Tag Archives: AQUAPONICS

Safe and affordable seafood products


Aquaculture produces safe,
high-quality food

Just as with wild-caught fish, farmed seafood represents an excellent source of nutrients important for human health. There is hard evidence that regular consumption of fish lowers the risk of coronary heart diseases because of high concentrations of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids. Other important nutrients in farmed fish are vitamins A and D for maintaining healthy bones, eyes and skin. Farmed fish is also a rich source for iodine, important for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland, and selenium, which is an important anti-oxidant.

Because farmed fish and shellfish are produced under controlled conditions, it is possible to maintain the highest quality standards from the egg to the plate. In the same way that business processes may be certified to meet standards (e.g. ISO), aquaculture production also has certification schemes. They are increasingly supported by various codes (of conduct and of good practice), developed at national and European levels.

Production of fish and shellfish on farms allows for consistent and even enhanced levels of the elements in seafood that do us good. For example, the level and balance of omega fatty acids, vitamins and minerals such as iodine and selenium can all be influenced through specially designed fish feeds.

What are the health benefits of seafood?

Much of the importance of fish in health has come from research into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 family. Other abbreviations used are omega-3 and n-3 fats. Fish is a rich source of two important PUFA: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PUFA are present in both wild and farmed fish. DHA and EPA are found in abundance in the flesh of oil-rich fish but they are also present in lean fish.

The effect of PUFA on coronary heart disease has been extensively studied. The human body cannot make PUFA. There is strong evidence from many scientific studies that PUFAs from fish play a major role in protection against heart disease . PUFAs may also help prevent other illnesses, such as arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, some types of cancer and asthma. Extensive research to confirm these relationships is ongoing.

How much seafood should we eat?

Different values exist in the scientific literature for what is the “ideal” daily or weekly intake of EPA and DHA for human health. Government advice varies considerably between countries. However, as a general rule, a healthy diet is generally assumed to include 1-2 fish per week, especially fatty fish.

The International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL) suggests an uptake of 500 mg of EPA + DHA per day or 3.5 g per week provides enhanced cardiac health in adults.

In its 2004 report “Advice on Fish Consumption – Benefits and Risks”, the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) concluded that the majority of the UK population does not consume enough fish, particularly oily fish, and should be encouraged to increase consumption. The Inter-Committee Subgroup endorsed the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) 1994 population guideline recommendation that people should eat at least two portions of fish a week, of which one should be oily. Consumption of this amount would probably confer significant public health benefits to the UK population in terms of reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and may also have beneficial effects on foetal development.

Current advice from the UK Food Standards Agency suggests a weekly intake of up to four 140g portions of oily fish for men, boys and women over reproductive age, with the caveat that girls and women of reproductive age should only consume two portions of oily fish per week2.

Safe seafood products

Because it is a controlled food production process, fish farming can include safeguards to protect its product from contamination. Ironically, the main source of contaminants in farmed fish (such as trace amounts of dioxins, PCBs and mercury) is fish feed composed of wild fish. However, because this food can be sampled and analysed prior to feeding, maximum limits of contaminants in fishmeal and fish oil used in aquaculture have been established by international law.

Photo: Courtesy of Vidar VassvikData from the official controls of the fish feed ingredients and analysis of the farmed fish itself are available for consumers, authorities and industry alike.

Strategies to minimise contamination of farmed fish by way of feed derived from the wild are in place and can include; careful selection of the fish oil source, purification of fish oil prior to its inclusion in fish feed, and partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils.

A number of factors have combined to make us more aware than ever of the safety of food. Firstly, increasingly accurate measuring techniques allow us to detect even the lowest levels of contaminants. Secondly, increasing media focus on food safety has highlighted issues such as BSE, dioxins and salmonella, and ‘food scares’ have become regular features of news broadcasts. For food to be acceptable, it must be proven to be safe to eat.

Food safety standards have been developed giving clinically proven safe levels of food constituents that may at higher levels provide a risk to health.

Contaminants and health risks

Contaminants in fish derive predominantly from their diet. Whilst it is not possible to control the diet of wild fish, the levels of contaminants and some nutrients in farmed fish may be modified by altering their feed.

Strict EU regulations (e.g. Directive2002/32/EC) and controls by food
safety authorities ensure that contaminants are kept well below dangerous
levels in farmed fish. Emerging technologies allow fish feed producers to
purify fish meal and oil before it is incorporated in the feed.

 The retention of dietary mercury by fish is dependent on dietary concentration and the duration of exposure to the contaminant. Methylmercury (the toxic form of mercury in fish) is present in higher amounts in large predatory fish such as swordfish and tuna. High consumers of such top predatory species, such as pike or tuna (especially fresh or frozen bluefin or albacore tuna), may exceed the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of methylmercury.

The greatest susceptibility to the critical contaminants (methylmercury and the dioxin-like compounds) occurs during early human development. For a developing human foetus, this means that the risk comes from the amount of these compounds in the mother’s body.

Furthermore, EU maximum limits exist for a range of contaminants in food such as dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, mercury, lead, cadmium and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (the maximum level is for one PAH, BaP). These limits include food of farm origin and other foods such as fish from capture fisheries.

Monitoring programmes exist to document the levels of contaminants in wild and farmed fish to fulfil a need for independent data for consumers, food authorities, fisheries authorities, industry and markets.


