Tag Archives: ALGE



#Fucose is an essential hexose deoxy sugar the human body needs to optimally communicate from cell to cell. Simply put, it plays an important role in transmitting information in the brain. Research studies show that this sugar stimulates brain development and can also influence the brain to be able to create long-term memories. This is further supported by studies in which doctors inhibited protein containing fucose; amnesia was the result.

Fucose is found in a number of places in the human body. Its location in the male testes suggests that it may play an important role during reproduction. Also found in the epidermis, it may help in maintaining skin hydration. Beyond these locations, this sugar is found at the articulation between each nerve, in the tubules of the human kidney, and in significant quantities in human breast milk.

It’s important not to confuse this with the similar sounding fructose. While both are sugars that can be commonly found in the body, fructose is a simple monosaccharide sugar found in many foods. For example, you can find a high amount of fructose in baby food, salad dressing, blackberries, tree fruits, honey and even some root vegetables. On the other hand, fucose, as previously stated, can be found in the human body naturally.

Studies also show that fucose may play a role in certain diseases, such as cancer and its infection method. Though research is not yet conclusive, there is promise shown for using fucose to inhibit both breast cancer and leukemia, in addition to tumor growth, in general. Some studies have even gone as far as to conclude that this hexose deoxy sugar seems to be among the most effective sugars at attempting to prevent cancer cells from growing.

Research indicates that even taking in fucose in extremely high amounts does not seem to present any real ill side effects, though recommendations are that the average 150-pound (68.2 kg) human adult can safely handle 34 grams of this sugar on a daily basis. During urination, fucose leaves the body, so people who urinate frequently can experience a deficiency in fucose. People with rheumatoid arthritis also generally are deficient in this kind of sugar. Many people opt to take supplements to ensure they have the right amount in their body. Seaweeds such as kelp, beer yeast, and medicinal mushrooms are also a good alternative to supplements and for people who have difficulty taking pills.


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Fucus Treatments

Fucus Treatments

Our best source of biological iodine and our best protection against thyroid disruption is to body-load with iodine contained in iodine-rich whole raw seaweeds as regular daily consumption. If our bodies have an ongoing full complement of I-127, we can better resist taking in incidental I-131. This means that eating seaweeds regularly in the diet, especially the big northern kelps, to provide both dietary iodine and protection against the ongoing I-131 hazards.
No land plants are a reliable natural source of iodine. 

Garlic grown near the sea often has relatively high amounts of biological iodine. Besides garlic, root crops, such as turnips, carrots, potatoes, parsnips, and sweet potatoes, are plant sources of iodine. However, the best natural source of biological iodine is seaweed. Any seaweed contains more available dietary iodine than any land plant. The seaweeds with the most available iodine are the giant kelps of the northern hemisphere. The highest concentrations of iodine occurs in Icelandic kelp (8000 ppm), Norwegian kelp (4000 ppm), and Maine and California kelp (1000-2000 ppm). The seaweeds with the least amounts of iodine are nori (about 15ppm) and sargassum (about 30-40 ppm). The amounts of iodine in land plants can be greatly increased by fertilizing food plants with seaweeds applied directly to the soil as topical mulch or tilled into the soil.
The complexity of many thyroid dysfunction cases precludes a simple set of all-purpose formulas. Each thyroid patient has a unique thyroid presentation. I try to compose an individualized functional treatment plan for each, using a few basic methods. Diet and behavior modification also are very important in thyroid case management. What follows are some of my treatment approaches and some general guidelines and notes:

Treatment Guideline 1: Rather uncomplicated seaweed therapy seems to help relieve many of the presenting symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. Some of the results are very likely from whole body remineralization (especially potassium, zinc, calcium, magnesium, manganese, chromium, selenium, and vanadium), in addition to thyroid gland aid from both sustained regular reliable dietary sources of biomolecular iodine and from thyroxin-like molecules present in marine algae, both the large edible seaweeds and their almost ubiquitous epiphytic micro-algae, predominantly the silica-walled diatoms. Seaweeds provide ample supplies of most of the essential trace elements required for adequate enzyme functioning throughout the body but especially in the liver and endocrine glands.

