Tag Archives: CCRES ALGAE

CCRES Algae Project Q&A


CCRES Algae Project

See answers to common questions about growing algae for biofuel production.

Algae’s potential
What makes algae a better alternative fuel feedstock than cellulosic feedstocks, such as switchgrass or miscanthus?
What transportation fuels can algae produce?
How much fuel can algae produce?
Where could this type of algae grow?
What can you do with material derived from algae production not used for fuel?

How much would a gallon of algae-based transportation fuel cost if it were available at a service station today?
What can accelerate the commercial availability of algae biofuel?

How will algae-based transportation fuels impact greenhouse gas emissions?
Is the process capable of being replicated at the local level to increase energy efficiency and promote low-energy overhead?

Can algae-based fuels be used in developing countries to help them bypass fossil fuel dependence?

Q: What makes algae a better alternative fuel feedstock than cellulosic feedstocks, such as switchgrass or miscanthus?

A: Large-scale production of resource-intensive plants, like switchgrass or miscanthus, requires a substantial amount of fertile land, fresh water, and petroleum-based fertilizer to grow. The fuel derived is ethanol, a lower-energy fuel not compatible with the infrastructure now used to transport, refine, and deliver liquid fuels, like gasoline and diesel.

Conversely, algae can produce hydrocarbons capable of being converted directly into actual gasoline or diesel fuel, which can be transported and delivered to market using the existing refinery infrastructure.

Q: What transportation fuels can algae produce?
A: Algae produce a variety of fuel and fuel precursor molecules, including triglycerides and fatty acids that can be converted to biodiesel, as well as lipids and isoprenoids that can be directly converted to actual gasoline and traditional diesel fuel. Algae can also be used to produce hydrogen or biomass, which can then be digested into methane.

Q: How much fuel can algae produce?

A: The United States consumes 140 billion gallons per year of liquid fuel. Algae can produce 3,000 gallons of liquid fuel per acre in a year, so it would take 45 million acres of algae to provide 100% of our liquid fuel requirements.

For comparison, in 2008 the United States had 90 million acres of corn and 67 million acres of soybeans in production. So growing 45 million acres of algae, while challenging, is certainly possible.

Q: Where could this type of algae grow?

A: Algae perform best under consistent warm temperatures between 20 and 30 degrees. Climates with plenty of sunshine offer optimal conditions. Ideal Croatian locations include many of the southern and southwestern areas, such as Dalmatia,(including Dalmatian hinterland ).

Q: What can you do with material derived from algae production not used for fuel?

A: Production of 140 billion gallons of fuel from algae would also yield about 1 trillion pounds of protein. Since algae-produced protein is very high quality, this protein could be used to feed livestock, chicken, or fish. Presently, all livestock in this country consume about 770 billion pounds of protein per year.

Q: How much would a gallon of algae-based transportation fuel cost if it were available at a service station today?

A: Today, the cost would be relatively expensive. Additional investment in research is needed to further refine and enhance the algae strains that generate such fuels. Also, more infrastructure needs to be developed to achieve the necessary economies of scale that will come with large-scale commercial production. Once overall efficiency increases, the cost of producing a gallon of gasoline from algae will dramatically reduce.

Q: What can accelerate the commercial availability of algae biofuel?

A: As viable and potentially transformational as algae-based transportation fuels have already proven, we need a much better knowledge base on algae at the microbial level. We also need to build on this platform to develop the tools and train the next generation of scientists that will help usher in the age of accessible, affordable, and sustainable fuels made from algae. That is a central component of the Croatian Center for Algae Biofuels (CCRES Algae Project).

Q: How will algae-based transportation fuels impact greenhouse gas emissions?

A: Production of alternative transportation fuels from algae will help reduce the amount of CO2 in the environment. Algae provide a carbon-neutral fuel because they consume more CO2 than is ultimately released into the atmosphere when algae-based fuel burns. The amount of carbon removed from the environment will depend on the number of algae farms built and the efficiency with which algae can be modified to convert CO2 to fuel products. Eventually, algae farms will likely be located adjacent to CO2 producing facilities, like power plants, resulting in potentially significant CO2 sequestration benefits.