As in land farming, fish farming benefits from traceability technologies to monitor and follow the production cycle through its entirety. While traceability itself is not a guarantee of safety, it is essential in pinpointing problems, should they occur, throughout the whole production chain. This is not just limited to producers, but encompasses their suppliers, processors and distributors. Such “full chain traceability” is most effective when all links in the chain have the same principles and use the same (or at least compatible) tools.

In 2002, an EU-funded concerted action initiative called “TraceFish” (www.tracefish.org) produced three consensusbased standards for the recording and exchange of traceability information in the seafood chains.

One of these is a standard for farmed fish. The basic element in the system is a unique identification number to be placed on each lot of products in such a way that traceability can be transmitted electronically. The system is voluntary.

Traceability tools are being continuously improved and are major monitoring components of various labelling and certification schemes for aquaculture products.

An example of this is the TRACE initiative (www.trace.eu) that is using 5 case studies in food to improve traceability parameters and measure food authenticity. This last point has specific interest for fish products and TRACE is developing generic low cost analytical tools for use in the traceability infrastructure that verify geographical origin, production origin and species origin.

Affordable seafood products

As fish species become scarcer in the oceans, they will become less affordable to consumers.

All of the approximately thirty species of fish in European aquaculture production have shown a decrease in farm gate price as their production volume has increased, while improvements in production techniques have resulted in ever-increasing quality.

Figure 5: EU production and price trends – for several aquaculture species produced in Europe.
Data from FAO FishStat 2006. Note prices in US Dollars.

Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are almost exclusively farmed. They are now comparable in price to land farmed produce such as chicken and pork.

The availability of ‘new’ farmed species (sea bass, sea bream, cod, sole, scallops, octopus etc.) has the potential to provide this increase in affordability to all consumers.

Quality of life of aquatic animals


Infectious diseases are encountered in all food production. Fish and shellfish may be more under threat from disease than land animals or plants because germs survive longer and can spread more effectively in water. The rapid identification and treatment of bacterial and viral infection is therefore crucial in aquaculture. While best management practice remains the preferred option for producers, the use of therapeutic agents may sometimes be necessary.

National and international regulations have been implemented to approve veterinary medicines that do not compromise food safety. An example of this is the so-called ‘withdrawal period’, defined as the minimum time to elapse between termination of the treatment and harvest of the animal. Withdrawal periods are specific for each drug and each utilisation of that drug, for example to treat bacterial disease.

It is important to note that the use of veterinary medicines such as antibiotics has greatly decreased in many types of aquaculture. For example, in Norway the use of antibiotics in salmon and trout farming has been negligible for the last 10 years due to the use of better vaccines. In 2004, Norway produced 23 times more salmon and trout than in 1985; in the same period, the use of antibiotics dropped by a factor of 25.

Figure 6: Antibiotics used in Norwegian farming of trout and salmon 1980-2004.

The principal challenges in aquaculture are now related to viruses and parasites. For example, “sea lice” threaten farmed salmon in temperate waters. However, non-medicinal and environmentally friendly lice treatments are being developed. In Norway, for example, wrasse, another fish, is used to eat the lice from infected salmon.

With the adoption of tighter laws and regulations, and with the difficulties of drug companies registering new treatments for aquaculture, the availability of medicines to treat aquaculture species becomes increasingly unsure. More and more, research is therefore turning towards prophylaxis as a solution.

Parasites are common in wild fish, too

Parasites are not unique to farmed fish, but in the wild they obviously go untreated. Parasites fall into two main groups – ectoparasites, which affect the skin and external organs, and endoparasites, which invade the body and attack the musculature and internal organs.

Ectoparasites include several types of sea lice, crablike creatures that eat the skin and flesh of the fish. If left untreated, they will cause considerable suffering to the fish and open wounds on the skin of the fish that may become sites for disease.

Endoparasites include nematode worms that enter the body of the fish through the mouth, infest the gut and can then burrow into the flesh of the fish. As well as reducing the fish’s ability to regulate the amount of salt in its body by perforating the gut membrane, they also reduce the saleability of the flesh, since fish infested with nematode parasites are not saleable for human consumption.

As on land-based farms, when animals are held at higher densities parasites can infect a stock relatively rapidly. Because unhealthy fish mean substantial loss to the farmer, however, it is uncommon in modern fish farms to find harmful burdens of parasites. Outbreaks are controlled by modern farming practices and the use of medicines that authorities have deemed safe to the fish, to consumers and to the environment.

(1) Simopoulos, A.P. “Essential Fatty Acids in Health and Chronic Disease”. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71 (suppl): 5065-95.


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Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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Aquaculture Recommended Reading List

