Tag Archives: biogorivo

2015年の総市場規模は16億ドルを超える見通し

CCRES ALGAE TEAM
㈱グローバル インフォメーションは、米国の市場調査会社SBI Energy (aka Specialist In Business Information)が発行した報告書「藻類バイオ燃料技術:世界市場および製品動向(2010年~2015年)」の販売を開始しました。

2005年から2007年までの藻類バイオ燃料産業への企業の参入は、原油の高値および環境上の懸念から拍車がかかり、550%と記録的に跳ね上がりました。しかしそれ以来、原油価格は下落し、先頃の金融危機が多くの産業の障害となっています。同レポートによれば、「藻類バイオ燃料への関心は現在も維持されています。しかし同時に、産業は期待の先走りに苦しめられてもいます。」と報告されています。藻類によるバイオ燃料製造技術の現在の市場は、相当量の開発活動と規模を縮小した試験で構成されています。今後はデモンストレーションと商業利用が進められ、藻類によるバイオ燃料製造の各種新技術が2015年には総市場の3分の1を占めるに至るでしょう。

なぜ 藻類なのか?

藻類は原料油としての使用が可能です。つまり、藻類はバイオディーゼル、再生可能ディーゼル、再生可能ジェット燃料、藻油、航空用バイオ燃料、バイオガソリン、エタノール、バイオメタン、ブタノール、水素など、実に多くのバイオ燃料の製造用に加工が可能ということであり、これはすばらしいメリットです。また、藻類によるバイオ燃料製造は、ケイソウ類・ラン藻類・緑ソウ類の遺伝子組み換え、養殖用オープンポンドまたは光バイオリアクター、燃料処理用リファイナリー・ダイジェスター・ファーメンター、抽出用プレスおよび遠心分離機といった幅広い技術を必要とします。

藻類バイオ燃料の製造技術市場の今後の展望とは?

藻類バイオ燃料の製造技術市場は、養殖技術の売上が大半を占めると予測されています。残りの市場は採取、抽出、燃料製造設備の区分が占める見通しですが、これらは2015年には、合計で16億ドルを超える市場規模に成長すると予測されています。同レポートによれば、「2010年には推計2億7,100万ドルとされる同市場のこの成長は飛躍的なもので、約43%との年間成長率の予測もあわせ、この数値は同産業が急速に変化を遂げ、進化する産業であることを明確に示すものです」と報告されています。

市場調査レポート: 藻類バイオ燃料技術:世界市場および製品動向(2010年~2015年)Algae Biofuels Technologies – Global Market and Product Trends 2010-2015

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Biodiesel Experts in EU

Growing global demand for energy to power economic development and growth demands the development of cost-effective technologies for a more sustainable energy economy for Europe (and world-wide) to ensure that European industry can compete successfully on the global stage.
Energy is a vital part of our daily lives in Europe and has been for centuries. But the days of secure, cheap energy are over. We are already facing the consequences of climate change, increasing import dependence and higher energy prices.
Consequently, the EU has been developing its climate and energy policy as an integrated approach that pursues the three key objectives of:
  • security of supply: to better coordinate the EU’s supply of and demand for energy within an international context;
  • competitiveness: to ensure the competitiveness of European economies and the availability of affordable energy;
  • sustainability: to combat climate change by promoting renewable energy sources and energy efficiency.
Click to enlarge EU primary energy requirements by fuel Source: European Energy and Transport, Trends to 2030 
Click to enlarge Import dependency of the EU (in %) Source: European Energy and Transport, Trends to 2030 
These objectives have been translated into binding targets. By 2020, the EU has committed itself to:
  • reducing its greenhouse-gas emissions by 20% (or even 30% in case an international agreement is reached that commits other countries in a similar way);
  • increasing the share of renewable energies to 20% of total EU energy consumption;
  • increasing the share of renewable energies in transport to 10%;
  • improving energy efficiency by 20%.
Achieving these goals will require major breakthroughs in the research and development of new technologies. The European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) – the technology pillar of the European energy and climate policy – outlines long-term energy research priorities for the horizon of 2020 to 2050. It lays the foundations for a European policy for energy technology and establishes a framework that brings together the diverse activities in the field of energy research. For more information please visit the SET-Plan section of this website.

