Tag Archives: biodiesel

Tiny Green Factories

Tiny Green Factories

 
 
 
New ways to turn photosynthetic green algae into tiny “green factories” for producing raw materials for alternative fuels.
 
Overturning two long-held misconceptions about oil production in algae, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory show that ramping up the microbes’ overall metabolism by feeding them more carbon increases oil production as the organisms continue to grow. The findings — published online in the journal Plant and Cell Physiology on May 28, 2012 — may point to new ways to turn photosynthetic green algae into tiny “green factories” for producing raw materials for alternative fuels.

“We are interested in algae because they grow very quickly and can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into carbon-chain molecules like starch and oils,” said Brookhaven biologist Changcheng Xu, the paper’s lead author. With eight times the energy density of starch, algal oil in particular could be an ideal raw material for making biodiesel and other renewable fuels.

But there have been some problems turning microscopic algae into oil producing factories.

For one thing, when the tiny microbes take in carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, they preferentially convert the carbon into starch rather than oils. “Normally, algae produce very little oil,” Xu said.

Before the current research, the only way scientists knew to tip the balance in favor of oil production was to starve the algae of certain key nutrients, like nitrogen. Oil output would increase, but the algae would stop growing — not ideal conditions for continuous production.

Another issue was that scientists didn’t know much about the details of oil biochemistry in algae. “Much of what we thought we knew was inferred from studies performed on higher plants,” said Brookhaven biochemist John Shanklin, a co-author who’s conducted extensive research on plant oil production. Recent studies have hinted at big differences between the microbial algae and their more complex photosynthetic relatives.

“Our goal was to learn all we could about the factors that contribute to oil production in algae, including those that control metabolic switching between starch and oil, to see if we could shift the balance to oil production without stopping algae growth,” Xu said.

The scientists grew cultures of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii — the “fruit fly” of algae — under a variety of nutrient conditions, with and without inhibitors that would limit specific biochemical pathways. They also studied a mutant Chlamydomonas that lacks the capacity to make starch. By comparing how much oil accumulated over time in the two strains across the various conditions, they were able to learn why carbon preferentially partitions into starch rather than oil, and how to affect the process.

The main finding was that feeding the algae more carbon (in the form of acetate) quickly maxed out the production of starch to the point that any additional carbon was channeled into high-gear oil production. And, most significantly, under the excess carbon condition and without nutrient deprivation, the microbes kept growing while producing oil.

“This overturns the previously held dogma that algae growth and increased oil production are mutually exclusive,” Xu said.

The detailed studies, conducted mainly by Brookhaven research associates Jilian Fan and Chengshi Yan, showed that the amount of carbon was the key factor determining how much oil was produced: more carbon resulted in more oil; less carbon limited production. This was another surprise because a lot of approaches for increasing oil production have focused on the role of enzymes involved in producing fatty acids and oils. In this study, inhibiting enzyme production had little effect on oil output.

“This is an example of a substantial difference between algae and higher plants,” said Shanklin.

In plants, the enzymes directly involved in the oil biosynthetic pathway are the limiting factors in oil production. In algae, the limiting step is not in the oil biosynthesis itself, but further back in central metabolism.

This is not all that different from what we see in human metabolism, Xu points out: Eating more carbon-rich carbohydrates pushes our metabolism to increase oil (fat) production and storage.

“It’s kind of surprising that, in some ways, we’re more like algae than higher plants are,” Xu said, noting that scientists in other fields may be interested in the details of metabolic switching uncovered by this research.

But the next step for the Brookhaven team will be to look more closely at the differences in carbon partitioning in algae and plants. This part of the work will be led by co-author Jorg Schwender, an expert in metabolic flux studies. The team will also work to translate what they’ve learned in a model algal species into information that can help increase the yield of commercial algal strains for the production of raw materials for biofuels.

This research was funded by the DOE Office of Science and the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.