The aquaculture industry in Croatia is not large compared to other areas in the world, but the industry here is highly diversified, and the region has the water and land resources needed for significant growth.The purpose of this list is to provide sources of information for current and prospective aquaculturists in Croatia and the EU region.
 Aquaculture Recommended Reading List
Encyclopedia of Aquaculture / By Robert R. Stickney. New York: Wiley:  2000.
A comprehensive reference to the science, technology, and economics of aquaculture for scientists and professionals in aquaculture as well as individuals wishing to expand their knowledge of the field. With an emphasis on current trends and sustainable practices, the Encyclopedia of Aquaculture is complete with photographs, illustrations, and graphs as well as references to the extensive literature.
Best Management Practices for Aquaculture in Wisconsin and the Great Lakes Region / By Jeffrey A. Malison and Christopher F. Hartleb. Madison: University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute:  2005.
The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for current and prospective aquaculturists in Wisconsin and the Great Lakes region. Best management practices or BMP’s are defined as management guidelines or approaches designed to minimize or prevent any adverse environmental impacts, to maximize the health and well-being of the organisms being raised, and to encourage efficient and economical production.
Aquaculture: Principles and Practices / By T. V. R. Pillay and M. N. Kutty. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub.:  2005.
Covering all aspects of subsistence and commercial aquaculture as practiced across the globe, this fully revised edition from two leading world authorities in the field covers both principles and practices. It covers in detail recent developments in: history and planning; nutrition; reproduction and genetic selection; production statistics and economics; integrated aquaculture; and sustainability and environmental effects.
Aquaculture Marketing Handbook / By Carole R. Engle and Kwamena Quagrainie. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub. Professional:  2006.
The Aquaculture Marketing Handbook provides the reader with information regarding aquaculture economics, markets, and marketing. In addition, this volume also contains an extensive annotated bibliography and webliography that provide descriptions of key additional sources of information. Useful for both the experienced aquaculture professional and those new to the field.
Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants / By John S. Lucas and Paul C. Southgate. Oxford: Fishing News Books:  2003.
This book covers all major aspects of the aquaculture of fish, shellfish and algae in freshwater and marine environments. Subject areas include water quality and environmental impacts of aquaculture, desert aquaculture, reproduction, life cycles and growth, genetics and stock improvement, nutrition and feed production, diseases, post-harvest technology and processing, economics and marketing. The second part of the text is devoted to the culture of different species.
Practical Genetics for Aquaculture / By Charles Gregory Lutz. Malden, Mass.: Fishing News Books:  2001.
Lutz provides reviews of the fundamental theory and examples of practical applications for numerous aspects of genetic improvement in aquaculture. While new molecular techniques hold great promise for application in commercial aquaculture in the future, most aquaculture currently takes place under practical and often challenging conditions. Tremendous gains could be realized through the application of more traditional and practical approaches to genetic improvement.
Aquaculture Biosecurity: Prevention, Control, and Eradication of Aquatic Animal Disease / By A. David Scarfe, Cheng-Sheng Lee, and Patricia J. O’Bryen. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub. Professional:  2006.
Aquaculture loses millions of dollars in revenue annually due to aquatic animal diseases. As a result, aquaculture biosecurity programs that address aquatic animal pathogens and diseases have become an important focus for the aquaculture industry. With contributions from renowned international experts, this book is a vital reference for those concerned about protecting aquaculture from impacts of aquatic animal disease.
Cage Aquaculture / By Malcolm C. M. Beveridge. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub. Professional:  2004.
Cages are the most important system for producing farmed salmon, sea bass, sea bream, yellowtail and tuna. They are relatively inexpensive, require no access to land, and offer tremendous flexibility to aquaculture farmers in terms of production. This fully updated, expanded, and revised third edition incorporates the major developments in the aquaculture industry, including the ever-increasing market for farmed salmon.
Ecological Aquaculture: The Evolution of the Blue Revolution / By Barry A. Costa-Pierce. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science:  2002.
The aim of this important and thought-provoking book is to stimulate discussion among aquaculture’s modern scientific, education and extension communities concerning the principles, practices and policies needed to develop ecologically and socially sustainable aquaculture systems worldwide. Ecological Aquaculture provides fascinating and valuable insights into primitive (and often sustainable) culture systems, and ties these to modern large-scale aquaculture systems.
Aquaculture Water Reuse Systems: Engineering Design and Management / By Michael B. Timmons and Thomas M. Losordo. New York: Elsevier:  1994.
This well-organized book provides all the information needed to design and manage a water reuse system. The text was written for engineers and biologists working in the area of intensive fish culture, but it should also prove useful as a design manual for practicing aquaculturists.
Fish Nutrition / By John E. Halver and Ronald W. Hardy. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press:  2002.
Fish Nutrition is a comprehensive treatise on nutrient requirements and metabolism in major species of fish used in aquaculture or scientific experiments. It covers nutrients required and used in cold water, warm water, fresh water, and marine species for growth and reproduction.
Biology of Farmed Fish / By Kenneth D. Black and A. D. Pickering. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press; Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press:  1998.
Focusing on developments of the last decade, this volume considers the biology underlying fish culture. The chapters, written by fish biologists who have made a significant contribution to the primary research literature, are broad in nature, covering aspects of the subject with reference to a range of species from around the world.
Environmental Impacts of Aquaculture / By Kenneth D. Black. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press; Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press:  2001.