Biodiesel Experts in EU

NOVAOL AUSTRIA GmbH Industriegelande West 3
A-2460 Bruck/Leitha

OLEON Assenedestraat 2
9940 Ertvelde
Bioro Moervaartkaai 1
B-9042 Gent
NEOCHIM Parc Industriel, zone A
7181 Feluy
Proviron Fine Chemicals nv G.Gilliotstraat 60 – zone 2
B-2620 Hemiksem
FEDIOL 168, avenue de Tervuren
(bte 12) – 1st floor
B – 1150 – Bruxelles

Rapid Oil Industry Co. Ltd. 81A, Nikola Gabrovski st.
5000 Veliko Tarnovo

Agropodnik Dobronin 315
588 13 Polna
Preol
PREOL a.s. Lovosice,
Terezinska 47
PSC 41017

Ambrosia Oils (1976) LTD Larnaka Industrial Estate,
P.O.Box 40433, 6304 Larnaka

Daka Biodiesel Bragesvej 18
DK 4100 Ringsted

Neste Renewable Fuels Oy P.O. Box 726
00095 NESTE OIL

DIESTER INDUSTRIE 12 Avenue Georges V
75008 Paris
INEOS Enterprises France SAS Z.I. Baleycourt – BP 10095
F – 55103 VERDUN Cedex
SCA Pétrole et Dérivés 7, Allée des Mousquetaires
Parc de Tréville
91078 Bondoufle Cedex
France Ester
France Ester Route d’Alençon
61400 Saint Langis les Mortagne
Nord Ester Rue Van Cauwenberghe
Zone Industrielle de Petite-Synthe
59640 Dunkerque
Veolia / SARP Industries SARP Industries
427, route du Hazay
F-78520 Limay
Centre Ouest Céreales B.P. 10036
86131 Jaunay-clan Cedex

ADM HAMBURG AG
Nippoldstrasse. 117
D-21107 Hamburg
ADM HAMBURG AG – Werk Leer
GmbH & Co. KG
Saegemuehlenstrasse. 45
D-26789 Leer (Ostfriesland)
ADM Soya Mainz GmbH Dammweg 2
55130 Mainz
CARGILL GmbH
Ruedeckenstrasse 51 / Am Hafen
D-38239 Salzgitter-Beddingen
VERBIO Diesel Bitterfeld GmbH & Co. KG
Areal B Chemiepark Bitterfeld-Wolfen, OT Greppin, Stickstoffstrasse
D-6749 Bitterfeld-Wolfen
NATURAL ENERGY WEST GmbH
Industrie Strasse 34
41460 Neuss
PETROTEC GmbH
Fürst-von-Salm-Straße 18
46313 Borken-Burlo
BIOPETROL Industries AG Baarerstrasse 53/55,
CH-6304 Zug
EcoMotion GmbH Brunnenstr. 138
D-44536 Lünen
Mannheim Bio Fuel GmbH Inselstrasse 10
D-68169 Mannheim
Vesta Biofuels Brunsbüttel GmbH
Fahrstrasse 51
D-25541 Brunsbuttel
Rheinische Bio Ester GmbH & Co. KG Duisburger Strasse 15/19
41460 Neuss
VERBAND DEUTSCHER BIODIESELHERSTELLER e.V.
Am Weidendamm 1a
D-10117 Berlin

ELIN BIOFUELS S.A.
33 Pigon Str., 145 64 Kifissia
Athens
AGROINVEST S.A. 9th km Thessaloniki-Thermi
Thermi II Building
57001 Thessaloniki
GF Energy 56 Kifisias Av. & Delfon st.,
6th floor, 151 25 Marousi,
Athens

Öko-line Hungary Kft. Városligeti fasor 47-49
H-1071 Budapest

Green Biofuels Ireland Ltd Wexford Farmers Co-op
Blackstoops, Enniscorthy Co. Wexford

ECO FOX S.r.L. Via Senigallia 29
I=61100 Pesaro
NOVAOL ITALY Via G: Spqdolini 5
20141 Milano
ITAL BI OIL S.r.l. Ital Bi Oil S.r.l.
Via Baione 222 – 224
70043 – Monopoli (BA)
OIL. B srl OIL.B srl
Via Sabotino, 2
24121 Bergamo
OXEM Strada Provinciale Km 2,6 – 27030
Mezzana Bigli (Pv)
Mythen Via Lanzone ,31
20123 MILANO
PFP S.p.A Via Scaglia Est 134
41126 Modena
Assocostieri
Unione Produttori Biodiesel
Via di Vigna Murata 40
00143 Roma