Q: Is the process capable of being replicated at the local level to increase energy efficiency and promote low-energy overhead?

A: Absolutely. There are huge advantages to locating algae farms near urban centers. The algae consume industrial waste and contaminants, which are usually found in higher concentrations near cities. A perfect location is near a power plant, where the algae can consume flue gas and other waste, or near a wastewater treatment plant where the algae could consume significant amounts of nitrates and phosphates from the waste stream. This could result in cleaner effluent discharge, and perhaps eventually create “new” sources of non-potable water for industrial or agricultural use.

Q: Could algae-based fuels be used in developing countries to help them bypass fossil fuel dependence?

A: Algae-based fuels (and the protein byproducts derived from their production) definitely have the potential to positively impact developing countries. The requirements for farming algae are fairly straightforward and can be done almost anywhere in the world with an adequate supply of sunshine. In Africa, for example, millions of algae acres could be farmed in its less-populated regions, resulting in a reduced dependence on foreign oil and a reliable and sustainable energy supply.

part of
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)
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Capture the Carbon Dioxide

 Capture the Carbon Dioxide
In nature, photosynthesis uses the energy in sunlight to split water into carbon dioxide and hydrogen. A typical plant cell relies on a series of electron carriers, which create a photosynthetic circuit that allows plants to capture the carbon dioxide they need, and then convert it into the biomass that fuels cell growth. At the same time, plants produce hydrogen, a molecule that can be used in a variety of renewable and sustainable fuel technologies, but that is also expensive to produce in large quantities and currently involves non-renewable natural gas reformation.
A photosynthetic organism such as green algae tends to use solar energy to generate either fixed carbon or hydrogen—while this is fine for growth, it is not particularly efficient for making greater quantities of hydrogen. Facing this challenge, NREL researchers wondered if they could find ways to boost the hydrogen-making capacity of photosynthesis. They posed a key question: What controls the partitioning of electrons between these two competing metabolic pathways?
A team from NREL, along with colleagues from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Tel Aviv University, set out to answer this question. They hypothesized that they could engineer the process by “rewiring” algae’s catalytic circuits, or pathways. To do so, they would replace the normal hydrogen-producing enzyme, hydrogenase (H2ase), with a ferredoxin and hydrogenase fusion protein. They speculated that inserting this kind of a fusion protein into this reaction path could divert more electrons into hydrogen production and push the algae into making more hydrogen and fixing less carbon dioxide. If successful, this engineered photosynthetic circuit could potentially increase efficiencies and thus bring down the price of hydrogen. In its more than 30-year history of innovation, NREL has been a leader in working with green algae for hydrogen and biofuel production, as well as with finding ways to speed renewable fuels to market to help meet the nation’s clean energy goals. It is this expertise that encouraged MIT’s Iftach Yacoby to partner with NREL, which enabled the researchers to collaborate on technical innovations such as the CdTe-H2ase.
During NREL’s work with green algae, the lab’s own Senior Scientist Paul King and other researchers worked with hydrogenase enzymes as a key component of the photosynthetic hydrogen production equation. These biological catalysts can convert electrons and protons into hydrogen gas, or convert hydrogen into electrons and protons. For this work, the team chose to use in vitro tests under anaerobic conditions. They were able to demonstrate how the hydrogenase and other enzymes compete to regulate whether algae uses the solar energy it captures through photosynthesis to produce carbon compounds or hydrogen. As they studied these interactions, they were able to devise a procedure to engineer the proteins that compose electron transfer circuits. 
The first element of their strategy was based on their hypothesis that they could have more of the electrons go to hydrogen if they altered the composition to replace hydrogenase with a ferredoxin-hydrogenase fusion. In the anaerobic test tubes, the team confirmed that the photosynthetic circuit can switch from capturing carbon dioxide to producing hydrogen by substituting the fusion. The hydrogen production was carried out in the presence of the CO2 fixation enzyme ferredoxin:NADP-oxidoreductase (FNR). This process is a biological model for using solar power to convert water into hydrogen. The basis for this switch was modeled as two new Fd-hydrogenase circuits (boxes 1 and 2, Figure 2), and a reduced level of FNR activity modeled as a third circuit (box 3, Figure 2). 
King considered these results promising, because they suggest that fusion is an engineering strategy to improve hydrogen production efficiencies, and might be useful in resolving the biochemical mechanisms that control photosynthetic electron transport circuits and product levels from competing pathways. The next phase, already underway, is to introduce the fusion protein into green algae Chlamydomonas and determine if rewiring can take place to improve hydrogen-production efficiencies. Even though this is only one of a number of variables to consider, this strategy has already signaled an avenue to pursue in the drive to reduce the cost of hydrogen fuel and make it cost-competitive for industry.
A diagram showing a series of linked boxes with labels for biological compounds, explaining how photosynthetic electrons support carbon dioxide fixation and hydrogen production. Enlarge image