This text examines the relationships between the activities of aquaculture and the environment, starting with an examination of several separate cultures and then moving into a discussion of general relevance to aquaculture. This book is directed at fish and shellfish biologists and environmental scientists in academia, industry and government.
Manual on the Production and Use of Live Food for Aquaculture / By Patrick Lavens and Patrick Sorgeloos. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations:  1996.
The manual describes the major production techniques currently used for the cultivation of the types of live food commonly used in larviculture, as well as their application potential in terms of their nutritional and physical properties and feeding methods. The manual is divided according to the major groups of live food organisms used in aquaculture: micro-algae, rotifers, Artemia, natural zooplankton, and copepods, nematodes and trochophores.
Reproductive Biotechnology in Finfish Aquaculture: Proceedings of a Workshop Hosted by the Oceanic Institute, Hawaii, USA, in Honolulu, 4th-7th October 1999 / By Cheng-Sheng Lee and Edward M. Donaldson. Amsterdam: Elsevier:  2001.
Successful reproduction of cultured brood stock is essential to the sustainable aquaculture of aquatic organisms. This book describes recent advances in the field of finfish reproductive biotechnology. The chapters, written by eminent scientists, review the progress and assess the status of biotechnology research applicable to the reproduction of aquaculture finfish species. The last chapter summarizes discussions at the workshop, provides recommendations to industry and describes priorities of research and development.
Biology and Culture of Channel Catfish / By Craig S. Tucker and John A. Hargreaves. Amsterdam: Elsevier:  2004.
The history of channel catfish farming in the United States serves as a model for the development of pond-based aquaculture industries worldwide. In 22 chapters written by active scientists in the field, Biology and Culture of Channel Catfish comprehensively synthesizes over 30 years of research on this American icon. Throughout the book, fundamental biological aspects of channel catfish are linked to practical culture techniques.
American and International Aquaculture Law: A Comprehensive Legal Treatise and Handbook Covering Aquaculture Law, Business and Finance of Fishes, Shellfish and Aquatic Plants / By Henry D., II McCoy. Peterstown, W. Va.: Supranational:  2000.
Aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of agriculture and the speed of scientific and economic advances during the past decade has outpaced the available literature dealing with legal aspects of aquaculture. This book redresses this imbalance and will provide a thorough and comprehensive reference for those involved in the many aspects of aquaculture where legal information is a vital tool for them to carry out their roles.
Aquaculture and the environment / By T. V. R. Pillay. Oxford, UK ; Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub.:  2004.
The continuing rapid increases in aquaculture production world-wide raise fears of further environmental degradation of the aquatic environment. The second edition of this well-received book brings together and discusses the available information on all major environmental aspects of various aquaculture systems, providing a valuable aid to the preparation of environmental impact assessments of aquaculture projects and showing how potential environmental problems can be reduced or mitigated by sound management. 2nd ed.
Aquaculture law and policy : towards principled access and operations London ; New York : Routledge:  2006.
The book highlights the numerous law and policy issues that must be addressed in the search for effective regulation of aquaculture. This book will appeal to a broad range of audiences: undergraduate and postgraduate students, academic researchers, policy makers, NGOs, practicing lawyers and industry representatives. Edited by David L. VanderZwaag and Gloria Chao.
Aquaculture engineering / By Odd-Ivar Lekang. Oxford ; Ames, Iowa : Blackwell Pub.:  2007.
As aquaculture continues to grow at a rapid pace, understanding the engineering behind aquatic production facilities is of increasing importance for all those working in the industry. This book requires knowledge of the many general aspects of engineering such as material technology, building design and construction, mechanical engineering and environmental engineering. In this comprehensive book, Odd-Ivar Lekang introduces these principles and demonstrates how such technical knowledge can be applied to aquaculture systems.
Environmental best management practices for aquaculture Ames, Iowa : Wiley-Blackwell ; [Baton Rouge, LA] : U.S. Aquaculture Society:  2008.
Best Management Practices (BMPs) combine sound science, common sense, economics, and site-specific management to mitigate or prevent adverse environmental impacts. Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture will provide technical guidance to improve the environmental performance of aquaculture. Edited by Craig S. Tucker, John A. Hargreaves ; with 18 contributing authors. 1st ed.
Molecular research in aquaculture / By Ken Overturf. Ames, Iowa : Wiley-Blackwell:  2009.
Molecular research and biotechnology have long been fields of study with applications useful to aquaculture and other animal sciences. Molecular Research in Aquaculture looks to provide an understanding of molecular research and its applications to the aquaculture industry in a format that allows individuals without prior experience in this area to learn about and understand this important field.
The whale : in search of the giants of the sea / By Philip Hoare. New York, NY : Ecco:  2010.
Taking us deep into their domain, Hoare shows us these mysterious creatures as they have never been seen before–Hoare’s sparkling account of swimming with these incredible behemoths will delight wildlife aficionados. And following in Ishmael’s footsteps, he explores the troubled history of man and whale; visits the historic whaling locales of New Bedford, Nantucket, and the Azores; and traces the whale’s cultural history from Jonah to Free Willy.
Four fish : the future of the last wild food / By Paul Greenberg. New York : Penguin Press:  2010.
Award-winning writer and lifelong fisherman Paul Greenberg takes us on a culinary journey, exploring the history of the fish that dominate our menus — salmon, sea bass, cod, and tuna — and investigating where each stands at this critical moment in time.
Managing Wisconsin fish ponds / By William Swenson, Stanley Nichols, Scott Craven, et al. Madison, WI : University of Wisconsin Extension:  2000.
This publication aims to provide a source of reliable information for those building new ponds or managing existing ones. This publication replaces the 1960s version, “Wisconsin Farm Fish Ponds.”