 
CCRES 
special thanks to  
Brookhaven National Laboratory
 
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)
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Biodiesel Experts in EU

Growing global demand for energy to power economic development and growth demands the development of cost-effective technologies for a more sustainable energy economy for Europe (and world-wide) to ensure that European industry can compete successfully on the global stage.
Energy is a vital part of our daily lives in Europe and has been for centuries. But the days of secure, cheap energy are over. We are already facing the consequences of climate change, increasing import dependence and higher energy prices.
Consequently, the EU has been developing its climate and energy policy as an integrated approach that pursues the three key objectives of:
  • security of supply: to better coordinate the EU’s supply of and demand for energy within an international context;
  • competitiveness: to ensure the competitiveness of European economies and the availability of affordable energy;
  • sustainability: to combat climate change by promoting renewable energy sources and energy efficiency.
Click to enlarge EU primary energy requirements by fuel Source: European Energy and Transport, Trends to 2030 
Click to enlarge Import dependency of the EU (in %) Source: European Energy and Transport, Trends to 2030 
These objectives have been translated into binding targets. By 2020, the EU has committed itself to:
  • reducing its greenhouse-gas emissions by 20% (or even 30% in case an international agreement is reached that commits other countries in a similar way);
  • increasing the share of renewable energies to 20% of total EU energy consumption;
  • increasing the share of renewable energies in transport to 10%;
  • improving energy efficiency by 20%.
Achieving these goals will require major breakthroughs in the research and development of new technologies. The European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) – the technology pillar of the European energy and climate policy – outlines long-term energy research priorities for the horizon of 2020 to 2050. It lays the foundations for a European policy for energy technology and establishes a framework that brings together the diverse activities in the field of energy research. For more information please visit the SET-Plan section of this website.

Biodiesel Experts in EU

NOVAOL AUSTRIA GmbH Industriegelande West 3
A-2460 Bruck/Leitha

OLEON Assenedestraat 2
9940 Ertvelde
Bioro Moervaartkaai 1
B-9042 Gent
NEOCHIM Parc Industriel, zone A
7181 Feluy
Proviron Fine Chemicals nv G.Gilliotstraat 60 – zone 2
B-2620 Hemiksem
FEDIOL 168, avenue de Tervuren
(bte 12) – 1st floor
B – 1150 – Bruxelles

Rapid Oil Industry Co. Ltd. 81A, Nikola Gabrovski st.
5000 Veliko Tarnovo

Agropodnik Dobronin 315
588 13 Polna
Preol
PREOL a.s. Lovosice,
Terezinska 47
PSC 41017

Ambrosia Oils (1976) LTD Larnaka Industrial Estate,
P.O.Box 40433, 6304 Larnaka

Daka Biodiesel Bragesvej 18
DK 4100 Ringsted

Neste Renewable Fuels Oy P.O. Box 726
00095 NESTE OIL

DIESTER INDUSTRIE 12 Avenue Georges V
75008 Paris
INEOS Enterprises France SAS Z.I. Baleycourt – BP 10095
F – 55103 VERDUN Cedex
SCA Pétrole et Dérivés 7, Allée des Mousquetaires
Parc de Tréville
91078 Bondoufle Cedex
France Ester
France Ester Route d’Alençon
61400 Saint Langis les Mortagne
Nord Ester Rue Van Cauwenberghe
Zone Industrielle de Petite-Synthe
59640 Dunkerque
Veolia / SARP Industries SARP Industries
427, route du Hazay
F-78520 Limay
Centre Ouest Céreales B.P. 10036
86131 Jaunay-clan Cedex