BioVenta 66 Dzintaru
Ventspils, LV-3600

Biovalue Holding BV Westlob 6
NL-9979XG Eemshaven

Croatian Center of RES Medarska 24
10000 Zagreb

IBEROL NUTASA Av. Frei Miguel Contreiras, 54A – 3º
1700-213 Lisboa
Torrejana
Torrejana Casal da Amendoeira
Apartado 2
2354-908 Riachos
Sovena Oil Seeds Portugal R. General Ferreira Martins 6, 8º
Miraflores
1495-137 Algés
APPB

Prio Strada Stelea Spatarul
nr 12, Sector 3, Bucuresti
Expur 45 Tudor Vladimirescu Bvd. District 5
050881 Bucharest
Procera Biofuels Muncii street, No.11 Fundulea city
Calarasi County, 915200

BIONET EUROPA Poligon Agro-Reus
Adria Gual 4
43206 Reus
ACCIONA Biocombustibles, S.A Av. Ciudad de la Innovación, 5
31621 Sarriguren (Navarra)
Biocombustiblies Ctra. de Valencia Km. 202
Pol. Sepes – Parcelas 145-146
16004 Cuenca
Green Fuel Avda. San Francisco Javier, 24, Ed. Sevilla I
41018 Sevilla
Stocks del Valles
Stocks Del Valles SA Pol. Ind. El Pedregar
C/. Progres, 19-21
E-08160 Montmelo Barcelona
Bio-Oils Energy, S.L. C/ Almagro 2, 4º Dcha.
28010 Madrid
BioArag Ctra A- 1240, Km 0,900 – 22540
Altorricon (Huesca)
BioNorte S.A. Poligono de la Florida 71
33958 San Martin Del Rey Aurelio
Asturias
APPA Muntaner 269
08021 Barcelona

Ecobränsle i Karlshamn AB Västra Kajen 8B
SE-374 31 Karlshamn
Norups Biorefinery AB Box 109
289 21 Knislinge
Perstorp Prastgatan 12
SE-252 24 Helsingborg

Argent Energy 5th Floor, 9 Hatton Street
London NW8 8PL
Harvest Energy 2 Cavendish Square
London, W1G 0PU
Agri Energy Northampton Road, Blisworth
Northampton, NN7 3DR

Expert Groups 

alt Prof Thierry CHOPIN University of New Brunswick Canada
alt Dr Alan CRITCHLEY Acadian Seaplants Ltd Canada
alt Dr Amir NEORI
Dr. Ami BEN AMOTZ
Israel Oceanographic & Limnological
Research Ltd
Israel
Mr John TRAVERS
(Chief executive Ireland)
Alternative energy Resources Limited LTD
(biofuels production and supply company)
Ireland
Prof Klaus LUNING Sylt Algae Farm Germany
altalt Prof Masahiro NOTOYA Tokyo University Marine Science and
Technology International Seaweed Association
Japan
alt Dr Paolo GUALTIERI CNR- Istituto di Biofisica di Pisa Italy
alt Ms Simonetta ZARRILLI United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD)
Switzerland
alt Ms Sofia SEQUEIRA Galp Portugal
alt Mr Jeff TSCHIRLEY UN Food and Agricoltural Organisation
(FAO)
Italy
alt Mr Michael. B. LAKEMAN
Mr Andrew BRAFF
Algal Biomass Organisation USA
alt Mr Frédéric MONOT Institute Français du Petrol, Biotechnology
and Biomass Chemistry
France
alt Mr. Guido DEJONGH CEN – European Committee for Standardisation
(New Standardization Opportunities)
Belgium