Photosynthetic electron transport pathways that support carbon dioxide fixation and hydrogen production. Light-activated PSII extracts electrons from water and transfers them, while parallel circuits couple Fd to either FNR for carbon dioxide fixation or hydrogenase production.
Credit: Paul King, NREL

A diagram showing another series of linked boxes with labels depicting the engineering of hydrogen-producing enzyme to create a hydrogen production circuit to increase hydrogen during photosynthesis. Enlarge image

Engineering of the hydrogen-producing enzyme to create an Fd-H2ase fusion changes the composition of the hydrogen production circuit to include both direct (box 1) and indirect (box 2) H2 production modes. The CO2 fixation circuit (box 3) remains open, but operates at a reduced level.
Credit: Paul King, NREL
CCRES special thanks to NREL

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Substainable Energy, LLC.


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Tiny Green Factories

Tiny Green Factories

New ways to turn photosynthetic green algae into tiny “green factories” for producing raw materials for alternative fuels.
Overturning two long-held misconceptions about oil production in algae, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory show that ramping up the microbes’ overall metabolism by feeding them more carbon increases oil production as the organisms continue to grow. The findings — published online in the journal Plant and Cell Physiology on May 28, 2012 — may point to new ways to turn photosynthetic green algae into tiny “green factories” for producing raw materials for alternative fuels.

“We are interested in algae because they grow very quickly and can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into carbon-chain molecules like starch and oils,” said Brookhaven biologist Changcheng Xu, the paper’s lead author. With eight times the energy density of starch, algal oil in particular could be an ideal raw material for making biodiesel and other renewable fuels.

But there have been some problems turning microscopic algae into oil producing factories.

For one thing, when the tiny microbes take in carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, they preferentially convert the carbon into starch rather than oils. “Normally, algae produce very little oil,” Xu said.

Before the current research, the only way scientists knew to tip the balance in favor of oil production was to starve the algae of certain key nutrients, like nitrogen. Oil output would increase, but the algae would stop growing — not ideal conditions for continuous production.

Another issue was that scientists didn’t know much about the details of oil biochemistry in algae. “Much of what we thought we knew was inferred from studies performed on higher plants,” said Brookhaven biochemist John Shanklin, a co-author who’s conducted extensive research on plant oil production. Recent studies have hinted at big differences between the microbial algae and their more complex photosynthetic relatives.

“Our goal was to learn all we could about the factors that contribute to oil production in algae, including those that control metabolic switching between starch and oil, to see if we could shift the balance to oil production without stopping algae growth,” Xu said.

The scientists grew cultures of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii — the “fruit fly” of algae — under a variety of nutrient conditions, with and without inhibitors that would limit specific biochemical pathways. They also studied a mutant Chlamydomonas that lacks the capacity to make starch. By comparing how much oil accumulated over time in the two strains across the various conditions, they were able to learn why carbon preferentially partitions into starch rather than oil, and how to affect the process.

The main finding was that feeding the algae more carbon (in the form of acetate) quickly maxed out the production of starch to the point that any additional carbon was channeled into high-gear oil production. And, most significantly, under the excess carbon condition and without nutrient deprivation, the microbes kept growing while producing oil.