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How Do I Get Started in Aquaculture?




As part of our aquaculture initiative, the Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES) has started the CCRES aquaponics  program. This Web site is part of that program. We have attempted to include as much information as possible for beginning and experienced fish farmers. While the information compiled here is not all-inclusive, we have tried to be as thorough as possible, covering all the various types of aquaculture relevant to Croatia. If you would like to submit any information for our Web site, please contact us.


Specal thanks to :

Indiana Soybean Alliance

5730 W 74th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46278

for giving us great source of informations.


How Do I Get Started in Aquaculture?


The most important activity anyone considering fish farming should conduct is developing and writing a business plan.


Here are some of the basic steps.


Business Planning    


Writing a business plan is the single most important step a farmer can take when determining if aquaculture is something they want to explore as a viable economic investment. A well-developed business plan will cover all aspects of an aquaculture business, from species and production systems, to economics and marketing. Failing to complete a business plan is one of the primary reasons for business failure!


Feed Management   


Feed management, from buying the correct feed and proper feeding rates to properly storing feed, is essential to managing fish health and growth. Excellent feed managers not only save money by not wasting feed, they also optimize production potential on their farms. Every farm will likely have a different feed management strategy as production criteria like feeding rates and growth rates will be impacted by species selection, production system, environmental conditions, among other things. Proper feed management should be implemented as part of an overall best management practices plan.




Aquaculture in Croatia doesn’t have a well-established track record like other forms of agriculture, so acquiring funds and insurance from traditional farm sources can be difficult.  Lenders and insurers will want to see a well-developed business plan with income and cash flow statements before they consider funding/insuring an aquaculture operation.  They may also want to see a best management practices plan.  Please visit the other sections to get more information covering these and other topics.





Filling out financial statements is one of the critical steps in developing a viable business plan. The following spreadsheets were developed to help new producers manage a business venture in aquaculture. There are different spreadsheets available depending on production system: Recirculating (RAS), pond or cage. There are examples provided as well, but these should only be used as a guide as many of the numbers will vary depending on your business specifics. The following material can be used to help plan and build a successful business in aquaculture.



Fish Health

Animal health is perhaps more of a challenge in aquaculture than any other type of livestock agriculture. There are very few veterinarians actively involved in fish health, thus it is often difficult for fish producers to obtain veterinary services. There are also few approved drugs available to treat sick fish. For these reasons, it is critical for fish farmers to implement a best management practices (BMP) plan that encourages fish health. The most common cause of fish disease is stress, and a well-developed BMP will help farmers minimize stress to their livestock.



As with most specialty and niche crops, fish farmers in Croatia typically have to market their own product. This can be done in a variety of ways from local farmers markets and restaurants, to ethnic markets and restaurants in large metropolitan cities. Farmers should always have more than one market identified for their fish to be sure that they will always be able to sell product. This is especially critical for farmers who want to acquire funds from traditional agricultural lenders. Another option is for a group of farmers to start a marketing cooperative that can allow them to enter larger markets that would not be open to individual farmers because of the smaller scale of their business.



Production Systems


More information about specific production systems :


Cage Systems           


Cage farming is simply raising fish in a large, submerged cage that can be used in a pond that otherwise might not be ideal for farming. An ideal location for a cage production farm would be in a pond/private lake that is too large for traditional pond aquaculture or is unsuitable for another reason (perhaps it is too deep, or cannot be drained). Cages can be floated throughout the pond and accessed either via a dock or boat.


160fs – What is Cage Culture.pdf

161fs – Cage Site Selection Water Quality.pdf

162fs – Cage Construction Placement Aeration.pdf

163fs – Cage Species Suitable.pdf

164fs – Cage Handling and Feeding.pdf

165fs – Cage Problems.pdf

166fs – Cage Harvesting Economics.pdf

281fs – Cage Tilapia.pdf

FA04800 – Cage Management.pdf




Larval Feed

Feeding larval fish can be difficult and depending on the species of fish, commercially formulated diets might not be available. Many fish farmers rely on feeding live feed to their larval fish until they are big enough to start eating formulated feeds. Farmers can rely on the natural productivity of ponds to grow their live feed, or they can utilize indoor production systems. These production systems are often smaller and specialized for raising small, often microscopic, live feed organisms.


701fs – Larval Feed.pdf

702fs – Artemia.pdf




Pond Systems           


Pond aquaculture is the most traditional type of aquaculture in the world. It has been producing fish in Asia and Africa for thousands of years. Most of the available fish farming information is based on pond aquaculture.


100fs – Levee Pond Site Selection.pdf

101fs – Levee Pond Construction.pdf

102fs – Watershed Pond Site Selection.pdf

103fs – Calculating Area Volume.pdf

280fs Pond Tilapia.pdf

395fs – Pond Inventory Assessment.pdf

460fs – Pond Clay Turbidity.pdf

462fs – Pond Nitrite.pdf

463fs – Pond Ammonia.pdf

464fs – Pond Water Quality Considerations.pdf

466fs – Pond Algae Blooms.pdf

468fs – Pond Carbon Dioxide.pdf

469fs – Fertilizing Fry Ponds.pdf

470fs – Pond Effluents.pdf

471fs – Pond Fertilization.pdf

700fs – Pond Zooplankton Larval Feed.pdf

Aquatic Weed Control in Ponds.pdf

FA00800 – Pond Copper Use.pdf

FA02100 – Pond Aeration.pdf

FA02800 – Pond Lime Use.pdf

FA03200 Pond Potassium Permanganate.pdf


TB114 – Plankton Management.pdf

wrac-104 – Pond Fertilization.pdf

wrac-106 – Settling Basin.pdf





Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are the newest form of fish farming production system. RAS are typically an indoor system that allows for farmers to control environmental conditions year round. While the costs associated with constructing a RAS are typically higher than either pond or cage culture, if the system is managed properly to produce fish on a year round basis, the economic returns can make it worth the increased investment. RAS are the most complex aquaculture systems and beginners should plan on making a significant time commitment to learning how to operate a system.