Experts

Prof. Spiros AGATHOS Louvain University
Belgium
Ms. Maria BARBOSA WURFood & BioBased
The Netherlands
Dr. Kateřina BIŠOVÁ Czech Institute of Microbiology
Czech Republic
Mr. Jonas DAHL Danish Technological Institute
Denmark
Dr. Maeve EDWARDS Irish Seaweed Centre
Ireland
Mr. Cameron EDWARDS VESTA Biofuels Brunsbüttel
Germany
Prof. Jose FERNANDEZ SEVILLA University of Almeria
Spain
Dr. Imogen FOUBERT K.U.Leuven University
Belgium
Dr. Gloria GAUPMANN EBIO
Belgium
Dr. Sridharan GOVINDACHARY Queen’s University
Ireland
Prof. Patricia J. HARVEY University of Greenwich
UK
Mr. Sven JACOBS Howest
Belgium
Mr. Frédéric LAEUFFER TOTAL
France
Mr. Remy MARCHAL Institut Français du Pétrole
France
Mr. Riccardo MARCHETTI Oxem S.p.a
Italy
Dr. Laura MARTINELLI Studio Martinelli
Italy
Ms. Roberta MODOLO Studio Martinelli
Italy
Mr. Benoit QUEGUINEUR Irish Seaweed Centre
Ireland
Ms. Jessica RATCLIFF Irish Seaweed Centre
Ireland
Mr. Jean-François ROUS Diester Industrie
France
Ms. Briana SAPP PANGEA
Belgium
Mr. Philippe SCHILD European Commission (DR Research)
Belgium
Mr. Johannes SKARKA Karlsruher Institute of Technology
Germany
Ms. Andrea SONNLEITNER Bioenergy 2020
Austria
Mr. Julien TAIEB FEFAC
Belgium
Prof. Laurenz THOMSEN Jacobs University Bremen
Germany
Dr. Wolfgang TRUNK European Commission (DG Health)
Belgium
Mr. Dries VANDAMME K.U.Leuven University
Belgium
Mr. Peter VAN DEN DORPEL AlgaeLink N.V.
The Netherlands
Mr. Jan VANHOUTTE BEKO
Belgium
Dr. Koen VANHOUTTE Navicula
Belgium
Mr. Ignacio VASQUEZ- L European Commission (DG Climate)
Belgium
Dr. Milada VITOVÁ Czech Institute of Microbiology
Czech Republic
Ms. Annalisa VOLSE PANGEA
Belgium
Dr. Wim VYVERMAN Ghent University
Belgium
Ms. Annika WEISS KIT
Germany
Mr. Zeljko Serdar Croatian Center of RES
Croatia

Prof. Gabriel ACIEN FERNANDEZ Almeria University
Spain
Dr. Dina BACOVSKY Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH
Austria
Dr. Natascia BIONDI University of Florence
Italy
Prof. Sammy BOUSSIBA Ben‐Gurion University
Israel
Mr. Marco BROCKEN Evodos The Netherlands
Ms. Griet CASTELEYN Ghent University Belgium
Mr. Nuno COELHO AlgaFuel Portugal
Dr. Guillermo GARCIA-B.REINA University of Las Palmas Gan Canaria Spain
Mr. Guido DE JONGH CEN Belgium
Mr. Alessandro FLAMMINI FAO Aquatic Biofuels Italy
Mr. Clayton JEFFRYES Louvain University Belgium
Dr. Bert LEMMENS VITO Belgium
Dr. Stefan LEU Ben‐Gurion University Israel
Mr. Philippe MORAND CNRS France
Mr. Josche MUTH EREC Belgium
Ms. Liliana RODOLFI Fotosintetica & Microbiologica S.r.l Italy
Dr. Robin SHIELDS Swansea University UK
Dr. Raphael SLADE Imperial College London UK
Mr. Mario R. TREDICI University of Florence Italy
Ms. Sofie VAN DEN HENDE Ghent University Belgium
Mr. Ron VAN ERCK European Commission(DG Energy) Belgium
Prof. Rene WIJFFELS Wageningen Universiteit The Netherlands
Mr. Philippe WILLEMS Orineo BVBA Belgium
Dr. Attila WOOTSCH MFKK Hungary Hungary
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Nor Cal Biodiesel

 
 
 
CCRES promotes Nor Cal Biodiesel
 
Nor Cal Biodiesel currently offer two models to choose from: the BioPro190 and the larger BioPro380.
 
BioPro190
 
 
 
BioPro190 General Information and Specifications
  • Dimensions: 21″w x 21″d x 67″h. Overall height adjustable +/- 2”
  • Weight: 325 Lbs. (empty).
  • Capacity: 50 gallons oil yields 50 gallons of finished fuel.
                   10 gallons methanol – yields approx. 10 gallons glycerin.
  • Construction: TIG welded 304 stainless steel body; Powder coated carbon steel covers.
  • Fittings: 304 stainless steel or glass filled polypropylene.
  • Electrical: 110 VAC / 15 Amp Circuit.
  • Controls: AUTO mode controlled by program logic controller;
                   Start button initiates completely automated process;
                   MANUAL mode controlled by switch actuation.
  • Reaction Method: Acid-catalyzed esterification of free fatty acids
                   Then base-catalyzed transesterification of triglycerides;
  • Wash Method: Triple-stage turbulent water wash.
                   1) Mist Spray, 2) Mist & Agitation, 3) Mist & Agitation
  • Batch Time: Reaction Time – approximately 8 hrs;
                   Initial settling – 16 hrs;
                   Water wash – approximately 14 hrs;
                   Drying cycle – Approx 10 hrs:
  • Total Processing Time: Approx. 48 hours start to finish.
 