“This overturns the previously held dogma that algae growth and increased oil production are mutually exclusive,” Xu said.

The detailed studies, conducted mainly by Brookhaven research associates Jilian Fan and Chengshi Yan, showed that the amount of carbon was the key factor determining how much oil was produced: more carbon resulted in more oil; less carbon limited production. This was another surprise because a lot of approaches for increasing oil production have focused on the role of enzymes involved in producing fatty acids and oils. In this study, inhibiting enzyme production had little effect on oil output.

“This is an example of a substantial difference between algae and higher plants,” said Shanklin.

In plants, the enzymes directly involved in the oil biosynthetic pathway are the limiting factors in oil production. In algae, the limiting step is not in the oil biosynthesis itself, but further back in central metabolism.

This is not all that different from what we see in human metabolism, Xu points out: Eating more carbon-rich carbohydrates pushes our metabolism to increase oil (fat) production and storage.

“It’s kind of surprising that, in some ways, we’re more like algae than higher plants are,” Xu said, noting that scientists in other fields may be interested in the details of metabolic switching uncovered by this research.

But the next step for the Brookhaven team will be to look more closely at the differences in carbon partitioning in algae and plants. This part of the work will be led by co-author Jorg Schwender, an expert in metabolic flux studies. The team will also work to translate what they’ve learned in a model algal species into information that can help increase the yield of commercial algal strains for the production of raw materials for biofuels.

This research was funded by the DOE Office of Science and the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.

special thanks to  
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)
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Way to Create Biofuels

Way to Create Biofuels


Way to Create Biofuels

Is there a new path to biofuels hiding in a handful of dirt? 
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) biologist Steve Singer leads a group that wants to find out. They’re exploring whether a common soil bacterium can be engineered to produce liquid transportation fuels much more efficiently than the ways in which advanced biofuels are made today.

The scientists are working with a bacterium called Ralstonia eutropha. It naturally uses hydrogen as an energy source to convert CO2 into various organic compounds.

The group hopes to capitalize on the bacteria’s capabilities and tweak it to produce advanced biofuels that are drop-in replacements for diesel and jet fuel. The process would be powered only by hydrogen and electricity from renewable sources such as solar or wind.

The goal is a biofuel—or electrofuel, as this new approach is called—that doesn’t require photosynthesis.

Why is this important? Most methods used to produce advanced biofuels, such as from biomass and algae, rely on photosynthesis. But it turns out that photosynthesis isn’t very efficient when it comes to making biofuel. Energy is lost as photons from the sun are converted to stored chemical energy in a plant, which is then converted to a fuel.

“We’re after a more direct way,” says Singer, who holds appointments with Berkeley Lab’s Earth Sciences Division and with the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), a multi-institutional partnership led by Berkeley Lab.

“We want to bypass photosynthesis by using a microbe that uses hydrogen and electricity to convert CO2 into a fuel,” he adds.

Widespread use of electrofuels would also reduce demands for land, water, and fertilizer that are traditionally required to produce biofuels.

Berkeley Lab’s $3.4 million electrofuel project was funded in 2010 by DOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) program, which focuses on “high risk, high payoff concepts—technologies promising genuine transformation in the ways we generate, store and utilize energy.”

That pretty much describes electrofuels. ARPA-E estimates the technology has the potential to be ten times more efficient than current biofuel production methods. But electrofuels are currently confined to lab-scale tests. A lot of obstacles must be overcome before you’ll see it at the pump.

Fortunately, research is underway. The Berkeley Lab project is one of thirteen electrofuel projects sponsored by ARPA-E. And earlier this year, ARPA-E issued a request for information focused on the commercialization of the technology.

Singer’s group includes scientists from Virginia-based Logos Technologies and the University of California at Berkeley. The project’s co-principal investigators are Harry Beller, Swapnil Chhabra, and Nathan Hillson, who are also with Berkeley Lab and JBEI; Chris Chang, a UC Berkeley chemist and a faculty scientist with Berkeley Lab’s Chemical Sciences Division; and Dan MacEachran of Logos Technologies.

The scientists chose to work with R. eutropha because the bacterium is well understood and it’s already used industrially to make bioplastics.