103fs – Calculating Area Volume.pdf

451fs – RAS Critical Considerations.pdf

452fs – RAS Management.pdf

453fs – RAS Component Options.pdf

455fs – RAS Pond Systems.pdf

456fs – RAS Economic Spreadsheet.pdf

AA21200 – Energy Costs.pdf

FA05000 – RAS Principles.pdf

facts5 – RAS Prudence Pays.pdf




Barn Conversion

There has been a lot of interest in converting livestock buildings to fish production. While a “model” has yet to be developed, the material below has been presented at several different workshops focusing on converting livestock barns to aquaculture.


Barn Conversions for Aquaculture 3-8-07.asx






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INVE Aquaculture



INVE Aquaculture was founded in 1983 as a spin-off from the University of Gent. Now almost 30 years later, the company has grown from a pioneer in Artemia research to a global player in the aquaculture industry, with a product portfolio covering both nutritional and health products for shrimp and shellfish hatcheries, as well as farms.


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predstavlja Vam 






Posljednje je desetljeće akvakultura najbrže rastući sektor proizvodnje hrane, već je sad svaka treća riba koja se nađe na tanjuru uzgojena , manji su troškovi ulaganja, a veći je prinos ribe i morskih vrsta.

Uskoro bi zbog ekspanzije čovječanstva, zbog kojeg se svakodnevno izlovljava sve više i više ribe za prehranu, moglo doći i do nestašice te prehrambene namirnice, ali isto tako i zbog sustavnog zagađenja mora kemijskim spojevima koji također uništavaju riblju populaciju u prirodi. Zbog toga su mnoge zemlje morale preći na kontrolirani uzgoj u kojem je veći postotak preživljavanja ribe, bolja iskoristivost hrane te brži napredak ribe, te su razvile akvakulturu, uzgoj organizama u vodenoj sredini pod kontroliranim uvjetima.
Posljednje je desetljeće akvakultura najbrže rastući sektor proizvodnje hrane. Naime, smatra se kako će već za desetak godina više od polovice prehrambenih proizvoda iz mora biti uzgojeno, a prema nekim podacima, već je sad svaka treća riba koja se nađe na tanjuru uzgojena. Naime, u akvakulturi su manji troškovi ulaganja, a veći prinos ribe i morskih vrsta.
U primjeni akvakulture poseban je svjetski ugled stekao Izrael, koji je uz veliku nestašicu vode upravo u pustinjskim područjima napravio velike uzgojne bazene. Izraelska se akvakultura intenzivno razvija te danas obuhvaća uzgoj različitih slatkovodnih i morskih vrsta.
Jedna od specifičnosti izraelske primjene akvakulture su tzv. recirkulacijski sustavi, odnosno sustavi uzgoja akvatičnih organizama u recirkulacijskom protoku vode s minimalnim izmjenama i gubicima vode. Posebno praktična metoda u područjima udaljenim od izvora vode, osobito pustinjskim predjelima. Svaka se kap vode, naime, maksimalno iskoristi.

U Hrvatskoj akvakulturu najvećim dijelom čini uzgoj toplovodnih i hladnovodnih vrsta poput šarana i pastrve u kontinentalnim dijelovima zemlje te uzgoj orade, brancina i školjkaša u marikulturi. Hrvatska je izuzetno bogata vodenim resursima, ali zbog nedostatka tehnologije i slabe zainteresiranosti nije razvila veću proizvodnju. Naročito bi se u Hrvatskoj moglo poraditi na povećanju uzgajališta pastrve prema načelu dobre filtracije vode na farmama, čime bi se povećala i produktivnost rijeka. Isto tako zbog sve većeg zagađenja morskog ekosustava za očekivati je u skoroj budućnosti da će i Hrvatska marikultura morati iskoristiti tehnike recirkulacijskih sustava kako bismo umanjili štetne učinke kaveznog uzgoja i prekomjeran izlov ribe te tako očuvali prirodne ljepote našeg mora i biološku raznolikost.

Hrvatski Centar Obnovljivih Izvora Energije

otišao je i korak dalje kroz




                                       Svo uzgojeno povrće Projekta CCRES AQUAPONICS u sezoni 2011/2012

                                                              karitativno je  podjeljeno slabostojećim hrvatskim obiteljima.


CCRES AQUAPONICS  je nastao u ljeto 2011.godine spajanjem tehnike recirkulacijskih sustava uzgoja riba i klasičnog hydroponicsa.
Hydroponics je uzgoj biljaka kod kojeg se korjen biljke nalazi u vodi u kojoj su otopljene hranjive tvari i potrebni elementi za njen rast i dozrijevanje.Jedina mana hydroponicsu je ta da se u vodu ubacuju kemijske tvari potrebne za rast biljke.




Ribe koje su korištene u Projektu CCRES AQUAPONICS u sezoni 2011/2012 su 

                                                             japanski KOI šarani, koje smatramo najboljima za proizvodnju.


U CCRES AQUAPONICS-u intenzivna aquakultura integrirana je s intenzivnim stakleničkih hydroponic sustavom uzgoja povrća. Organske biljne sorte se uzgajaju u plitkim posudama kroz koje cirkulira voda iz bazena s ribama prepuna organskim hranjivim dodacima, koje ispušta riba, koji služe za rast biljaka bez kemijskih dodataka .




Sve vrste salate, crveni i bijeli luk, bosiljak, paprika i krastavci mogu se uzgajati u sustavu.Ovakav uzgoj je idealan za obiteljsku proizvodnju gdje se na nekoliko četvornih metara može postići neovisnost od velikih proizvođača i trgovačkih lanaca koji serviraju hranu proizvedenu tisućama kilometara od krajnjeg kupca. Recirkulacijskim protokom voda koja se vraća u bazen s ribama u potpunosti je čista iidealna za nesmetan rast ribljih vrsta.