Items You Will Need To Get Started:
 
  • 50 Gallons of new or used filtered vegetable oil or oil derived from animal fats
  • 400 micron, or finer, filter to strain the oil
  • 10 Gallons of methanol (racing fuel)
  • For your safety and convenience, we suggest obtaining a methanol compatible and an oil/grease
    compatible transfer pump
  • 1520 grams (3.41 lbs) Sodium Hydroxide – NaOH or 2350 (5.17 lbs) grams Potassium Hydroxide – KOH
  • 190 mL (6.43 oz) Sulfuric Acid (93% Purity or higher) – Do not use common battery acid
  • 50 Gallons of fresh, standing water
  • 50 Gallon container or receptacle for “water in”
  • 50 Gallon container or receptacle to collect the wash water – or connect directly to a drain.
  • Air tight storage containers for methanol (typically, a 55-gallon drum), catalyst potash, and sulfuric acid
  • Protective gloves, face mask, apron, and safety goggles (included)
  • Transfer hoses, scales, and measuring cups (included)
  • (1) 110-120 volt / 15 amp & (1) 220 volt / 30 amp AC power source 
  BioPro380
 
 
BioPro380 General Information and Specifications
  • Dimensions: 64″w x 34″d x 91″h. Overall height adjustable +/- 2”
  • Weight: Approximately 675 Lbs. (empty).
  • Capacity: 100 gallons oil yields up to 100 gallons (380 liters) of finished fuel
  • Batch Sizes: – Capable of processing 50, 75, or 100 gallons of oil feedstock (190, 284, or 380 liters).
  • Construction: TIG welded 304 stainless steel body; Powder coated carbon steel covers.
  • Electrical: 220 VAC / 30 AMP & 110 VAC / 15 Amp Circuit. Dedicated Circuits are preferred but not required.
  • Controls: AUTO mode controlled by program logic controller;
                   Start button initiates the automated process;
                   MANUAL mode controlled by switch actuation.
  • Reaction Method: Acid-catalyzed esterification of free fatty acids
                   Then base-catalyzed transesterification of triglycerides;
  • Method: Triple-stage turbulent water wash.
                   1) Mist Spray, 2) Mist & Agitation, 3) Mist & Agitation
  • Batch Time: Reaction Time – approximately 8 hrs;
                   Initial settling – 16 hrs;
                   Water wash –(total three (3) cycles, approximately14 hrs;
                   Drying cycle – Approx 10 hrs:
  • Total Processing Time: Approx. 48 hours start to finish.
 
Items You Will Need To Get Started:
 
  • 100 Gallons of new or used filtered vegetable oil or oil derived from animal fats (triglycerides
  • Minimum 400 micron, or finer, filter to strain the oil
  • 20 Gallons of methanol (racing fuel; 99.99% pure)
  • 3040 grams Lye (Sodium Hydroxide – NaOH) or 4700 grams Caustic Potash (Potassium Hydroxide – KOH)* *Recommended
  • 380 mL Sulfuric Acid (93% Purity or higher) – Not common battery acid
  • 100 Gallons of fresh standing water (can also be connected directly to a pressurized water line)
  • 100 Gallon container for water in (or connect to a clean, pressurized water source)
  • 100 Gallon container for water out (or connect directly to a drain)
  • Air tight storage containers for methanol, lye/caustic potash, and sulfuric acid
  • Protective gloves, face mask, apron, and safety goggles (included)
  • Transfer hoses, scales, and measuring cups (included)
  • For your safety and convenience, we suggest obtaining a methanol transfer and oil/grease transfer pump
  • (1) 110-120 volt / 15 amp & (1) 220 volt / 30 amp AC power source 
 Since it’s introduction, the BioPro line of products have steadily found their way into the hands of many an independent souls.
 
 Click on the links below to read about
 
 
 
CONTACT Nor Cal Biodiesel
 
Please feel free to contact  Nor Cal Biodiesel for additional information regarding our products or services.
 
 Nor Cal Biodiesel also welcome any comments or suggestions regarding  products, web site and overall experience regarding your initial interaction with Nor Cal Biodiesel.
 
