Tag Archives: BIOLOGICAL FILTERS FOR AQUACULTURE

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As oil prices continue to rise, fuel and chemical industries look for alternative ways to produce products. These products include fine and bulk chemicals, solvents, bio-plastics, vitamins, food additives, bio-pesticides and liquid biofuels such as bio-ethanol and bio-diesel.
Industrial biotechnology applies the tools of biology to develop innovative processes and products in a cost-efficient and eco-efficient manner, using sustainable feed stocks.

CCRES is a member-based non-profit organization with membership open to research institutions, public and private sector organizations, students, and individuals. Every day, CCRES supporters fight to make environmental education, clean energy solutions, and the green economy a reality.

The mission of CCRES ALGAE PROJECT  is to support development of innovative, sustainable, and commercially viable algae-based biotechnology solutions for energy, green chemistry, bio-products, water conservation, and CO2 abatement challenges.

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CCRES ALGAE is vital to CCRES mission and offers entrepreneurs and companies, large and small alike, a unique opportunity to actively participate in shaping the algae biotechnology research agenda for our future.Joining with commercial partners will propel research discoveries into energy and economic solutions for Croatian sustainable future.

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CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

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BIOGORIVO TREĆE GENERACIJE

Bazeni za uzgoj algi

Proizvodnja biogoriva iz algi

Ovisnost svijeta o neobnovljivim izvorima energije, uglavnom fosilnim gorivima, trn je u oku mnogih znanstvenika i aktivista za zaštitu okoliša diljem svijeta. Samim time ne iznenađuju globalna nastojanja da se smanji ovisnost o fosilnim gorivima i pronađu ekonomski prihvatljiva alternativna goriva i da se time znatno smanje emisije štetnog ugljičnog dioksida u atmosferu. Jedna od alternativa o kojoj se najviše priča su biogoriva. Biogoriva su zbog svoje sličnosti s naftnim derivatima poprilično dobra alternativa fosilnim gorivima i korištenje biogoriva rezultira s manjim emisijama CO2 u atmosferu. Zbog toga su biogoriva ekološki puno prihvatljivija od konkurentskih fosilnih goriva. Manje ukupne emisije ugljičnog dioksida iz biogoriva rezultat su zatvorenog ugljičnog kruga – biljke i alge uzimaju iz atmosfere ugljični dioksid da bi mogle rasti, a kad se biogoriva upotrebljavaju taj isti ugljični dioksid se vraća natrag u atmosferu. Ugljični otisak fosilnih goriva ide u samo jednom smjeru – iz zemlje u atmosferu, tj.u niti jednom koraku proizvodnje i korištenja fosilnih goriva ne smanjuje se količina CO2 u atmosferi.

Alge u laboratoriju Hrvatskog Centara Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)
Biogorivo može biti čvrsto, tekuće ili čak plinovito gorivo koje je proizvedeno iz biološkog materijala. Kod organizama koji obavljaju fotosintezu, kao na primjer kukuruz ili soja, biljke koriste energiju sunca i vodu da bi pretvorile dostupni ugljični dioksid u ugljikohidrate, tj. da bi pohranile energiju. Ovakav proces je zapravo dvostruko koristan: ne samo da je proizvedeno gorivo, nego je za to potrošena određena količina ugljičnog dioksida pa ovakva proizvodnja goriva ima pozitivni učinak i s energetske i s ekološke točke gledanja. Iako se biogoriva mogu proizvoditi od bilo kakvih izvora ugljika, danas se uglavnom koriste razne vrste ratarskih biljaka diljem svijeta. Postoji mala razlika između različitih biljaka u smislu goriva koje se od njih proizvodi. Na primjer etanol se proizvodi od biljaka koje sadrže puno šećera (šećerna trska, kukuruz), a za proizvodnju biodizela koriste se biljke koje sadrže više ulja (soja, kanola, uljana repica).
Biogoriva imaju mnoge prednosti, ali postoje i nedostaci. Uzgajanje biljaka za proizvodnju biogoriva zahtjeva kvalitetna poljoprivredna zemljišta a to naravno povećava potražnju za takvim zemljištima i diže cijenu. Najveći problem s biogorivima je zapravo činjenica da je proizvodnja biogoriva pretvaranje hrane u gorivo, a to loše utječe i na cijenu i na dostupnost hrane diljem svijeta, a već sad postoji gotovo milijarda ljudi koji žive na rubu gladi. Prema tome pretvaranje hrane u gorivo ne izgleda kao logičan izbor za rješavanje energetskih problema.
Prednosti korištenja algi za proizvodnju biogoriva 
Proizvodnja biogoriva iz algi ima mnoge prednosti koje taj postupak čine gotovo savršenim izvorom goriva. Alge rastu 50 do 100 puta brže od tradicionalnih kultura za proizvodnju biogoriva. Dodatna velika prednost je to što su alge jednostanični organizmi koji ne zahtijevaju svježu pitku i zemljište da bi rasli, a to znatno pojednostavnjuje proizvodnju. Prema nekim stručnjacima proizvodnja goriva iz algi je najbolja alternativa fosilnim gorivima i uz dobru podršku ta bi biogoriva u budućnosti mogla u potpunosti izbaciti fosilna goriva iz upotrebe.
Gdje se mogu uzgajati alge?
 Alge se mogu uzgajati u odvojenim vodenim površinama, čak iako voda nije dovoljno kvalitetna za piće. Alge se također mogu uzgajati i u slanoj vodi. Uzgajajući alge na površinama koje nisu pogodne za proizvodnju hrane, više zemljišta i kvalitetne vode ostaje za proizvodnju hrane. Veća količina proizvedene hrane može se onda upotrijebiti za borbu protiv gladi, a ne za proizvodnju biogoriva kao do sada. Odemo li tridesetak godina unatrag, ili da smo precizniji u 1978 godinu, možemo primijetiti da je čak i američko ministarstvo za energiju (Department of Energy – DOE) pokrenulo „Aquatic Species Program“ s ciljem istraživanja moguće proizvodnje energije i biogoriva iz algi. Prema tome, proizvodnja biogoriva iz algi nije nova ideja kao što misli većina ljudi. Usprkos dobroj ideji, ovo istraživanje nije bilo produktivno, uglavnom zbog padajućih cijena sirove nafte i činjenice da je DOE bilo prisiljeno smanjivati troškove. Sve ovo rezultiralo je gašenjem programa 1996 godine.
Usprkos gašenju, istraživanja unutar tog programa dala su vrlo važne rezultate, a najvažnije od svega je zaključak da bi proizvodnja biogoriva iz algi svakako mogla dostići željene razine. U ono doba studije su pokazale i jedan veliki nedostatak: zaključeno je da postupak ne bi bio financijski opravdan sve i da se cijena sirove nafte udvostruči. Ovaj zaključak imao je solidnu potporu sve do 2006 godine u kojoj se cijena nafte gotovo utrostručila u odnosu na prošlu dekadu, a cijena nafte je i dalje rasla. Uz trenutne probleme globalnog zatopljenja i visoke cijene sirove nafte stvorile su se idealne prilike za ponovnu evaluaciju ovog izvora energije.
Tehnologije za uzgoj algi (Algal Growth System)
 