                                                    Svo uzgojeno povrće Projekta CCRES AQUAPONICS u sezoni 2011/2012

                                                              karitativno je  podjeljeno slabostojećim hrvatskim obiteljima.

Prednosti su:

– neovisnost
– proizvodnja je moguća tijekom cijele godine;
– površina za uzgoj je maksimalno iskorištena;
– nema plodoreda;
– stupanj automatizacije je visok;
– biljkama se dodaju organska hranjiva koja su joj potrebna za rast i razvoj u pojedinoj fazi proizvodnje;
– prinosi su znatno veći od uzgoja u tlu, kao i razdoblje plodonošenja;
– potrošnja vode, hranjivih tvari i sredstava za zaštitu bilja svedena je na minimum;
– smanjeno je onečišćenje okoliša;
– smanjena je pojava bolesti i štetnika;
– proizvodnja je moguća na površinama gdje nije moguć uzgoj u tlu zbog primjerice velike onečišćenosti, zaslanjenosti, kiselosti tla i sl. ;
– manje ljudskog rada pri obradi, kultivaciji, dezinfekciji i sl.
– nusprodukt su ribe koje se uzgajaju do konzumne veličine.



                                                   Svo uzgojeno povrće Projekta CCRES AQUAPONICS u sezoni 2011/2012

                                                              karitativno je  podjeljeno slabostojećim hrvatskim obiteljima.
Ovo su bile kratke crtice o projektu CCRES AQUAPONICS, namjenjene isključivo kao informacija.Mišljenja smo da bi ovaj projekt mogao biti pozdravljen od ljudi kojima je dosta plaćanja visokih cijena svih vrsta salata i ribe.Samo pokretanje i proizvodnja idealna su kao hobi za uzgoj u dvorištu iza kuće, garaži, podrumu ili malom plasteniku.


Svo uzgojeno povrće Projekta CCRES AQUAPONICS u sezoni 2011/2012

                                                              karitativno je  podjeljeno slabostojećim hrvatskim obiteljima.
Naravno da bi ovakav uzgoj mogao proći i u intezivnoj proizvodnji.
Na površini od 1 ha moguće je proizvesti otprilike 30 000 biljaka rajčice sa prinosom od oko 400 t/ha, da ne govorim o uzgoju salata koje bi se “brale” svakih 20-tak dana ,što predstavlja puno veći prinos u odnosu na uzgoj u tlu na otvorenoj površini. Ovakva proizvodnja predstavlja najintenzivni oblik poljoprivrede, koji sa svojim brojnim prednostima može u potpunosti ispuniti zahtjeve potrošača za kvalitetnim proizvodom, te proizvođaču osigurati dobar posao.


Svo uzgojeno povrće Projekta CCRES AQUAPONICS u sezoni 2011/2012

                                                              karitativno je  podjeljeno slabostojećim hrvatskim obiteljima.

Više informacija o Projektu CCRES AQUAPONICS na :
Za sve dodatne informacije slobodno nas kontaktirajte.



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LUXAR AG salata sa korijenom




TV Zaprešić, Gradski ekran

LUXAR salata sa korijenom, zahvaljujući
hidroponskom uzgoju i korijenu, hranjivija je i zdravija, ukusnija i
duže svježija, od ostalih tradicionalno uzgojenih salata. LUXAR AG uzgaja, bez
pesticida i herbicida, sortu salate kristalku i putericu. Prepoznat ćete
ih osim po korijenu i po intezivnoj zelenoj boji jer su ih obilno
„zalijevali“ kisikom tijekom rasta. Zato je
LUXAR salata sa korijenom jedinstvena na hrvatskom tržištu, dostupna u supermaketima u većim hrvatskim gradovima.


LUXAR A.G. d.d.


HR 10 000 Zagreb, Lopatinečka 13


HR 10 209 Zaprešić, Industrijska cesta 22

T   + 385 1 3692 810

F   + 385 1 3692 830

MB:  2067978

OIB:  90968458880


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Aquaponics Projects


Hawaii Aquaponics Workforce Maui

Nelson and Pade, Inc has been contracted to build multiple aquaponics systems, provide training and support for a workforce development project at the University of Hawaii, Maui and other locations. John and Rebecca travelled to Maui in September to intiate the project and start the training. The systems will be built and shipped during the fall of 2011.

Aquaponics in a Survival Condo

Nelson and Pade, Inc. has been contracted to design the aquaponic system for a surviival condo in a missile silo. www.survivalcondo.com  We visited the faclity and met project manager, Larry Hall, in October.  During this visit, we took part in the filming of a documentary on the project for National Geographic Channel.

Las Lomas, Trinidad, Eco-Resort and Aquaponics

Nelson and Pade, Inc. is has designed and is building an aquaponic system for the Las Lomas Legacy Project in the island country of Trinidad, sponsored by the First Church of the Open Bible. The project, located on 72 beautiful acres,  will be an eco-resort, featuring the heritage of various Caribbean islands. The aquaponic system will be the first component to be installed.

Sian and Orville, from Trinidad, and Richard, from Jamaica, are currently doing training at Nelson and Pade, Inc. for this project. The greenhouse and Clear Flow Aquaponic System will be shipped to Trinidad in October. Nelson and Pade, Inc. will continue to provide tech support and periodic onsite training.