ADM HAMBURG AG
Nippoldstrasse. 117
D-21107 Hamburg
ADM HAMBURG AG – Werk Leer
GmbH & Co. KG
Saegemuehlenstrasse. 45
D-26789 Leer (Ostfriesland)
ADM Soya Mainz GmbH Dammweg 2
55130 Mainz
CARGILL GmbH
Ruedeckenstrasse 51 / Am Hafen
D-38239 Salzgitter-Beddingen
VERBIO Diesel Bitterfeld GmbH & Co. KG
Areal B Chemiepark Bitterfeld-Wolfen, OT Greppin, Stickstoffstrasse
D-6749 Bitterfeld-Wolfen
NATURAL ENERGY WEST GmbH
Industrie Strasse 34
41460 Neuss
PETROTEC GmbH
Fürst-von-Salm-Straße 18
46313 Borken-Burlo
BIOPETROL Industries AG Baarerstrasse 53/55,
CH-6304 Zug
EcoMotion GmbH Brunnenstr. 138
D-44536 Lünen
Mannheim Bio Fuel GmbH Inselstrasse 10
D-68169 Mannheim
Vesta Biofuels Brunsbüttel GmbH
Fahrstrasse 51
D-25541 Brunsbuttel
Rheinische Bio Ester GmbH & Co. KG Duisburger Strasse 15/19
41460 Neuss
VERBAND DEUTSCHER BIODIESELHERSTELLER e.V.
Am Weidendamm 1a
D-10117 Berlin

ELIN BIOFUELS S.A.
33 Pigon Str., 145 64 Kifissia
Athens
AGROINVEST S.A. 9th km Thessaloniki-Thermi
Thermi II Building
57001 Thessaloniki
GF Energy 56 Kifisias Av. & Delfon st.,
6th floor, 151 25 Marousi,
Athens

Öko-line Hungary Kft. Városligeti fasor 47-49
H-1071 Budapest

Green Biofuels Ireland Ltd Wexford Farmers Co-op
Blackstoops, Enniscorthy Co. Wexford

ECO FOX S.r.L. Via Senigallia 29
I=61100 Pesaro
NOVAOL ITALY Via G: Spqdolini 5
20141 Milano
ITAL BI OIL S.r.l. Ital Bi Oil S.r.l.
Via Baione 222 – 224
70043 – Monopoli (BA)
OIL. B srl OIL.B srl
Via Sabotino, 2
24121 Bergamo
OXEM Strada Provinciale Km 2,6 – 27030
Mezzana Bigli (Pv)
Mythen Via Lanzone ,31
20123 MILANO
PFP S.p.A Via Scaglia Est 134
41126 Modena
Assocostieri
Unione Produttori Biodiesel
Via di Vigna Murata 40
00143 Roma

BioVenta 66 Dzintaru
Ventspils, LV-3600

Biovalue Holding BV Westlob 6
NL-9979XG Eemshaven

Croatian Center of RES Medarska 24
10000 Zagreb

IBEROL NUTASA Av. Frei Miguel Contreiras, 54A – 3º
1700-213 Lisboa
Torrejana
Torrejana Casal da Amendoeira
Apartado 2
2354-908 Riachos
Sovena Oil Seeds Portugal R. General Ferreira Martins 6, 8º
Miraflores
1495-137 Algés
APPB

Prio Strada Stelea Spatarul
nr 12, Sector 3, Bucuresti
Expur 45 Tudor Vladimirescu Bvd. District 5
050881 Bucharest
Procera Biofuels Muncii street, No.11 Fundulea city
Calarasi County, 915200

BIONET EUROPA Poligon Agro-Reus
Adria Gual 4
43206 Reus
ACCIONA Biocombustibles, S.A Av. Ciudad de la Innovación, 5
31621 Sarriguren (Navarra)
Biocombustiblies Ctra. de Valencia Km. 202
Pol. Sepes – Parcelas 145-146
16004 Cuenca
Green Fuel Avda. San Francisco Javier, 24, Ed. Sevilla I
41018 Sevilla
Stocks del Valles
Stocks Del Valles SA Pol. Ind. El Pedregar
C/. Progres, 19-21
E-08160 Montmelo Barcelona
Bio-Oils Energy, S.L. C/ Almagro 2, 4º Dcha.
28010 Madrid
BioArag Ctra A- 1240, Km 0,900 – 22540
Altorricon (Huesca)
BioNorte S.A. Poligono de la Florida 71
33958 San Martin Del Rey Aurelio
Asturias
APPA Muntaner 269
08021 Barcelona