Treatment Guideline 2: Regular biomolecular seaweed iodine consumption is more than just thyroid food: it can also protect the thyroid gland from potential resident I-131-induced molecular disruption and cell death when the thyroid gland is fully iodized with I-127. The fear of eating seaweed that might be contaminated with I-131 is easily mitigated by allowing the seaweed to be stored for 50 days prior to dietary consumption; this will give enough time for most (99%) of any I-131 to decay radioactively.
A simple folk test for iodine deficiency or at least aggressive iodine uptake is to paint a 2-inch diameter round patch of USP Tincture of Iodine (strong or mild) on a soft skin area, such as the inner upper arm, the inside of the elbow, the inner thigh, or the lateral abdomen between the lowest rib and the top of the hip. If you are iodine deficient, the patch will disappear in less than 2 hours, sometimes as quickly as 20 minutes; if it fades in 2 to 4 hours, you may just be momentarily iodine needy. If it persists for more than 4 hours, you are probably iodine sufficient. Iodine deficiency seems to predispose to thyroid malignancy; this could explain the apparent thyroid cancer distribution “fans” downwind of nuclear facilities in previous ‘goiter belt’ areas. This test is of course easier to use with Caucasians and may not offer sufficient color contrast in brown-skinned people.

Treatment Guideline 3: Many patients with underactive thyroid glands complain of a sense of “coldness” or feeling cold all of the time; often they are over-dressed for warmth according to ‘thyronormal’ people’s standards. They may also present a low basal body resting temperature, as measured by taking their armpit temperature before rising in the morning. (Remember to shake down the thermometer the night before). Other symptoms may include sluggishness, gradual weight gain, and mild depression. For these patients, add 5 to 10 grams of several different whole seaweeds to the daily diet; that is, 5 to 10 grams total weight per day, not 5 to 10 grams of each seaweed. I usually suggest a mix of 2 parts brown algae (all kelps, Fucus, Sargassum, Hijiki) to one part red seaweed (Dulse, Nori, Irish moss, Gracillaria). The mixed seaweeds can be eaten in soups and salads or easily powdered and sprinkled onto or into any food. I recommend doing this for at least 60 days, about two lunar cycles or at least two menstrual cycles; watch for any changes in signs and symptoms and any change in average daily basal temperature.
Note that patients can have a normal 98.6°F temperature and still feel cold and also present many of the signs and symptoms of functional hypothyroidism. Do not insist that all hypothyroid patients must have abnormally low basal resting temperatures. If no symptoms improve or the temperature remains low (less than 98.6°F), continue seaweeds and request a TSH and T4 test. If TSH and T4 tests indicate low circulating thyroxin levels, continue seaweeds for another 2 months. It may take the thyroid that long to respond positively to continual regular presentation of adequate dietary iodine. Powdered whole seaweed may be much more effective than flakes, pieces, or granules. The powdered seaweed is best added to food immediately prior to eating; do not cook the seaweed for best results.
All corticosteroids tend to depress thyroid function. Before trying to fix the thyroid, be sure to inquire about both internal and topical steroid use, including Prednisone and topical creams. These, as well as salicylates and anticoagulants, can aggravate existing mild hypothyroidism.

Treatment Guideline 4: Partial thyroidectomy cases can be helped by regular continual dietary consumption of 3-5 grams of whole seaweeds three to four times a week. By whole seaweed I mean untreated raw dried seaweed, in pieces or powder, not reconstructed flakes or granules.