H.O.P.E, Pueblo Tribe, New Mexico

Nelson and Pade, Inc. is assisting H.O.P.E. (Honor Our Pueblo Existence), a Pueblo organization in New Mexico, in the planning of an aquaponic project for the Santa Clara Pueblo.  The initial project will be for the purpose of demonstrating aquaponic technology to the tribal community. The long term goal is to use aquaponics to provide fresh fish and vegetables to the community as well as be a profitable venture.  The Santa Clara tribe lives in the shadow of the Las Alamos nuclear lab and waterways, soil and irrigations systems have been contaminated.  Aquaponics will allow them to grow fresh fish and vegetables without relying on the soil.

New Aquaponics Demonstration Greenhouse

Nelson and Pade, Inc. has competed the construction of their new 5,000 square foot aquaponics greenhouse.  The new research and demonstration facility showcases the latest in Clear Flow Aquaponic SystemsTM and controlled environment agriculture.

A variety of crops ranging from fancy lettuces and herbs to tomatoes, peppers and cucumbers are grown in aquaponics, where the fish waste provides the fertilizer for the plants.
The greenhouse demonstrates energy efficiency, natural ventilation, a variety of heating techniques, greenhouse coverings and grow lights.
The new greenhouse provides the backdrop for Nelson Pade, Inc.’s successful aquaponics training workshops, a new tour program and an on-site farm stand.

Kansas City Aquaponics Project

Kansas City’s Green Acres Community Garden has partnered with the City, the school district and other organizations to put this plan into action. The project will utilize abandoned (but very nice) greenhouses at East High School to launch an aquaponics program and initiative that will provide fresh food to the community, education and hands-on learning for students and jobs and job training for local youth.
Nelson and Pade, Inc. is supplying the systems, training, technology curriculum and support.
Through common goals, partnerships and innovative thinking, Ms. Coe and all involved in this effort are chipping away at the problems of urban food desserts, compromised educational systems, crime and a lack of jobs. This project will feed people while nurturing the soul through a new connection to food, agriculture and aquaponics. I applaud this group for their foresight and motivation!

Aquaponics Goes to Hollywood

Nelson and Pade, Inc. is working with a group of young celebrities to bring aquaponics and fresh nutritious food to Hollywood.
This project will include aquaponic food production in a controlled environment greenhouse, plus a retail, education and agri-tourism center.
This facility will be a destination to purchase fresh fish and veggies and learn about aquaponics, all in a 1/2 acre aquaponic greenhouse.
More details to come.

“Living Food BankTM” Aquaponic System in Haiti

Nelson and Pade, Inc. has begun construction on a Living Food BankTM aquaponic system at the Northwest Haiti Christian Mission. The system is complete with a tropical greenhouse and stand-alone energy system. The aquaponic system is designed to grow tilapia, a fresh water fish and a variety of vegetables. This is the first phase of a large-scale project. The Phase One system is intended to demonstrate the technology and allow NWHCM staff and volunteers to get familiar with the daily operation of an aquaponic system. The aquaponic system will be housed in a tropical greenhouse for crop protection. The Phase One greenhouse will cover approximately 4144 sq. ft. and is capable of annually producing 3500 lbs of fish and 27,500 heads of lettuce. Other vegetables crops, such and beans, peas and tomatoes can be grown in the system as well.
Phase Two will be on a much larger scale and is intended to provide fresh fish and vegetables to thousands of people in North West Haiti.
John Pade and Rebecca Nelson travelled to Haiti October, 2010 to assist with the installation and training.

Greens & Gills, LLC.

Nelson and Pade, Inc. is working on the design and project plan for Greens & Gills, LLC, an innovative new aquaponics company that plans to build a 2 acre aquaponic facility in the Chicago area. David Ellis, CEO, shares, “Green & Gills, LLC is focused on positively impacting our food system by providing affordable, locally grown, herbicide-free and pesticide-free produce and also naturally raised fish to large urban markets across the United States.
Stay tuned at www.greensandgills.com

KP Simply Fresh 5000 sq. ft Aquaponic Greenhouse near Baraboo, Wisconsin

Nelson and Pade, Inc. assisted the Meunier Family of KP Simply Fresh on the establishment of their new aquaponic greenhouse. Nelson and Pade, Inc. provided the technology and equipment and continues to provide ongoing support and guidance. Located near Baraboo, Wisconsin, the Meunier’s are raising fancy lettuce and tilapia in their new aquaponic greenhouse. KP Simply Fresh has established accounts for their beautiful lettuces and fresh tilapia.
Consumers in the Baraboo area are encouraged to seek out fresh produce and fish from KP Simply Fresh. The Meunier’s are sustainably growing safe, fresh, nutritious food. Wisconsinites, be sure to “buy local” and support KP Simply Fresh. You will be happy you did.
See more photos at:  https://www.aquaponics.com/see/aquaponicsinaction.php

Installation of Aquaponic System at University of the Virgin Islands

In March, 2009, Nelson and Pade, Inc installed their 4-250-2-8×22 Raft Aquaponic System at the Agriculture Experiment Station at the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI). It will be used for demonstration and crop trials by Dr. James Rakocy and the research scientists at UVI.
Information and updates will be published in the Aquaponics Journal.
In the photo on the right, from left to right: Don Bailey, Jason Danaher, R Charlie Shultz, Frankie, John Pade, Rebecca Nelson and Dr. James Rakocy.
The system is located just outside the UVI Farm store so visitors, islanders and UVI students can learn about aquaponics and see a system in action.



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