Prozvodnja biogoriva u Hrvatskom Centru Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)
Proizvodnja biogoriva iz algi vrlo je zanimljivo područje istraživanja mnogim znanstvenicima diljem planeta, ja jedan on vodećih centara za takova istraživanja je laboratorij za pogone i konverziju energije (The Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory – EECL) na sveučilištu Colorado State University. Ovaj laboratorij usmjeren je prema tehnologijama koje bi omogućile industrijska rješenja za energetske i ekološke izazove. Glavni projekt laboratorija fokusiran je na proizvodnju biogoriva iz algi i trebao bi rezultirati skalabilnom i cjenovno prihvatljivom tehnologijom za proizvodnju goriva. Jedan od glavnih igrača na tom polju svakako je tvrtka Solix Biofuels, kompanija koje je usavršila nekoliko generacija sustava za uzgoj algi (Algal Growth System – AGS), tehnologije koja je sad operativna na pokaznom polju Coyote Gulch u jugozapadnom Coloradu.
Tvrtka Solix Biofuels je vodeća u proizvodnju tehnologija za kreiranje iskoristive energije iz algi. Njihova tehnologija usmjerena je na omogućavanje velike komercijalizacije goriva temeljenih na mikroalgama i dodatnih koprodukata. Alge se mogu uzgajati na dva osnovna načina – sustav otvorenog bazena (prirodnog ili umjetno napravljenog) ili umjetni zatvoreni sustav. Alge moraju biti vrlo otporne na nametnike za uzgoj u otvorenim sustavima jer su to uvjeti koje nije lako kontrolirati.
Bez kontroliranih uvjeta teško je održavati rast željene vrste algi, odnosno održati rast na optimalnoj razini za proizvodnju biogoriva. Ovo je glavni razlog zašto Solix Biofuels uglavnom razvija zatvorene sustave za uzgoj algi. Zatvoreni sustavi imaju nekoliko prednosti: ne samo da zatvoreni sustavi omogućavaju uzgoj određene kulture, nego se alge u tim sustavima mogu direktno hraniti visoko koncentriranim ugljičnim dioksidom iz industrijskih procesa, a to naravno maksimizira količinu „ulovljenog“ ugljičnog dioksida koji bi inače bio ispušten u atmosferu. Prvi prototip AGS sustava napravljen je 2006 godine. Od onda kompanija radi na usavršavanju tehnologije i znatno je proširila površinu na kojima uzgaja alge. Posljednji veliki uspjeh dolazi iz srpnja 2009 kad su instalirali veliki sustav za proizvodnju biogoriva na pokaznom polju Coyote Gulch.
Što su zapravo postigli? 
Započeli su s velikim izazovom: prvo je trebalo razviti procese za skupljanje podataka i kontroliranje rasta ta automatizirani AGS. Željeli su jedinstvenu tehnološku platformu koja bi podržavala i prirodne i industrijske operacije. U prirodnim uvjetima sustav treba biti prilagodljiv pa je bilo potrebno mnogo kemijskih i fizičkih senzora te kontrola protoka. Za operacije u industrijskom okruženju glavni je naglasak bio na stabilnoj, pouzdanoj i jednostavnoj platformi koja ima sučelja prema industrijskoj instrumentaciji i kontrolama. Industrijska okruženja također moraju imati sustave skupljanja podataka u zajednički repozitorij da bi se informacije mogle jedinstveno prezentirati svim zainteresiranim stranama: menadžerima, operativi i odjelu za istraživanja i razvoj. Zbog toga je kreiran cijeli sustav za nadzor i skupljanje podataka (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) uključujući i sučelje za monitoriranje i kontrolu rasta algi.
Pokusna energana uključuje raznovrsne sustave izgrađene za proizvodnju plina i tokova vode, sam sustav za uzgoj algi, sustave za skupljanje algi i konačno sustave za proizvodnju biogoriva. Svi ovi sustavi omogućuju im vrlo precizno skupljanje podataka i ispitivanje odaziva različitih vrsta algi na različite uvjete uzgoja.
Zaključak 
Alge u procesu HCOIE
Biogoriva temeljena na algama definitivno imaju potencijala pokrenuti revoluciju u energetskoj industriji i mogla bi igrati vodeću ulogu u borbi protiv stakleničkih plinova i klimatskih promjena. Naravno, da bi se došlo do toga morat će se pokrenuti još mnoga istraživanja i biti će potrebna znatna financijska sredstva. Kompanije poput Solix Biofuels su pioniri koji bi mogli pogurati ovaj energetski sektor u jedan od najkompetitivnijih na energetskom tržištu. Lobiji iza fosilnih goriva su još uvijek prejaki, ali s rastućim problemom globalnih klimatskih promjena ti lobiji bi uskoro mogli u određenoj mjeri oslabiti, čime bi se širom otvorila vrata alternativnim gorivima. Jedna od alternativa koja svakako zaslužuje pažnju u godinama koje dolaze su biogoriva iz algi. Njihov energetski potencijal, činjenica da ne pretvaramo hranu u gorivo i znatno smanjene ukupne emisije stakleničkih plinova trebali bi im osigurati dovoljna financijska sredstva za daljnja istraživanja.
Potražnja za energijom neće se smanjivati u godinama koje dolaze nego će rasti i biti će potrebna alternativna goriva bez obzira koliko će dominantna ostati fosilna goriva. Proizvodnja biogoriva iz algi mogla bi biti jedna od iznenađujućih takmaca na polju alternativnih goriva u ne tako dalekoj budućnosti, osobito ako cijene fosilnih goriva budu rasle. A u međuvremenu bi kompanije i udruženja poput američke Solix Biofuels ili hrvatskog HCOIE trebale nastaviti svoja istraživanja i ukazivati na prednosti koje ovakav proces ima. Ovime bi se svijest o toj alternativi znatno proširila i implementacija proizvodnje na globalnoj razini postala bi moguća kad za to dođe vrijeme.
Hrvatski Centar Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)
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CCRES ALGAE TEAM