General Inquiries and Sales Information info@norcalbio.com
Projects, Business Development or Specific Requests danny@norcalbio.com
Nor Cal Biodiese web site : http://norcalbio.com/index.html
For any additional information, please contact 
Danny Lesa, telephone 707-766-9782 
 

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
 (CCRES)

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The Pentagon, the largest U.S. consumer of fuel goes green

Last month U.S. Army Energy Initiatives Task Force (AEITF) issued a draft request for proposals (Draft RFP) renewable energy contracts.
 
What’s on offer? Over the next decade, an impressive $7 billion. During the AEITF’s pre-solicitation phase, the Draft RFP is designed to gather information from potential bidders to assist the AEITF to develop a formal Request for Proposal (RFP) that it intends to issue later this year.
 
The United States Armed Forces, which currently fuels 77 percent of its machinery with petroleum-based fuel, has announced an aggressive goal, to be petroleum free by 2040. The Air Force intends to use biofuels for 50 percent of its domestic aviation needs by 2016.

A 2011 Pew Charitable Trusts report, “From Barracks to the Battlefield: Clean Energy Innovation and America’s Armed Forces” reported that Department of Defense clean energy investments increased 300 percent between 2006 and 2009 – from $400 million to $1.2 billion – and are projected at $10 billion annually by 2030, adding that that by 2015, the Pentagon will be spending $2.25 billion each year to harness clean energy technologies for air, land and sea vehicles.

Driving the Pentagon’s green drive is Executive Order 13423, which mandates that the Department of Defense achieve a 30 percent reduction in non-tactical fleet fossil fuel use by 2020.

A second key piece of legislation driving the Pentagon’s mandate is the Renewable Fuel Standard, which Congress enacted in 2005 as part of the Energy Policy Act, amending it in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The amended standard mandated that by 2022 the consumption volume of the renewable fuels should consist of: 15 billion gallons of conventional biofuels, mainly corn-grain ethanol; 1 billion gallons of biomass-based diesel fuel; 4 billion gallons of advanced renewable biofuels, other than ethanol derived from cornstarch, that achieve a life-cycle greenhouse gas threshold of at least 50 percent; and 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels produced from wood, grasses, or non-edible plant parts, such as corn stalks and wheat straw.

The draft AEITF RFP marks the beginning of the AEITF’s plan to develop a large, coordinated procurement process for renewables. The AEITF’s new program was developed in response to a National Defense Authorization Act that requires Department of Defense facilities to derive at least 25 percent of the electricity they consume from renewable energy by 2025, and a Department of Defense “Net Zero Energy” initiative, which challenges DOD installations to produce more energy than they consume, with emphasis on the use of renewable energy and alternative fuels.

So, what is holding back the production of commercially viable amounts of biofuels? Key barriers to achieving the renewable fuel mandate are the high cost of producing biofuels compared with petroleum-based fuels uncertainties in future biofuel markets, a lack of subsidies and crop insurance, along with a shortage of significant investment.

These factors have combined to produce a “perfect storm” up to now for biofuel producers, resulting in “designer fuels” of high cost for Pentagon testing.

To give but one example.

In October 2010 the Navy purchased 20,055 gallons of algae biofuel at an eye-watering cost of $424/gallon.  Nevertheless, the contract was one of the biggest U.S. purchases of a non-corn ethanol biofuel up to that time. A year later, the Navy reportedly spent $12 million for 450,000 gallons of biofuel. The bad news was that the biofuel’s cost worked out to around $26.67 per gallon, roughly six times the current cost of traditional gas.

The good news?  In a single year, the cost per gallon of biofuel plummeted by a factor of 15.9.

Furthermore, $7 billion in funding is likely to prove a significant game changer in the field.

So, where does this leave the investor? No single biofuel source, from jatropha, algae or camelina has yet to emerge as the clear winner, though the last seems most likely to emerge as the frontrunner. Accordingly, investors must do their homework and seek out potential winners.

For those wishing to broaden their portfolios, two websites will prove of immense value.

The first is http://www.usa.gov, the federal government’s website for the U.S. government, where one can come to grips with federal legislation and Pentagon initiatives.

The second is Jim Lane’s http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/, the self-proclaimed “world’s most widely read biofuels daily.” While the site has an element of tub-thumping boosterism, it nevertheless remains an immensely valuable source of information about the biofuel market and the major players.

It is important to remember how different the biofuels picture is now from even a year ago. The Pentagon, the largest U.S. consumer of fuel, is now under pressure to meet the various federal mandates, and careers and promotions hang in the balance.