Treatment Guideline 5: Patients with thyroid glands on thyroid replacement hormone (animal or synthetic) can respond favorably to replacing part or all their entire extrinsic hormone requirement by adding dietary Fucus in 3 to 5 gram daily doses, carefully and slowly. Fucus spp. has been the thyroid folk remedy of choice for at least 5000 years. The best candidates are women who seek a less hazardous treatment than synthetic hormone (after reading variously that prolonged use of synthetic thyroid hormone increases risk for heart disease, osteoporosis, and adverse interactions with many prescribed drugs, particularly corticosteroids and antidepressants).
Fucus spp. contains di-iodotyrosine (iodogogoric acid) or DIT. Two DIT molecules are coupled in the follicular lumina of the thyroid gland by a condensing esterification reaction organized by thyroid peroxidase (TPO). This means that Fucus provides easy-to use-prefabricated thyroxine (T4) halves for a boost to weary thyroid glands, almost as good as T4. European thalassotherapists claim that hot Fucus seaweed baths in seawater provide transdermal iodine; perhaps hot Fucus baths also provide transdermal DIT.
The best results with Fucus therapy are obtained with women who were diagnosed with sluggish thyroid glands and who are or were on low or minimal maintenance replacement hormone dosages. They may remark that they miss, forget, or avoid taking their thyroid medication for several days with no obvious negative short-term sequelae; others claim to have just stopped taking their medication. I do not recommend stopping thyroid medication totally at once. Thyroxin is essential for human life and all animal life; it has a long half-life in the body of a week or more, so that a false impression of non-dependency can obtain for up to 2 months before severe or even acute hypothyroidism can manifest, potentially fatal.
Even though I personally do not recommend it, women regularly stop taking their thyroid replacement hormone, even after years of regularly and faithfully taking their medication. In many cases, their respective thyroid glands resume thyroxine production after a 2- to 3-month lag time with many of the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism presenting while their thyroid glands move out of inactivity. This complete cessation of taking thyroid replacement can only be successful in patients who have a potentially functioning thyroid gland. Those who have had surgical or radiation removal of their thyroid glands must take thyroid hormone medication containing thyroxine to stay alive.
Fucus can be easily added to the diet as small pieces, powdered Fucus in capsules, or freeze-dried powder in capsules. Sources of Fucus in capsules are listed under Seaweed Sources at the end of this paper. The actual Fucus is much more effective than extracts. A nice note is that Fucus spp are the most abundant intertidal brown seaweeds in the northern hemisphere. This is of especial interest to those patients who might be trading one dependency for another, as seems to be the case for some. A year’s supply can be gathered in an hour or less and easily dried in a food dehydrator or in hot sun for 10 to12 hours and then in a food dehydrator until completely crunchy dry. Fucus dries down about 6 to 1 (six pounds of wet Fucus dry down to about one pound). It has a modest storage life of 8 to 12 months in completely airtight containers stored in the dark at 50° F. A year’s supply at 4 grams per day is slightly more than 3 pounds dry. Encapsulated Fucus is available from Naturespirit Herbs, Oregon’s Wild Harvest, and Eclectic Institute.

Treatment Guideline 6: Aggressive attempts to replace thyroid replacement hormone with Fucus involve halving the dose of medication each week for 4 weeks while adding 3 to 5 grams of dried Fucus to the diet daily from the beginning and continuing indefinitely. If low thyroid symptoms appear, return to lowest thyroid hormone maintenance level and try skipping medication every other day for a week, then for every other 2 days, then 3 days, etc. The intent is to establish the lowest possible maintenance dosage by patient self-evaluation and/or to determine if replacement hormones can be eliminated when the patient ingests a regular reliable supply of both biomolecular iodine and DIT. Thoughtful, careful patient self-monitoring is essential for successful treatment.

Treatment Guideline 7: A more conservative replacement schedule is similar to the aggressive approach, except that the time intervals are one month instead of one week, and the Fucus addition is in one gram increments, beginning with one gram of Fucus the first month of attempting to halve the replacement hormone dosage, and increasing the amount of Fucus by a gram each succeeding month to 5 grams per day. The conservative schedule is urged with anxious patients and primary caregivers.
There is some concern that excess (undefined) kelp (species either unknown or not mentioned) consumption may induce hypothyroidism. It seems possible. The likely explanation is an individual’s extreme sensitivity to dietary iodine: Icelandic kelp can contain up to 8000 ppm iodine; Norwegian kelp can contain up to 4000 ppm iodine. Most kelps contain 500 to 1500 ppm iodine.
The only definitive study I have seen is a report from Hokkaido, Japan, where study subjects, at a rate of 8% to 10% of total study participants, presented with iodine-induced goiter from the consumption of large amounts of one or more Laminaria species (Kombu) of large kelps, known to be rich (more than 1000 ppm) in available iodine. Reduction of both total dietary iodine and/or dietary Kombu led to complete remission of all goiters. The apparent iodine-induced goiters did not affect normal thyroid functioning in any participants. Two women in the study did not care if they had goiters and refused to reduce their Kombu intake. Note that the Japanese have the world’s highest known dietary intakes of both sea vegetables and iodine.
Reduction or elimination of seaweeds from the diet is indicated for at least a month in cases of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, to ascertain if excess dietary iodine is a contributing factor to a disease condition. Other dietary iodine sources, particularly dairy and flour products, should also be reduced and or eliminated during the same time period. Some individuals do seem to be very dietarily iodine-extraction efficient and iodine sensitive simultaneously.