Algae are emerging to be one of the most promising long-term, sustainable sources of biomass and oils for fuel, food, feed, and other co-products. What makes them so attractive are the large number and wide variety of benefits associated with how and where they grow.

Nearly all these benefits stem from the fact that these plants have evolved over billions of years to produce and store energy in the form of oil, and they do this more efficiently than any other known natural or engineered process.

Here are 10 reasons why algae are a promising new source of fuel and other products:

1) Algae Grow Fast
Algae can double their numbers every few hours, can be harvested daily, and have the potential to produce a volume of biomass and biofuel many times greater than that of our most productive crops.

2) Algae Can Have High Biofuel Yields
Algae store energy in the form of oils and carbohydrates, which, combined with their high productivity, means they can produce from 2,000 to as many as 5,000 gallons of biofuels per acre per year.

3) Algae Consume CO2
Like any other plant, algae, when grown using sunlight, consume (or absorb) carbon dioxide (CO2) as they grow, releasing oxygen (O2) for the rest of us to breathe. For high productivity, algae require more CO2, which can be supplied by emissions sources such as power plants, ethanol facilities, and other sources.

4) Algae Do Not Compete With Agriculture
Algae cultivation uses both land that in many cases is unsuitable for traditional agriculture, as well as water sources that are not useable for other crops, such as sea-, brackish- and wastewater. As such, algae-based fuels complement biofuels made from traditional agricultural processes.

5) Microalgal Biomass Can Be Used for Fuel, Feed and Food
Microalgae can be cultivated to have a high protein and oil content, for example, which can be used to produce either biofuels or animal feeds, or both. In addition, microalgal biomass, which is rich in micronutrients, is already used for dietary supplements to advance human health.

6) Macroalgae Can Be Grown in the Sea
Macroalgae (seaweeds) are grown in the sea, or even on land with seawater, and their sugars can be converted into biofuels and chemicals.

7) Algae Can Purify Wastewaters
Algae thrive in nutrient-rich waters like municipal waste waters (sewage), animal wastes and some industrial effluents, at the same time purifying these wastes while producing a biomass suitable for biofuels production.

8) Algal Biomass Can Be Used as an Energy Source
After oil extraction, the remaining algal biomass can be dried and “pelletized” and used as fuel that is burned in industrial boilers and other power generation sources.

9) Algae Can Be Used to Produce Many Useful Products
Algae can be cultivated to produce a variety of products for large to small markets: plastics, chemical feedstocks, lubricants, fertilizers, and even cosmetics. See other products algae is used for here.