Ecobränsle i Karlshamn AB Västra Kajen 8B
SE-374 31 Karlshamn
Norups Biorefinery AB Box 109
289 21 Knislinge
Perstorp Prastgatan 12
SE-252 24 Helsingborg

Argent Energy 5th Floor, 9 Hatton Street
London NW8 8PL
Harvest Energy 2 Cavendish Square
London, W1G 0PU
Agri Energy Northampton Road, Blisworth
Northampton, NN7 3DR

Expert Groups 

alt Prof Thierry CHOPIN University of New Brunswick Canada
alt Dr Alan CRITCHLEY Acadian Seaplants Ltd Canada
alt Dr Amir NEORI
Dr. Ami BEN AMOTZ
Israel Oceanographic & Limnological
Research Ltd
Israel
Mr John TRAVERS
(Chief executive Ireland)
Alternative energy Resources Limited LTD
(biofuels production and supply company)
Ireland
Prof Klaus LUNING Sylt Algae Farm Germany
altalt Prof Masahiro NOTOYA Tokyo University Marine Science and
Technology International Seaweed Association
Japan
alt Dr Paolo GUALTIERI CNR- Istituto di Biofisica di Pisa Italy
alt Ms Simonetta ZARRILLI United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD)
Switzerland
alt Ms Sofia SEQUEIRA Galp Portugal
alt Mr Jeff TSCHIRLEY UN Food and Agricoltural Organisation
(FAO)
Italy
alt Mr Michael. B. LAKEMAN
Mr Andrew BRAFF
Algal Biomass Organisation USA
alt Mr Frédéric MONOT Institute Français du Petrol, Biotechnology
and Biomass Chemistry
France
alt Mr. Guido DEJONGH CEN – European Committee for Standardisation
(New Standardization Opportunities)
Belgium

Experts

Prof. Spiros AGATHOS Louvain University
Belgium
Ms. Maria BARBOSA WURFood & BioBased
The Netherlands
Dr. Kateřina BIŠOVÁ Czech Institute of Microbiology
Czech Republic
Mr. Jonas DAHL Danish Technological Institute
Denmark
Dr. Maeve EDWARDS Irish Seaweed Centre
Ireland
Mr. Cameron EDWARDS VESTA Biofuels Brunsbüttel
Germany
Prof. Jose FERNANDEZ SEVILLA University of Almeria
Spain
Dr. Imogen FOUBERT K.U.Leuven University
Belgium
Dr. Gloria GAUPMANN EBIO
Belgium
Dr. Sridharan GOVINDACHARY Queen’s University
Ireland
Prof. Patricia J. HARVEY University of Greenwich
UK
Mr. Sven JACOBS Howest
Belgium
Mr. Frédéric LAEUFFER TOTAL
France
Mr. Remy MARCHAL Institut Français du Pétrole
France
Mr. Riccardo MARCHETTI Oxem S.p.a
Italy
Dr. Laura MARTINELLI Studio Martinelli
Italy
Ms. Roberta MODOLO Studio Martinelli
Italy
Mr. Benoit QUEGUINEUR Irish Seaweed Centre
Ireland
Ms. Jessica RATCLIFF Irish Seaweed Centre
Ireland
Mr. Jean-François ROUS Diester Industrie
France
Ms. Briana SAPP PANGEA
Belgium
Mr. Philippe SCHILD European Commission (DR Research)
Belgium
Mr. Johannes SKARKA Karlsruher Institute of Technology
Germany
Ms. Andrea SONNLEITNER Bioenergy 2020
Austria
Mr. Julien TAIEB FEFAC
Belgium
Prof. Laurenz THOMSEN Jacobs University Bremen
Germany
Dr. Wolfgang TRUNK European Commission (DG Health)
Belgium
Mr. Dries VANDAMME K.U.Leuven University
Belgium
Mr. Peter VAN DEN DORPEL AlgaeLink N.V.
The Netherlands
Mr. Jan VANHOUTTE BEKO
Belgium
Dr. Koen VANHOUTTE Navicula
Belgium
Mr. Ignacio VASQUEZ- L European Commission (DG Climate)
Belgium
Dr. Milada VITOVÁ Czech Institute of Microbiology
Czech Republic
Ms. Annalisa VOLSE PANGEA
Belgium
Dr. Wim VYVERMAN Ghent University
Belgium
Ms. Annika WEISS KIT
Germany
Mr. Zeljko Serdar Croatian Center of RES
Croatia

