0.14
Vitamins
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid mg 10.1 11.3 0.7
Thiamin mg 2.380 2.666 0.167
Riboflavin mg 3.670 4.110 0.257
Niacin mg 12.820 14.358 0.897
Vitamin B-6 mg 0.364 0.408 0.025
Folate, DFE µg 94 105 7
Vitamin B-12 µg 0.00 0.00 0.00
Vitamin A, RAE µg 29 32 2
Vitamin A, IU IU 570 638 40
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) mg 5.00 5.60 0.35
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) µg 0.0 0.0 0.0
Vitamin D IU 0 0 0
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) µg 25.5 28.6 1.8
Lipids
Fatty acids, total saturated g 2.650 2.968 0.186
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 0.675 0.756 0.047
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 2.080 2.330 0.146
Cholesterol mg 0 0 0

CCRES special thanks to US National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

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