10) The Algae Industry is a Job Creation Engine
Algae can grow in a wide variety of climates in a multitude of production methods, from ponds to photobioreactors to fermenters, and thus will create a wide variety of jobs throughout the United States, from research to engineering, from construction to farming, from marketing to financial services.

CCRES ALGAE TEAM

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Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis

Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis

 Astaxanthin
President & CEO of CCRES
 Astaxanthin
Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, it is a dark red pigment and the main carotenoid found in algae and aquatic animals. It is responsible for the red/pink coloration of crustaceans, shellfish, and the flesh of salmonoids. Algatechnologies produces astaxanthin from the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis, the richest known natural source for astaxanthin.
Astaxanthin however, is more than just a red pigment, it is primarily an extremely powerful antioxidant. It has the unique capacity to quench free radicals and reactive species of oxygen and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Studies have shown astaxanthin to be over 500 times stronger than vitamin E and much more potent than other carotenoids such as lutein, lycopene and β-carotene.
Astaxanthin was found to have beneficial effects in many health conditions related to the Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders, skin health, joint health, muscle endurance, as well as to the cardiovascular, immune, eye and other systems.

Natural astaxanthin – molecule properties

Astaxanthin (3,3’-dihydroxy-β-β-carotene-4,4’-dione) is a xanthophyll  carotenoid,  commonly found in marine environments where it gives an orange-pink coloration to several sea-species.



CCRES  Haematococcus pluvialis
Astaxanthin has two chiral centers, at the 3 and 3′ positions. The main astaxanthin stereoisomer (3S, 3S’) found in the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis is the main form found in wild salmon.

CCRES  Haematococcus pluvialis
 Astaxanthin consists of geometric isomers (trans and cis). the cis isomers display higher bioavailability and potency in humans This isomer is abundant (up to 20%) in the natural astaxanthin complex produced by the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis.

CCRES  Haematococcus pluvialis

The astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae occurs in the esterified form, which is more stable than the free astaxanthin form.

CCRES  Haematococcus pluvialis

Astaxanthin cannot be synthesized by animals and humans and must be provided in the diet. Natural astaxanthin has been part of the human diet for thousands of years.


CCRES  Haematococcus pluvialis

Astaxanthin, unlike most carotenes is not converted to vitamin A (retinol) in the human body.


CCRES  Haematococcus pluvialis

Natural astaxanthin has no “pro-oxidant” activity – It does not become an exhausted oxidant thanks to its unique molecule structure that is able to release the excess of energy as heat.

CCRES  Haematococcus pluvialis
 Astaxanthin has been shown to actually cross the blood-brain and blood-retina barriers, meaning it can positively impact disorders related to brain and the central nervous system.
 
 Astaxanthin
CCRES ALGAE PROJECT
part of
CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)
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News and Events by CCRES September 27, 2012

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources

News and Events September 27, 2012

One of World’s Largest Wind Farms Starts Up in Oregon

Photo of wind turbines in a flat landscape.

The Shepherds Flat wind farm, one of the largest in the world, is now operating in Oregon.
Credit: Energy Department
Caithness Energy announced on September 22 that its Shepherds Flat Wind Farm in Oregon—one of the largest in the world—is now operational and generating up to 845 megawatts of electricity. The Energy Department supported the project with a $1.3 billion partial loan guarantee through the Recovery Act in 2010. The company said the project in the northeastern part of the state will generate enough electricity to power 235,000 U.S. homes.
Sponsored by Caithness and General Electric (GE) Energy Financial Services, the project consists of 338 GE 2.5xl turbines, which are being deployed for the first time in North America. The project’s output is contracted through 20-year power purchase agreements with Southern California Edison. The project will eliminate nearly1,216,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year, an amount equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions from more than 212,000 passenger vehicles. See the Caithness press release and the October 13, 2010 edition of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy newsletter.

USDA Announces $10 Million in Rural Smart Grid Funds

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced on September 20 the latest in a series of funding steps to modernize and improve the efficiency of rural electric generation and transmission systems. The agency will offer loan guarantees to support nearly $10 million in smart grid technologies.
One of the loan recipients is Nobles Cooperative Electric, which serves counties in southwestern Minnesota and northwestern Iowa. Their loan includes $850,000 in smart grid projects. The Gundy Electric Cooperative, Inc., which serves customers in Iowa and Missouri, has also been selected for a loan guarantee that includes over $700,000 in smart grid projects. Earlier this month, the USDA announced it had met its goal to finance $250 million in smart grid technologies in fiscal year 2012. See the USDA press release.
In 2009, the Energy Department released the first Smart Grid System Report, which examined smart grid deployment nationwide. The report noted that smart grids have the potential to dramatically change how we experience electricity in the country. See the July 22, 2009 edition of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network News newsletter.