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Fucus vesiculosus, may be an effective alternative treatment for hypothyroidism for some people as it contains iodine found naturally in the sea. Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid, is a condition where the thyroid gland fails to produce enough thyroid hormone. This results in one’s metabolism falling outside of the desired range. There are a wide range of thyroid medications available, both natural and pharmaceutical. As with all medicines, Fucus can occasionally cause side effects, so always consult your healthcare practitioner before starting treatment.


Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common form of hypothyroidism. It is considered to be an autoimmune disease as the body mistakes the thyroid gland for a foreign body and sends antibodies to attack it which eventually destroy it over time. This leaves the body without essential thyroid hormones that are required for controlling body temperature, appetite and rate of metabolism. If left untreated, hypothyroidism can lead to serious health disorders that could prove fatal.


Symptoms of an underactive thyroid include tiredness, reduced heart rate and pulse, weight gain, dry skin and hair, hair loss, sensitivity to cold, confusion, anxiety, depression, joint pain, headaches, numbness in the extremities and menstrual problems. However, as these symptoms can be attributed to any number of health problems they are often overlooked. If you are experiencing a combination of the aforementioned symptoms without any obvious cause, contact your doctor immediately for a check-up.


According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, those who experience hypothyroidism due to a iodine deficiency may be able to treat their condition with kelp. Iodine, found naturally in kelp, is required to enable the thyroid gland to function correctly. The majority of people in the western world use iodized salt and therefore do not need to supplement with iodine unless they suffer from hypothyroidism.


Fucus is rich in iodine and is available in many different forms including tinctures and standardized extracts. According to the NYU Langone Medical Center, fucus is often referred to as kelp as it is present in a large number of kelp tablets. However, kelp is not considered to be the same as fucus as it is actually a different form of seaweed. The University of Maryland Medical Center recommends a dose of 600mg fucus one to three times per day to stimulate thyroid activity. It is not recommended to self-treat hypothyroidism with fucus.


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Palmaria Palmata Fights Ebola


P A L M A R I A   P A L M A T A

is a cold water algae species that is found in the middle to lower shore in many parts of Europe and the North Atlantic Coasts of America. It can grow in depths of up to 20m on both exposed and sheltered shores. It is found growing on rocks and on the stipes of L. hyperborea and Fucus serratus as an epiphyte.

Palmaria palmata can be eaten raw, roasted, fried, dried, or roasted, or as a thickening agent for soups.

Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, calcium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, lutein, manganese, magnesium, niacin, phosphorous, potassium, riboflavin, selenium, silicon, sodium, tin, vitamin C, zeaxanthin, and zinc.

The entire plant, dried and cut.

Added to food in the form of dried flakes or powder for a slightly salty flavor, can be drunk as a tea. Also suitable as an extract or capsule.

Palmaria palmata is an excellent source of phytochemicals and minerals, and a superior source of iodine.
Don’t overdue, and avoid it entirely if you suffer hyperthyroidism. You only need a few flakes, or as little as a quarter-teaspoon a day, to get your mineral needs, and it is best to get your minerals from a variety of whole food and whole herb sources. Don’t use on a daily basis for more than 2 weeks at a time, taking a 2 week break before using again. This will prevent you from overdosing iodine with potential imbalance in thyroid function. For periodic use only and not to be taken for extended periods of time. Not to be used while pregnant.
For educational purposes only.
part of 
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources

This information has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
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Uzgoj algi u Republici Hrvatskoj