They’re creating engineered strains of the bacterium at JBEI, all aimed at improving its ability to produce hydrocarbons. This work involves re-routing metabolic pathways in the bacteria. It also involves adding pathways from other microorganisms, such as a pathway engineered in Escherichia coli to produce medium-chain methyl ketones, which are naturally occurring compounds that have cetane numbers similar to those of typical diesel fuel.

The group is also pursuing two parallel paths to further boost production.

In the first approach, Logos Technologies is developing a two-liter bioelectrochemical reactor, which is a conventional fermentation vessel fitted with electrodes. The vessel starts with a mixture of bacteria, CO2, and water. Electricity splits the water into oxygen and hydrogen. The bacteria then use energy from the hydrogen to wrest carbon from CO2 and convert it to hydrocarbons, which migrate to the water’s surface. The scientists hope to skim the first batch of biofuel from the bioreactor in about one year.

In the second approach, the scientists want to transform the bacteria into self-reliant, biofuel-making machines. With help from Chris Chang, they’re developing ways to tether electrocatalysts to the bacteria’s surface. These catalysts use electricity to generate hydrogen in the presence of water.

The idea is to give the bacteria the ability to produce much of their own energy source. If the approach works, the only ingredients the bacteria will need to produce biofuel would be CO2, electricity, and water.

The scientists are now developing ways to attach these catalysts to electrodes and to the surface of the bacteria.

“We’re at the proof-of-principle stage in many ways with this research, but the concept has a lot of potential, so we’re eager to see where we can take this,” says Singer.

 special thanks to 
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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Biodiesel Experts in EU

Growing global demand for energy to power economic development and growth demands the development of cost-effective technologies for a more sustainable energy economy for Europe (and world-wide) to ensure that European industry can compete successfully on the global stage.
Energy is a vital part of our daily lives in Europe and has been for centuries. But the days of secure, cheap energy are over. We are already facing the consequences of climate change, increasing import dependence and higher energy prices.
Consequently, the EU has been developing its climate and energy policy as an integrated approach that pursues the three key objectives of:
  • security of supply: to better coordinate the EU’s supply of and demand for energy within an international context;
  • competitiveness: to ensure the competitiveness of European economies and the availability of affordable energy;
  • sustainability: to combat climate change by promoting renewable energy sources and energy efficiency.
Click to enlarge EU primary energy requirements by fuel Source: European Energy and Transport, Trends to 2030 
Click to enlarge Import dependency of the EU (in %) Source: European Energy and Transport, Trends to 2030 
These objectives have been translated into binding targets. By 2020, the EU has committed itself to:
  • reducing its greenhouse-gas emissions by 20% (or even 30% in case an international agreement is reached that commits other countries in a similar way);
  • increasing the share of renewable energies to 20% of total EU energy consumption;
  • increasing the share of renewable energies in transport to 10%;
  • improving energy efficiency by 20%.
Achieving these goals will require major breakthroughs in the research and development of new technologies. The European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) – the technology pillar of the European energy and climate policy – outlines long-term energy research priorities for the horizon of 2020 to 2050. It lays the foundations for a European policy for energy technology and establishes a framework that brings together the diverse activities in the field of energy research. For more information please visit the SET-Plan section of this website.

Biodiesel Experts in EU

NOVAOL AUSTRIA GmbH Industriegelande West 3
A-2460 Bruck/Leitha

OLEON Assenedestraat 2
9940 Ertvelde
Bioro Moervaartkaai 1
B-9042 Gent
NEOCHIM Parc Industriel, zone A
7181 Feluy
Proviron Fine Chemicals nv G.Gilliotstraat 60 – zone 2
B-2620 Hemiksem
FEDIOL 168, avenue de Tervuren
(bte 12) – 1st floor
B – 1150 – Bruxelles

Rapid Oil Industry Co. Ltd. 81A, Nikola Gabrovski st.
5000 Veliko Tarnovo

Agropodnik Dobronin 315
588 13 Polna
PREOL a.s. Lovosice,
Terezinska 47
PSC 41017