New York Brings Energy Efficient Technologies to Market

New York announced on September 17 the launch of a $30 million initiative to accelerate the commercialization of emerging, cutting-edge energy efficiency technologies. The Energy Efficiency Market Acceleration Program (EE-MAP) is being implemented by the New York Power Authority (NYPA). The new initiative will fund research, market development activities, and demonstration projects to help leverage investments and promote business development opportunities for emerging energy efficiency technologies.
The program will focus on accelerating the market development of energy efficiency technologies by speeding their deployment and training engineers, contractors, and maintenance service providers in designing and installing energy efficiency products, among other efforts. To support the initiative, NYPA has teamed with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Electric Power Research Institute, a nonprofit collaborative research organization, to catalog state-of-the-art energy efficiency products and services, identify commercial trends, and screen and track emerging technologies. See the New York press release.

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

  special thanks to U.S. Department of Energy | USA.gov

Clean Energy in Our Community: Allegheny College and Meadville, Pennsylvania

In the third edition of DOE’s “Clean Energy in Our Community” video series, Allegheny College shows us that size doesn’t matter. Even with only 2,100 undergraduate students, Allegheny is successfully incorporating sustainability into its culture, operations, and curriculum—helping to grow the local green energy economy both on and off its Meadville, Pennsylvania, campus.
By working with students, faculty, staff, and local partners, the campus has created a composting facility that processes between 800-900 pounds of food, compostable paper, and plastic each day. The result is a soil-like, nutrient-rich material that helps to replenish the campus’s lawns, gardens, and flowerbeds without using chemical fertilizers.
The campus is well on its way to achieve its goal of climate neutrality by 2020. Earlier this year, Allegheny committed to purchasing 100% of its electricity from wind generated sources, a change that immediately eliminated over 50% of the institution’s carbon footprint. Through investments in energy audits and campus-wide energy retrofits, the campus is using Energy Star appliances and EPEAT certified computers to increase energy efficiency. In addition, all new construction on campus buildings will be LEED certified Silver, and historic buildings are in the process of becoming LEED certified. For the complete story, see the Energy Blog.

5 Questions about the SunShot Prize for Minh Le

Recently, we announced the launch of the SunShot Prize—a new competition aimed at making it faster, easier, and cheaper to install rooftop solar energy systems. Participating teams must demonstrate that solar energy is an affordable solution for American families and businesses. To learn more about the competition, we caught up with Minh Le, Acting Solar Program Manager at the Energy Department. In the Q&A exchange below, Le shares important details about the impetus driving this innovative competition.
Why did the Department launch the SunShot Prize?
The global clean energy race is moving forward at lightning speed, and it’s time for the United States to regain its competitive edge. The SunShot Prize is meant to inspire organizations across the nation to dramatically reduce the costs of going solar. As part of the SunShot Initiative’s larger effort to make solar cost-competitive by 2020, this new program takes aim at soft costs, which are essentially what we think of as “the price to plug in.” For the complete story, see the Energy Blog.

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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News and Events by CCRES September 21, 2012

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources

News and Events September 21, 2012

Energy Department Launches SunShot Prize Competition

Photo of workers installing photovoltaic panels on a house roof.

The SunShot Prize aims to decrease in the soft costs associated with small-scale solar energy systems by more than 65%.
Credit: MREA
As part of the Energy Department’s SunShot Initiative, the Department on September 12 announced the start of a new competition to make it faster, easier, and cheaper to install rooftop solar energy systems. The SunShot Prize makes a total of $10 million in cash awards available to the first three teams that consistently demonstrate that the non-hardware costs, or price to plug in, can be as low as $1 per watt (W) for small-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on American homes and businesses. This target represents a decrease in the “soft costs” of solar energy systems—including permitting, licensing, connecting to the grid, and other non-hardware costs—by more than 65%. The winning teams will demonstrate that solar energy is an affordable solution for families and businesses in the United States.
The SunShot Prize is meant to inspire innovative, sustainable, and verifiable business practices that reduce soft costs to $1/W. Achieving this target will bring the SunShot goal of $0.60/W for residential system soft costs within reach by the end of the decade. During Phase I of the competition, winning teams will successfully deploy 5,000 small-scale (2–15 kilowatt) rooftop PV systems with non-hardware costs averaging $1/W. Phase II, which is intended to assess the business sustainability of the winning teams, calls for the installation of an additional 1,000 qualifying systems.
The competition will run through 2015.The first-place winner will receive $7 million, second place will receive $2 million, and third place will receive $1 million for successfully achieving the competition’s goals. In addition to the cash award, the first-place team will officially become “The Winner of America’s Most Affordable Rooftop Solar” prize. The SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of energy by the end of the decade. See the Energy Department press release and SunShot Prize website.

First Ocean Energy Delivered to the U.S. Grid

Photo of a machine with rotating blades underwater.

ORPC’s TidGen power system, shown in this rendering, has begun delivering power to the grid from Cobscook Bay, Maine.
Credit: ORPC
The first grid-connected tidal power project in the United States project is now delivering electricity to the utility grid from an underwater power system in Cobscook Bay, Maine. Bangor Hydro Electric Company verified on September 13 that electricity generated by an underwater turbine generator is flowing to their power grid from Ocean Renewable Power Company’s (ORPC) Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project. The project is funded by a $10 million investment from the Energy Department, as well as the Maine Technology Institute and private investors.
The device, called a TidGen, is designed to operate in shallow tidal or deep river sites at depths of 50 to 100 feet , and has a peak output of 180 kilowatts. That amount is enough electricity to power 25 to 30 homes annually. In April, the Maine Public Utilities Commission approved a 20-year power purchase agreement for ORPC’s Maine Tidal Energy Project (which includes the Cobscook Bay Project) with three utilities: Central Maine Power, Bangor Hydro Electric, and Maine Public Service. Two additional TidGen devices will be installed at ORPC’s Cobscook Bay Project site in the fall of 2013, and together, the three-device power system will generate enough energy to power 75 to 100 homes. The devices connect directly to an onshore substation through a single underwater transmission line. See the ORPC press release Web page, the May 9 edition of EERE Network News, and the Energy Department Water Power Program website.