Prof. Gabriel ACIEN FERNANDEZ Almeria University
Spain
Dr. Dina BACOVSKY Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH
Austria
Dr. Natascia BIONDI University of Florence
Italy
Prof. Sammy BOUSSIBA Ben‐Gurion University
Israel
Mr. Marco BROCKEN Evodos The Netherlands
Ms. Griet CASTELEYN Ghent University Belgium
Mr. Nuno COELHO AlgaFuel Portugal
Dr. Guillermo GARCIA-B.REINA University of Las Palmas Gan Canaria Spain
Mr. Guido DE JONGH CEN Belgium
Mr. Alessandro FLAMMINI FAO Aquatic Biofuels Italy
Mr. Clayton JEFFRYES Louvain University Belgium
Dr. Bert LEMMENS VITO Belgium
Dr. Stefan LEU Ben‐Gurion University Israel
Mr. Philippe MORAND CNRS France
Mr. Josche MUTH EREC Belgium
Ms. Liliana RODOLFI Fotosintetica & Microbiologica S.r.l Italy
Dr. Robin SHIELDS Swansea University UK
Dr. Raphael SLADE Imperial College London UK
Mr. Mario R. TREDICI University of Florence Italy
Ms. Sofie VAN DEN HENDE Ghent University Belgium
Mr. Ron VAN ERCK European Commission(DG Energy) Belgium
Prof. Rene WIJFFELS Wageningen Universiteit The Netherlands
Mr. Philippe WILLEMS Orineo BVBA Belgium
Dr. Attila WOOTSCH MFKK Hungary Hungary
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Nor Cal Biodiesel

 
 
 
CCRES promotes Nor Cal Biodiesel
 
Nor Cal Biodiesel currently offer two models to choose from: the BioPro190 and the larger BioPro380.
 
BioPro190
 
 
 
BioPro190 General Information and Specifications
  • Dimensions: 21″w x 21″d x 67″h. Overall height adjustable +/- 2”
  • Weight: 325 Lbs. (empty).
  • Capacity: 50 gallons oil yields 50 gallons of finished fuel.
                   10 gallons methanol – yields approx. 10 gallons glycerin.
  • Construction: TIG welded 304 stainless steel body; Powder coated carbon steel covers.
  • Fittings: 304 stainless steel or glass filled polypropylene.
  • Electrical: 110 VAC / 15 Amp Circuit.
  • Controls: AUTO mode controlled by program logic controller;
                   Start button initiates completely automated process;
                   MANUAL mode controlled by switch actuation.
  • Reaction Method: Acid-catalyzed esterification of free fatty acids
                   Then base-catalyzed transesterification of triglycerides;
  • Wash Method: Triple-stage turbulent water wash.
                   1) Mist Spray, 2) Mist & Agitation, 3) Mist & Agitation
  • Batch Time: Reaction Time – approximately 8 hrs;
                   Initial settling – 16 hrs;
                   Water wash – approximately 14 hrs;
                   Drying cycle – Approx 10 hrs:
  • Total Processing Time: Approx. 48 hours start to finish.
 