Ambrosia Oils (1976) LTD Larnaka Industrial Estate,
P.O.Box 40433, 6304 Larnaka

Daka Biodiesel Bragesvej 18
DK 4100 Ringsted

Neste Renewable Fuels Oy P.O. Box 726

75008 Paris
INEOS Enterprises France SAS Z.I. Baleycourt – BP 10095
F – 55103 VERDUN Cedex
SCA Pétrole et Dérivés 7, Allée des Mousquetaires
Parc de Tréville
91078 Bondoufle Cedex
France Ester
France Ester Route d’Alençon
61400 Saint Langis les Mortagne
Nord Ester Rue Van Cauwenberghe
Zone Industrielle de Petite-Synthe
59640 Dunkerque
Veolia / SARP Industries SARP Industries
427, route du Hazay
F-78520 Limay
Centre Ouest Céreales B.P. 10036
86131 Jaunay-clan Cedex

Nippoldstrasse. 117
D-21107 Hamburg
GmbH & Co. KG
Saegemuehlenstrasse. 45
D-26789 Leer (Ostfriesland)
ADM Soya Mainz GmbH Dammweg 2
55130 Mainz
Ruedeckenstrasse 51 / Am Hafen
D-38239 Salzgitter-Beddingen
VERBIO Diesel Bitterfeld GmbH & Co. KG
Areal B Chemiepark Bitterfeld-Wolfen, OT Greppin, Stickstoffstrasse
D-6749 Bitterfeld-Wolfen
Industrie Strasse 34
41460 Neuss
Fürst-von-Salm-Straße 18
46313 Borken-Burlo
BIOPETROL Industries AG Baarerstrasse 53/55,
CH-6304 Zug
EcoMotion GmbH Brunnenstr. 138
D-44536 Lünen
Mannheim Bio Fuel GmbH Inselstrasse 10
D-68169 Mannheim
Vesta Biofuels Brunsbüttel GmbH
Fahrstrasse 51
D-25541 Brunsbuttel
Rheinische Bio Ester GmbH & Co. KG Duisburger Strasse 15/19
41460 Neuss
Am Weidendamm 1a
D-10117 Berlin

33 Pigon Str., 145 64 Kifissia
AGROINVEST S.A. 9th km Thessaloniki-Thermi
Thermi II Building
57001 Thessaloniki
GF Energy 56 Kifisias Av. & Delfon st.,
6th floor, 151 25 Marousi,

Öko-line Hungary Kft. Városligeti fasor 47-49
H-1071 Budapest

Green Biofuels Ireland Ltd Wexford Farmers Co-op
Blackstoops, Enniscorthy Co. Wexford

ECO FOX S.r.L. Via Senigallia 29
I=61100 Pesaro
NOVAOL ITALY Via G: Spqdolini 5
20141 Milano
ITAL BI OIL S.r.l. Ital Bi Oil S.r.l.
Via Baione 222 – 224
70043 – Monopoli (BA)
OIL. B srl OIL.B srl
Via Sabotino, 2
24121 Bergamo
OXEM Strada Provinciale Km 2,6 – 27030
Mezzana Bigli (Pv)
Mythen Via Lanzone ,31
20123 MILANO
PFP S.p.A Via Scaglia Est 134
41126 Modena
Unione Produttori Biodiesel
Via di Vigna Murata 40
00143 Roma

BioVenta 66 Dzintaru
Ventspils, LV-3600

Biovalue Holding BV Westlob 6
NL-9979XG Eemshaven

Croatian Center of RES Medarska 24
10000 Zagreb

IBEROL NUTASA Av. Frei Miguel Contreiras, 54A – 3º
1700-213 Lisboa
Torrejana Casal da Amendoeira
Apartado 2
2354-908 Riachos
Sovena Oil Seeds Portugal R. General Ferreira Martins 6, 8º
1495-137 Algés

Prio Strada Stelea Spatarul
nr 12, Sector 3, Bucuresti
Expur 45 Tudor Vladimirescu Bvd. District 5
050881 Bucharest
Procera Biofuels Muncii street, No.11 Fundulea city
Calarasi County, 915200