EPA Sets Biobased Diesel Volumes for 2013

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on September 14 set the amount of bio-diesel products required to be included in diesel fuel markets in 2013 at 1.28 billion gallons. Biobased diesel products are advanced bio-fuels that are derived from sources such as vegetable oils and wastes oils from renewable sources.
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 established the second phase of the Renewable Fuel Standards program that specifies a one billion-gallon minimum volume requirement for the biomass-based diesel category for 2012 and beyond. The law also calls on EPA to increase the volume requirements after consideration of environmental, market, and energy-related factors. See the EPA press release and the Renewable Fuels Standard Web page.

Solar Decathlon Europe 2012 is Underway

The Solar Decathlon Europe 2012, a complementary competition to the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon, which challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operatre solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive, began on September 14 in Madrid, Spain. Teams from 14 countries will participate in this year’s competition, coming from Brazil, China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Spain, and the United Kingdom. In 2007, the Spanish Ministry of Housing signed an agreement to organize the event, and the first European gathering was in Madrid in 2010.
A combination of task completion, measurement, and jury scoring determined Solar Decathlon Europe’s first champion, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The event ends on September 30. See the Solar Decathlon Europe website.

Report Names Top 20 U.S. Corporate Solar Users

Walmart Stores Inc., Costco Wholesale, and Kohl’s Department Stores lead the top 20 U.S. companies in terms of on-site solar energy capacity, according to a report from the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and the Vote Solar Initiative. Combined, the top 20 corporate solar users’ photovoltaic (PV) installations, which total at least 279 megawatts, generate an estimated $47.3 million worth of electricity each year. SEIA and Vote Solar released the findings on September 12.
The amount of solar installed by the top 20 solar-powered companies could power more than 46,500 average U.S. homes. Altogether, U.S. commercial solar installations could power more than 390,000 American homes. The companies analyzed for this report have deployed more than 700 individual PV systems on their facilities in at least 25 states and Puerto Rico. Rounding out the list, in order, are IKEA, Macy’s, McGraw-Hill, Johnson & Johnson, Staples, Inc., Campbell’s Soup, Walgreens, Bed Bath & Beyond, Toys ‘R’ Us, General Motors, FedEx, White Rose Foods, Dow Jones, Snyder’s of Hanover, ProLogis, Hartz Mountain Industries, and Crayola. See the SEIA press release and the full report Web page.

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

  special thanks to U.S. Department of Energy | USA.gov

Environmental Management Introduces the First LEED Gold Industrial Facility

Even though the Olympics have ended, the Office of Environmental Management is still setting its sights on gold. The Energy Department and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company achieved the first Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) “gold” certification for sustainable design at the 200 West Pump and Treat system. This new groundwater treatment plant at Hanford Site in southeast Washington state is setting a new standard for environmental sustainability.
Established by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and verified by the Green Building Certification Institute, LEED is an internationally recognized green building certification system that rates buildings on criteria such as energy savings, water efficiency, carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and indoor air quality. Gold Certification is the second highest benchmark set by the USGBC for high-performance green buildings.
The building’s efficient design is expected to result in an energy cost savings of more than 70% over the life of the facility. Electric energy savings should amount to 317,470 kilowatt hours per year. That’s enough energy to power nearly 28 American households, according to U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates. For the complete story, see the Energy Blog.

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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News and Events by CCRES September 13, 2012

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources

News and Events September 13, 2012

Report: U.S. Solar Market Spiked in Second Quarter of 2012

Photo of solar panels on a rooftop.

The U.S. solar industry notched its second-best quarter in history with 742 megawatts of solar panels installed in the second quarter of 2012.
Credit: Social Security Administration
The U.S. solar industry notched its second-best quarter in history, installing 742 megawatts of solar power in the second quarter of 2012, according to a report from the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA). A record 477 MW of utility-scale installations helped the U.S. solar market expand by 45% over the first quarter of 2012, and 116% over the same period in 2011.
Eight states registered utility installations of 10 megawatts or greater: Arizona, California, Illinois, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, and Texas. For the fourth consecutive quarter, the U.S. residential solar market grew incrementally, installing 98.2 MW. California, Arizona, and New Jersey led residential installations nationally.
According to the latest U.S. Solar Market Insight Report from the industry group and GTM Research, the United States now has 5,700 MW of installed solar capacity—enough to power more than 940,000 households. The report notes that the market will remain strong through the last two quarters of 2012, and forecasts a total of 3,200 MW of PV will be installed this year—up 71% over 2011 totals. See the SEIA press release.