Items You Will Need To Get Started:
 
  • 50 Gallons of new or used filtered vegetable oil or oil derived from animal fats
  • 400 micron, or finer, filter to strain the oil
  • 10 Gallons of methanol (racing fuel)
  • For your safety and convenience, we suggest obtaining a methanol compatible and an oil/grease
    compatible transfer pump
  • 1520 grams (3.41 lbs) Sodium Hydroxide – NaOH or 2350 (5.17 lbs) grams Potassium Hydroxide – KOH
  • 190 mL (6.43 oz) Sulfuric Acid (93% Purity or higher) – Do not use common battery acid
  • 50 Gallons of fresh, standing water
  • 50 Gallon container or receptacle for “water in”
  • 50 Gallon container or receptacle to collect the wash water – or connect directly to a drain.
  • Air tight storage containers for methanol (typically, a 55-gallon drum), catalyst potash, and sulfuric acid
  • Protective gloves, face mask, apron, and safety goggles (included)
  • Transfer hoses, scales, and measuring cups (included)
  • (1) 110-120 volt / 15 amp & (1) 220 volt / 30 amp AC power source 
  BioPro380
 
 
BioPro380 General Information and Specifications
  • Dimensions: 64″w x 34″d x 91″h. Overall height adjustable +/- 2”
  • Weight: Approximately 675 Lbs. (empty).
  • Capacity: 100 gallons oil yields up to 100 gallons (380 liters) of finished fuel
  • Batch Sizes: – Capable of processing 50, 75, or 100 gallons of oil feedstock (190, 284, or 380 liters).
  • Construction: TIG welded 304 stainless steel body; Powder coated carbon steel covers.
  • Electrical: 220 VAC / 30 AMP & 110 VAC / 15 Amp Circuit. Dedicated Circuits are preferred but not required.
  • Controls: AUTO mode controlled by program logic controller;
                   Start button initiates the automated process;
                   MANUAL mode controlled by switch actuation.
  • Reaction Method: Acid-catalyzed esterification of free fatty acids
                   Then base-catalyzed transesterification of triglycerides;
  • Method: Triple-stage turbulent water wash.
                   1) Mist Spray, 2) Mist & Agitation, 3) Mist & Agitation
  • Batch Time: Reaction Time – approximately 8 hrs;
                   Initial settling – 16 hrs;
                   Water wash –(total three (3) cycles, approximately14 hrs;
                   Drying cycle – Approx 10 hrs:
  • Total Processing Time: Approx. 48 hours start to finish.
 
Items You Will Need To Get Started:
 
  • 100 Gallons of new or used filtered vegetable oil or oil derived from animal fats (triglycerides
  • Minimum 400 micron, or finer, filter to strain the oil
  • 20 Gallons of methanol (racing fuel; 99.99% pure)
  • 3040 grams Lye (Sodium Hydroxide – NaOH) or 4700 grams Caustic Potash (Potassium Hydroxide – KOH)* *Recommended
  • 380 mL Sulfuric Acid (93% Purity or higher) – Not common battery acid
  • 100 Gallons of fresh standing water (can also be connected directly to a pressurized water line)
  • 100 Gallon container for water in (or connect to a clean, pressurized water source)
  • 100 Gallon container for water out (or connect directly to a drain)
  • Air tight storage containers for methanol, lye/caustic potash, and sulfuric acid
  • Protective gloves, face mask, apron, and safety goggles (included)
  • Transfer hoses, scales, and measuring cups (included)
  • For your safety and convenience, we suggest obtaining a methanol transfer and oil/grease transfer pump
  • (1) 110-120 volt / 15 amp & (1) 220 volt / 30 amp AC power source 
 Since it’s introduction, the BioPro line of products have steadily found their way into the hands of many an independent souls.
 
 Click on the links below to read about
 
 
 
CONTACT Nor Cal Biodiesel
 
Please feel free to contact  Nor Cal Biodiesel for additional information regarding our products or services.
 
 Nor Cal Biodiesel also welcome any comments or suggestions regarding  products, web site and overall experience regarding your initial interaction with Nor Cal Biodiesel.
 
General Inquiries and Sales Information info@norcalbio.com
Projects, Business Development or Specific Requests danny@norcalbio.com
Nor Cal Biodiese web site : http://norcalbio.com/index.html
For any additional information, please contact 
Danny Lesa, telephone 707-766-9782 
 

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
 (CCRES)

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