BIONET EUROPA Poligon Agro-Reus
Adria Gual 4
43206 Reus
ACCIONA Biocombustibles, S.A Av. Ciudad de la Innovación, 5
31621 Sarriguren (Navarra)
Biocombustiblies Ctra. de Valencia Km. 202
Pol. Sepes – Parcelas 145-146
16004 Cuenca
Green Fuel Avda. San Francisco Javier, 24, Ed. Sevilla I
41018 Sevilla
Stocks del Valles
Stocks Del Valles SA Pol. Ind. El Pedregar
C/. Progres, 19-21
E-08160 Montmelo Barcelona
Bio-Oils Energy, S.L. C/ Almagro 2, 4º Dcha.
28010 Madrid
BioArag Ctra A- 1240, Km 0,900 – 22540
Altorricon (Huesca)
BioNorte S.A. Poligono de la Florida 71
33958 San Martin Del Rey Aurelio
APPA Muntaner 269
08021 Barcelona

Ecobränsle i Karlshamn AB Västra Kajen 8B
SE-374 31 Karlshamn
Norups Biorefinery AB Box 109
289 21 Knislinge
Perstorp Prastgatan 12
SE-252 24 Helsingborg

Argent Energy 5th Floor, 9 Hatton Street
London NW8 8PL
Harvest Energy 2 Cavendish Square
London, W1G 0PU
Agri Energy Northampton Road, Blisworth
Northampton, NN7 3DR

Expert Groups 

alt Prof Thierry CHOPIN University of New Brunswick Canada
alt Dr Alan CRITCHLEY Acadian Seaplants Ltd Canada
alt Dr Amir NEORI
Israel Oceanographic & Limnological
Research Ltd
(Chief executive Ireland)
Alternative energy Resources Limited LTD
(biofuels production and supply company)
Prof Klaus LUNING Sylt Algae Farm Germany
altalt Prof Masahiro NOTOYA Tokyo University Marine Science and
Technology International Seaweed Association
alt Dr Paolo GUALTIERI CNR- Istituto di Biofisica di Pisa Italy
alt Ms Simonetta ZARRILLI United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD)
alt Ms Sofia SEQUEIRA Galp Portugal
alt Mr Jeff TSCHIRLEY UN Food and Agricoltural Organisation
alt Mr Michael. B. LAKEMAN
Mr Andrew BRAFF
Algal Biomass Organisation USA
alt Mr Frédéric MONOT Institute Français du Petrol, Biotechnology
and Biomass Chemistry
alt Mr. Guido DEJONGH CEN – European Committee for Standardisation
(New Standardization Opportunities)


Prof. Spiros AGATHOS Louvain University
Ms. Maria BARBOSA WURFood & BioBased
The Netherlands
Dr. Kateřina BIŠOVÁ Czech Institute of Microbiology
Czech Republic
Mr. Jonas DAHL Danish Technological Institute
Dr. Maeve EDWARDS Irish Seaweed Centre
Mr. Cameron EDWARDS VESTA Biofuels Brunsbüttel
Prof. Jose FERNANDEZ SEVILLA University of Almeria
Dr. Imogen FOUBERT K.U.Leuven University
Dr. Sridharan GOVINDACHARY Queen’s University
Prof. Patricia J. HARVEY University of Greenwich
Mr. Sven JACOBS Howest
Mr. Remy MARCHAL Institut Français du Pétrole
Mr. Riccardo MARCHETTI Oxem S.p.a
Dr. Laura MARTINELLI Studio Martinelli
Ms. Roberta MODOLO Studio Martinelli
Mr. Benoit QUEGUINEUR Irish Seaweed Centre
Ms. Jessica RATCLIFF Irish Seaweed Centre
Mr. Jean-François ROUS Diester Industrie
Mr. Philippe SCHILD European Commission (DR Research)
Mr. Johannes SKARKA Karlsruher Institute of Technology
Ms. Andrea SONNLEITNER Bioenergy 2020
Prof. Laurenz THOMSEN Jacobs University Bremen
Dr. Wolfgang TRUNK European Commission (DG Health)
Mr. Dries VANDAMME K.U.Leuven University
Mr. Peter VAN DEN DORPEL AlgaeLink N.V.
The Netherlands
Dr. Koen VANHOUTTE Navicula
Mr. Ignacio VASQUEZ- L European Commission (DG Climate)
Dr. Milada VITOVÁ Czech Institute of Microbiology
Czech Republic
Dr. Wim VYVERMAN Ghent University
Ms. Annika WEISS KIT
Mr. Zeljko Serdar Croatian Center of RES