Uzgoj algi u Republici Hrvatskoj

Alge se danas sve više koriste u proizvodnji biodizela, bioplina, bioplastike te goriva za zrakoplove, ali i u prehrambenoj industriji. Kao dodatni proizvodi pri destiliranju ulja iz algi dobivaju se i korisni sastojci za farmaceutiku, kozmetiku, ili kao organska gnojiva. Alge su do nedavno bile uglavnom predmet znanstvenih i laboratorijskih istraživanja, no danas su proizvodni pogoni rasprostranjeni po sve većem broju zemalja. Australija se posljednjih nekoliko godina profilira kao “Saudijska Arabija biodizela ekstrahiranog iz algi”, prije svega zahvaljujući efikasnom spoju klimatskih i terenskih uvjeta te mudre vladine politike i razumijevanja za veliki komercijalni potencijal tog novog ekološki čistog izvora energije.

Kada je u ljeto ove godine u australskom New South Walesu, tamošnji ministar energetike službeno otvorio prvu veliku elektranu koja destiliranjem zelenih algi dobiva biogorivo, interes svjetskih medija još više se okrenuo ka tom novom, alternativnom izvoru energije, koji ujedno nudi i dio odgovora na pitanje suočavanja svijeta s daljnjim posljedicama klimatskih promjena.

Dosadašnja nastojanja korištenja algi kao energenata
Australija, međutim, nije bila prva. Potaknuto naftnim šokovima, Američko ministarstvo energije još je 1970-ih godina započelo s projektima istraživanja moguće komercijalizacije uzgoja algi, no zbog previsokih cijena i nekonkurentnosti sa tada niskom cijenom sirove nafte projekti su dvadesetak godina kasnije obustavljeni. Tek s naglim porastom cijene nafte na svjetskom tržištu do preko 100 USD po barelu, mogućnosti novih tehnologija učinile su spektar obnovljivih izvora znatno atraktivnijim, uključujući i uzgoj algi. No procjene jednog od vodećih američkih instituta u tom području, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, su da barel biogoriva proizvedenog iz algi košta između 240 i 332 USD (2010), što je i dalje ekonomski neopravdano u odnosu na naftu. Uska ekonomska računica, naravno ne uključuje i brojne druge prednosti dobivanja biogoriva iz algi.

Američko ministarstvo energije sredinom prošlog mjeseca izabralo je Sveučilište u Arizoni za koordinatora projekta u okviru javno-privatnog partnerstva u visini od 15 milijuna USD s ciljem pronalaženja optimalnog modela komercijalizacije uzgoja algi i proizvodnje biogoriva. Projekt nazvan ”ATP²” podrazumijeva povezivanje sveučilišnih istraživačkih potencijala sa svim zainteresiranim tvrtkama u području energetike. Ključnu znanstvenu ulogu imaju danas vodeći svjetski centri za uzgoj algi na Colorado državnom sveučilištu te u okviru Arizona centra za tehnologiju i inovacije uzgoja algi (Algal Growth System).

Američka nacionalna asocijacija za alge upravo je ovih dana održala godišnji simpozij namijenjen svim poduzetnicima koji planiraju investirati i upustiti se u proizvodnju bioenergije iz algi. Interes za programe obuke eksponencijalno raste.

Američka tvrtka Aurora Algae objavila je prije nekoliko dana kako, nakon uspješnih pilot istraživanja, kreće s novim velikim projektom uzgoja algi u zapadnom području Australije na planiranoj površini od 400 hektara na kojoj kani proizvesti 600 metričkih tona biomase mjesečno. Tvrtka procjenjuje da je tamošnja klima, broj sunčanih dana, te razumijevanje i podrška australske vlade za nove alternativne izvore hrane i energije bili odlučujući faktori za tamošnju investiciju od oko 300 milijuna USD.

Royal Dutch Shell se još prije par godina povezao sa novom vladinom start-up tvrtkom HR Biopetroleum na jednom havajskom otoku s namjerom uzgoja algi na 100,000 hektara koristeći bazene s morskom vodom. Nedostaci tog projekta potaknuli su nove tehnologije uzgoja algi, pri čemu se kao vodeća profilirala tvrtka „Vertigo“ sa svojim „Bio Reactor Systemom“ koji alge uzgaja u plastičnim plosnatim balonima koji vise u staklenicima. Takva proizvodnja povećala je prinos za preko jedne trećine u odnosu na uzgoj u otvorenim bazenima. Sunčeva svjetlost dosezala je znatno veću površinu algi nego kad su na površini vode. Tim modelom, nakon ekstrakcije ulja, ostatak se koristi kao stočna hrana ili u proizvodnji celuloznog etanola. Kanadska tvrtka ”International Energy” otišla je jedan tehnološki korak dalje i razvila sustav koji iz algi izvlači ulje bez da ih pri tome ubija.