 CCRES special thanks to 
John C.K. Daly ,
U.S.-Central Asia Biofuels Ltd

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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CCRES – ALGAE AND BIOFUEL

 


CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 
(CCRES)
 
 ALGAE AND BIOFUEL
 

 

 

Algae: An Important Source for Making Biofuels


Biofuels are the alternative fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, methane and others obtained from the biomass. Biomasses are the wasted materials obtained from the plants, animals and human beings. With the increasing prices of the crude oil and importance of achieving self-reliance in energy and growing concern for the environment alternative fuels are receiving more government and public attention.

 

The government of US has set the targets for using of 36 billion gallons of biofuels by the year 2022 as a result most of the gasoline sold here is mixed with ethanol. Similarly, biodiesel mixed with petroleum diesel is found to create lesser pollution without affecting the performance of the engines. Methane gas is also increasingly used for the production of electricity and also driving the vehicles. Ethanol, biodiesel, and methane are all biofuels obtained from biomass like wasted crops, crops containing sugar, vegetable oil etc.

 

Due to increasing demands of the biofuels, many farmers are now tempted to raise the crops that would yield biofuels instead of the food crops. This leads to misuse of limited resources available in the form energy, fertilizers and pesticides. In some parts of the world large areas of forests have been cut down to grow sugarcane for ethanol and soybeans and palm-oil tress for making biodiesel. US government is making efforts to make sure the farming for biomass materials does not competes with the farming of food crops and that the farming of biomass would require lesser fertilizers and pesticides.


Algae used as Biomass

 

One of the most important promising sources of biofuels is algae. Algae are single celled (most of them) microorganisms that grow in salt water, fresh water and even in contaminated water. Algae can grow in sea, rivers, ponds, and also on land not suitable for production. Like other plants, algae also absorb energy from the sun in the presence of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the process called photosynthesis. Just like other wasted plants and crops, algae also carry energy and it can be used as an important biomass material. There are more than 65,000 known species of algae having different colors like green, red, brown and blue-green that offer wide range of options for obtaining the biofuels from them.

 

Algae keep growing extensively in the nature and it generates lots of waste that could even create problems of disposal. Since algae carries energy, it can be used as an important source of alternative or renewable energy since algae is available in abundant quantities that can last forever. Algae can be used as the biomass materials to obtain various biofuels. Various colonies of algae can be considered to be small biological factories containing lots of energy.


Biofuels from Obtained from Algae

 

Like the wastes from the plants, the algae can also be used as the biomass to produce various types of biofuels. One of the most popular types of biofuels, biodiesel, is obtained from the vegetable oil. The same biodiesel can also be obtained from algae oil. The biodiesel from algae can be mixed with the petroleum diesel and used for the running of the vehicles. It can also be used as the fuel for jets, airplanes, refineries, and pipelines. The biodiesel obtained from algae can be readily used with automobile and jet engines without the need to make any modifications in the engine. It meets all the specifications of the petroleum diesel fuel.

 

The algae biomass can also be used for making ethanol and butanol biofuels, which are type of alcohols. Butanol is considered to have more efficiency than ethanol and it is obtained from dried algae that act as a biomass. The carbohydrates extracted from algae are converted into natural sugars, which are then converted into butyric, lactic and acetic acids by the process of fermentation. Further fermentation of butyric acid is carried out to produce butanol.

 

The biomass obtained from algae can also be used to produce biogas that contains methane and carbon dioxide. Methane is an important component of natural gas, so this biogas can be used just like the natural gas for producing heating effect and also to produce electricity.


Advantages of using Algae as Biomass

 

One of the important advantages of algae it that it can be grown in almost any type of water: salt, fresh, and even contaminated water. It can be grown in vast sea and river water, small rain water ponds and even commercial or domestic manmade ponds. It can also be grown on non-arable unproductive lands increasing the utility of waste lands.

 

Another important advantage of growing algae for producing biofuels is that it does not displace the farmland used for growing the food crops. The farmers using various resources for producing biodiesel instead of the food crops has been one of the major concerns for the government, algae helps solving this tricky problem.

 

Algae have the potential to yield 30 times more energy than the crops grown on land, which are currently being used to produce the biofuels. This would further encourage the use of algae for producing biofuels and land for producing food crops.

 

Another important advantage of algae is that it uses carbon dioxide for its growth. Thus the pollution causing carbon dioxide produced from the other sources can be utilized to grow algae, which helps keeping the environment cleaner. 