Prof. Gabriel ACIEN FERNANDEZ Almeria University
Dr. Dina BACOVSKY Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH
Dr. Natascia BIONDI University of Florence
Prof. Sammy BOUSSIBA Ben‐Gurion University
Mr. Marco BROCKEN Evodos The Netherlands
Ms. Griet CASTELEYN Ghent University Belgium
Mr. Nuno COELHO AlgaFuel Portugal
Dr. Guillermo GARCIA-B.REINA University of Las Palmas Gan Canaria Spain
Mr. Guido DE JONGH CEN Belgium
Mr. Alessandro FLAMMINI FAO Aquatic Biofuels Italy
Mr. Clayton JEFFRYES Louvain University Belgium
Dr. Bert LEMMENS VITO Belgium
Dr. Stefan LEU Ben‐Gurion University Israel
Mr. Philippe MORAND CNRS France
Mr. Josche MUTH EREC Belgium
Ms. Liliana RODOLFI Fotosintetica & Microbiologica S.r.l Italy
Dr. Robin SHIELDS Swansea University UK
Dr. Raphael SLADE Imperial College London UK
Mr. Mario R. TREDICI University of Florence Italy
Ms. Sofie VAN DEN HENDE Ghent University Belgium
Mr. Ron VAN ERCK European Commission(DG Energy) Belgium
Prof. Rene WIJFFELS Wageningen Universiteit The Netherlands
Mr. Philippe WILLEMS Orineo BVBA Belgium
Dr. Attila WOOTSCH MFKK Hungary Hungary
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“CCRES is a member-based non-profit organization with membership open to research institutions, public and private sector organizations, students, and individuals.” 

says Zeljko Serdar, President & CEO of CCRES

Who are we?

CCRES is a biotech NGO founded in 1988 and incorporated in the Republic of Croatia. Our Main research center is located in Zagreb, Croatia. CCRES Algae is producing various types of enhanced algae, harboring high value products for the global aquaculture markets.
What do we do?

CCRES Algae’s Project have been designed to alleviate some of the bottlenecks of the aquaculture industry. Our current products include a range of algal products for the different growth stages of many aquaculture species.  Our pipeline products include a range of algal based, orally-delivered high value traits for ornamental and edible markets of fish and crustaceans. CCRES Algae’s Project have been scientifically designed as an oral application, replacing the need for costly techniques, specifically injections.
While biodiesel is the fuel end product that is pursued most, algae can be processed to yield other energy products such as ethanol, diesel, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons. We have started exploring production of these products as well.
The various uses of algae will be examined such as its role in the nutraceutical, food, cosmetic and animal feed industries and as a replacement for petroleum as a transportation fuel.
Our Technology

CCRES Algae‘s technology has been efficient and safe.

Our Potential

CCRES Algae’s potential is not restricted to the vast aquaculture market. Developing products for the entire animal husbandry industry (poultry, cattle, swine, etc.,) is just around the corner.
The Algae Production CCRES Courses will begin with an overview of photosynthesis and the carbon cycle, the taxonomy of algae and the basics of cell biology.  Safety in the lab and the process of experimental methodology are also included in the curriculum. CCRES students will learn about algae growth factors such as temperature, light, CO2 and nutrients.  The different kinds of photobioreactor designs will be explored, including closed vs. open systems.  CCRES students will learn about the importance of cultivation protocols, and when to feed, harvest and how to process the algae.  Analytics will be covered as well which includes the use of the microscope and learning about the basic algae handling and testing procedures such as dilution, cell counting and dry weight measurment.
project of
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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