USDA Has Reached Its $250 Million Smart Grid Funding Goal

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) on September 7 announced that the department has reached its $250 million goal to finance smart grid technologies, and also announced nine rural electric cooperatives and utilities in 10 states that will receive more than $27 million in smart grid loans. The funding will go to making improvements to generation and transmission facilities and implementing smart grid technologies.
As part of President Obama’s Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future, the administration has outlined a framework for modernized electric systems that will benefit all Americans. This framework lays out a number of public and private initiatives, including a goal of $250 million in loans for smart-grid technology deployment as part of the USDA’s Rural Utility Service, which is focused on upgrading the electric grid in rural America. See the USDA press release.

California Efficiency Measures a Success

The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) on September 4 reported that its groundbreaking energy efficiency programs resulted in savings of 5,900 gigawatt-hours of electricity in 2010-2011, enough to power more than 600,000 households for a year—the equivalent of two major power plants. In addition, the estimated savings cut carbon dioxide emissions by 3.8 million tons, the equivalent of removing more than 700,000 cars from the roads. The findings were based on utility-reported estimates.
In its 2010-2011 Energy Efficiency Annual Progress Evaluation Report, the CPUC summarized investor-owned utility implementation thus far in CPUC’s $3.1 billion 2010-2012 energy efficiency program. The report details progress toward meeting multiple statewide energy and climate policy objectives. It states that 89% of estimated energy savings reported through 2011 occurred in the commercial (55%) and residential (34%) sectors. The agricultural and industrial sectors combine to make up the remaining 12% of electric savings. Through 2011, the majority of estimated electric savings was achieved through lighting (59%), followed by process improvements (13%) and HVAC (10%). See the CPUC press release PDF.

EPA, Green Sports Alliance Partner for Conservation

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on September 6 it had signed an agreement with the Green Sports Alliance to work together to address environmental challenges faced by sports venues, organizations, and teams. The two organizations signed a Memorandum of Understanding that facilitates collaboration between them on issues such as energy conservation and sustainability.
The EPA has also agreed to share tools like the Energy Star Portfolio Manager, an energy management tool that allows building owners to track and assess energy and water consumption, in order to help Alliance members improve their environmental performance.
Green Sports Alliance is a nonprofit organization with a mission to help sports teams, venues, and leagues enhance their environmental performance. Alliance members represent more than 100 sports teams and venues from 13 different sports leagues. See the EPA press release and the EPA’s Partnership programs website.

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)

  special thanks to U.S. Department of Energy | USA.gov

The Bright Lights in New York Could Be Solar

The big city glow of New York could be coming from more than the bright lights on Broadway. The Big Apple also is increasingly aglow with solar power, particularly from rooftop photovoltaic (PV) solar.
Earlier this year, the city unveiled the New York City Solar Map, a collaborative tool which gives an estimate of solar photovoltaic potential for the one million buildings in the five city boroughs. The interactive map, hosted by The City University of New York (CUNY), is based on information from flights over the city by an airplane equipped with an aerial laser system. The device, known as Lidar for “light image detection and ranging,” gathered information on the shape, angle, size, and shade of rooftops along with the surface elevations of ground, buildings, and trees. Analysis of the data showed that the city has a solar potential of 5,800 megawatts peak output—more that 40% of the city’s electrical demand at peak times if all the rooftops were fully outfitted with solar. About two-thirds of the city’s structures are suitable to house solar panels.
CUNY’s work on the NYC Solar Map was funded through the Energy Department in 2007 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. For the complete story, see the Energy Blog.

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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Free radicals

Free radicals

In the body, free radicals are produced when oxygen combines with complex
metabolic molecules. Free radicals are highly unstable molecules ready to
react with anything they can. When they react, the result is called “oxidation.”
Once the oxidation process begins, it can produce a chain reaction that generates
more free radicals.

 
Oxidation in the human body is the same thing that happens to metal when
it rusts. The rusting or oxidation can destroy a strong piece of metal in just a few
years. By painting the metal or putting on a rust-inhibiting product you can prevent
rusting. This is the same thing that antioxidants are doing to the “rusting”
in our bodies—preventing oxidation and keeping them strong. Like the rust
inhibiting product which prevents the metal’s cells from oxidizing and degrading,
antioxidants prevent our body’s cells from oxidizing and degrading. Fortunately
for our bodies (and our health), antioxidants are capable of joining with oxidizing
free radicals, thus rendering them harmless.
There is a very easy and interesting experiment you can do in your home
that shows what oxidation is all about: Take an apple and cut it in half. Now take
a lemon and cut it in half and drip the lemon juice on one half of the apple. Drip
it all over the cut side of the apple, and leave the other apple half as is with no
lemon juice. Keep the two halves at room temperature for an hour or two, then
look at both halves: The half with the lemon juice will look pretty much the same
as it did when it was cut; the half without the lemon juice will probably be turning
brown and “going bad.” If you leave them out longer, the difference will
become more pronounced. This is oxidation and antioxidant protection happening
before your eyes. The unprotected half is oxidizing quickly. The half with
lemon juice is oxidizing very slowly or not at all because of the antioxidants present
in the lemon juice. Lemons have Vitamin C and citrus bioflavonoids.
CCRES ALGAE PROJECT 
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Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)
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CCRES Algae Project Q&A

 

 CCRES ALGAE
CCRES Algae Project
Q&A

See answers to common questions about growing algae for biofuel production.