 

 

CCRES 
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 CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 
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CCRES – BIODIESEL

 

 

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 
(CCRES)
 
Biodiesel
 
The Popular Biofuel
 

The fuels obtained from biomass materials, like the waste generated by plants, animals and humans beings, are called as the biofuels. The biofuels are well known alternative fuels used for the production of heat and electricity and also driving the vehicles. The biomass is considered to be a type of renewable sources of energy since it is available in unlimited quantity and will continue to do so for unlimited period of time. One of the most popular types of biofuels is biodiesel.
 

Biodiesel is obtained from the fresh or used vegetable oil and animal fats by the process called transesterification. Efforts are being made to obtain biodiesel from waste grease and oils. The modern methods have been discovered to obtain biodiesel from algae as well.
 

Early Diesel Engine and Biodiesel
 

Rudolph Diesel had invented diesel engine in the period dating back to 1890. Though the present diesel engine is being run entirely on petroleum diesel fuel, in the days of invention itself Rudolph had envisioned that his engine could be powered by vegetable oil and could be used in the remote areas of farmlands where petroleum diesel is not available, but where the vegetable oil can be obtained easily from the plants. This way the farmers would be able to run the vehicles used by them for farming by using the vegetable oil. Rudolph had carried out extensive research to run his engine on vegetable oil.
 

In fact biodiesel was one of the earliest fuels used for running the engines of the automobiles.

After Rudolph’s death in 1913, the gasoline including diesel became much cheaper so the design of Rudolph’s engine was modified so that it can run on petroleum diesel. It is indeed interesting to know that after almost 100 years, the engine developed by Rudolph is now being run on the same fuel i.e. biodiesel made from vegetable oil, as per its original vision.
 

Biodiesel used for Running Vehicles
 

As mentioned earlier, the original diesel engine was designed to run on biodiesel or vegetable oil. For all the vehicles manufactured after the year 1993 biodiesel can be used as the fuel in all diesel engines without making any changes in the fuel injection system. When one uses the biodiesel there may be very little or no change in the performance of the engine.
 

The properties of biodiesel are very similar to traditional diesel obtained from the crude oil. While the combustion of traditional diesel produces lots of air pollution and toxic gases, the burning of biodiesel is clean and it does not cause any environmental pollution.
 

Biodiesel can be used as the fuel for automobiles in the pure form or it can be mixed with petroleum diesel in various proportions to form the blends. The two most commonly used blends of biodiesel are B20 and B100. B20 is the blend of 20% of biodiesel and remaining percentage of petroleum diesel and is the most widely used blend in US. It also meets all the regulations under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) documented in 1992. Most of the other fuel blends containing lesser than 20% of biodiesel can also used for the running the vehicles. B100 is the pure form of biodiesel and it can be used in the diesel engines only after making certain changes in the hosesand gaskets of the engine.
 

Controversies Related to Biodiesel
 

Now that biodiesel is being blended with petroleum diesel and is being used as the fuel, its demand is fast increasing. A number of farmers are tempted to grow the crops that would yield biodiesel at the cost of the food crops. Instead of using the fertilizers, pesticides and energy for the food crops, farmers are using them for the biodiesel crops. This leads to not only the misuse of the limited resources but also shortage of the food crops.
 

In some parts of the world large areas of forests have been cut down to grow sugarcane for ethanol and soybeans and palm-oil tress for making biodiesel. US government is making efforts to make sure the farming for biomass materials does not competes with the farming of food crops and that the farming of biomass would require lesser fertilizers and pesticides. A number of other sources for biodiesel are also being explored like used oils and greases and algae.
 

Benefits of Biodiesel
 

Here are some of the benefits of using biodiesel as a fuel:
 

1) Biodiesel can be easily blended with petroleum diesel and the mixture can be readily used for running the vehicles without carrying out any changes in the engine.
 

2) Though the properties of biodiesel are same as the petroleum diesel, the combustion of biodiesel produces no greenhouse and other gases that would harm the environment.

As the proportion of biodiesel increases in the petroleum diesel blend, its tendency to generate pollution reduces.
 

3) Biodiesel is made from plant oil and vegetable fats, which are biodegradable, so they can be easily disposed of. When biodiesel is leaked or split it does not harm the environment.
 

4) The country manufacturing and using biodiesel is less dependent on other countries for their fuel requirements. Biodiesel has the potential to make countries self-reliant for their future fuel requirements. Further, since biodiesel is obtained from the renewable source of energy, it could be considered an important fuel for future planning.
 
 
 
CCRES 
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Escapeartist, Inc
 
 CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 
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