Algae’s potential
What makes algae a better alternative fuel feedstock than cellulosic feedstocks, such as switchgrass or miscanthus?
What transportation fuels can algae produce?
How much fuel can algae produce?
Where could this type of algae grow?
What can you do with material derived from algae production not used for fuel?

Economics
How much would a gallon of algae-based transportation fuel cost if it were available at a service station today?
What can accelerate the commercial availability of algae biofuel?

Environment
How will algae-based transportation fuels impact greenhouse gas emissions?
Is the process capable of being replicated at the local level to increase energy efficiency and promote low-energy overhead?

Security
Can algae-based fuels be used in developing countries to help them bypass fossil fuel dependence?

CCRES ALGAE
Q: What makes algae a better alternative fuel feedstock than cellulosic feedstocks, such as switchgrass or miscanthus?

A: Large-scale production of resource-intensive plants, like switchgrass or miscanthus, requires a substantial amount of fertile land, fresh water, and petroleum-based fertilizer to grow. The fuel derived is ethanol, a lower-energy fuel not compatible with the infrastructure now used to transport, refine, and deliver liquid fuels, like gasoline and diesel.

Conversely, algae can produce hydrocarbons capable of being converted directly into actual gasoline or diesel fuel, which can be transported and delivered to market using the existing refinery infrastructure.

Q: What transportation fuels can algae produce?
A: Algae produce a variety of fuel and fuel precursor molecules, including triglycerides and fatty acids that can be converted to biodiesel, as well as lipids and isoprenoids that can be directly converted to actual gasoline and traditional diesel fuel. Algae can also be used to produce hydrogen or biomass, which can then be digested into methane.

Q: How much fuel can algae produce?

A: The United States consumes 140 billion gallons per year of liquid fuel. Algae can produce 3,000 gallons of liquid fuel per acre in a year, so it would take 45 million acres of algae to provide 100% of our liquid fuel requirements.

For comparison, in 2008 the United States had 90 million acres of corn and 67 million acres of soybeans in production. So growing 45 million acres of algae, while challenging, is certainly possible.

Q: Where could this type of algae grow?

A: Algae perform best under consistent warm temperatures between 20 and 30 degrees. Climates with plenty of sunshine offer optimal conditions. Ideal Croatian locations include many of the southern and southwestern areas, such as Dalmatia,(including Dalmatian hinterland ).

CCRES ALGAE
Q: What can you do with material derived from algae production not used for fuel?

A: Production of 140 billion gallons of fuel from algae would also yield about 1 trillion pounds of protein. Since algae-produced protein is very high quality, this protein could be used to feed livestock, chicken, or fish. Presently, all livestock in this country consume about 770 billion pounds of protein per year.

Q: How much would a gallon of algae-based transportation fuel cost if it were available at a service station today?

A: Today, the cost would be relatively expensive. Additional investment in research is needed to further refine and enhance the algae strains that generate such fuels. Also, more infrastructure needs to be developed to achieve the necessary economies of scale that will come with large-scale commercial production. Once overall efficiency increases, the cost of producing a gallon of gasoline from algae will dramatically reduce.

Q: What can accelerate the commercial availability of algae biofuel?

A: As viable and potentially transformational as algae-based transportation fuels have already proven, we need a much better knowledge base on algae at the microbial level. We also need to build on this platform to develop the tools and train the next generation of scientists that will help usher in the age of accessible, affordable, and sustainable fuels made from algae. That is a central component of the Croatian Center for Algae Biofuels (CCRES Algae Project).

CCRES ALGAE
Q: How will algae-based transportation fuels impact greenhouse gas emissions?

A: Production of alternative transportation fuels from algae will help reduce the amount of CO2 in the environment. Algae provide a carbon-neutral fuel because they consume more CO2 than is ultimately released into the atmosphere when algae-based fuel burns. The amount of carbon removed from the environment will depend on the number of algae farms built and the efficiency with which algae can be modified to convert CO2 to fuel products. Eventually, algae farms will likely be located adjacent to CO2 producing facilities, like power plants, resulting in potentially significant CO2 sequestration benefits.

Q: Is the process capable of being replicated at the local level to increase energy efficiency and promote low-energy overhead?

A: Absolutely. There are huge advantages to locating algae farms near urban centers. The algae consume industrial waste and contaminants, which are usually found in higher concentrations near cities. A perfect location is near a power plant, where the algae can consume flue gas and other waste, or near a wastewater treatment plant where the algae could consume significant amounts of nitrates and phosphates from the waste stream. This could result in cleaner effluent discharge, and perhaps eventually create “new” sources of non-potable water for industrial or agricultural use.

Q: Could algae-based fuels be used in developing countries to help them bypass fossil fuel dependence?

A: Algae-based fuels (and the protein byproducts derived from their production) definitely have the potential to positively impact developing countries. The requirements for farming algae are fairly straightforward and can be done almost anywhere in the world with an adequate supply of sunshine. In Africa, for example, millions of algae acres could be farmed in its less-populated regions, resulting in a reduced dependence on foreign oil and a reliable and sustainable energy supply.

 
CCRES ALGAE PROJECT
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