„Lufthansa“ je, također, među prvima prepoznala komercijalni interes i sredinom rujna ove godine potpisala ugovor s američko-australskom tvrtkom „AlgeaTec“ za izgradnju nove bioelektrane koja bi zelene alge pretvarala u gorivo za njihove zrakoplove.

Što čini alge tako atraktivnim energentom?
Alge rastu i do stotinu puta brže od biljnih kultura koje se tradicionalno koriste za proizvodnju biogoriva. Alge apsorpcijom sunca i CO2 proizvode ugljikohidrate koji se jednostavno pretvaraju u biodizel ili bioplin, koji se zatim postojećom infrastrukturom lako prevozi na daljnje korištenje. Uzgoj algi ne traži ni zemlju niti pitku vodu, što dodatno povećava atraktivnost takvih projekata.

Uzgoj algi i njihova prerada u biogorivo ne luči nikakve štetne plinove i bezopasne su za okoliš. Alge konzumiraju CO2 i time još dodatno smanjuju zagađenje, tako da je njihovo instaliranje i uzgoj optimalan upravo gdje postoji veća količina ugljičnog dioksida, a to naravno mogu biti i gradska okruženja. Jednako tako, idealne lokacije mogle bi biti i neposredno uz neku klasičnu elektranu na kruta goriva ili postrojenje za preradu otpadnih voda gdje bi se alge dodatno opskrbljivale nitratima i fosfatima. No glavna prednost korištenja algi jest da se uzgajališta mogu instalirati praktički bilo gdje na svijetu gdje je dovoljno sunca. Pomislimo li na ogromna prostranstva Afrike i relativno jednostavni proces instaliranja takvih sustava, logično se nameće potreba da se tehnologija uzgoja i prerada algi pokuša što više popularizirati i približiti onima koji bi od nje mogli imati najveće neposredne koristi.

Alge kao moguće rješenje prehrane stanovništva
U nedavnom izvješću FAO-a upozorava se, naime, kako u svijetu danas gladuje preko 870 milijuna ljudi, te kako proizvodnja hrane postaje ključni globalni prioritet. Tradicionalna poljoprivredna proizvodnja je vrlo slabo prilagođena klimatskim promjenama i porastu temperature kao i naglim i nepravilnim oscilacijama ključnih klimatskih parametara. Dovoljno je samo jednokratno naglo zahlađenje ili prejaki toplinski val da dođe do uništavanja plodova. Jednako teške posljedice donose i sve češće oluje te velike količine padalina i popratne poplave. Proces fotosinteze moguć je samo unutar određenih temperaturnih raspona, što znači da opada iznad 35 stupnjeva celzija, a praktički prestaje iznad 40 stupnjeva. Isto pravilo vrijedi i za proces polenizacije.

Značaj korištenja algi slijedom njihovog energetskog i prehrambenog potencijala neki podižu i na razinu nacionalne sigurnosti. Tako Mark Edward, ugledni profesor sa već spomenutog Sveučilišta u Arizoni, koji je upravo objavio novu knjigu „Mikrofarme mira: Strategija zelene alge za prevenciju rata” zastupa tezu da će se zbog posljedica klimatskih promjena te porasta svjetske populacije sve više ratova u budućnosti voditi zbog nestašice pitke vode i hrane, odnosno zbog tuđe plodne zemlje na kojoj se može uzgajati potrebna hrana. Kao moguće rješenje za izbjegavanje sukoba, on sugerira upravo mikrofarme za uzgoj zelenih algi i mikro-sjemenki uz primjenu novih visokih tehnologija uzgoja. Cijena instaliranja takvih farmi, uz primjenu danas već poznatih novih tehnologija uzgoja, kao i educiranje onih koji će s njima upravljati neusporedivo je manja nego cijena vođenja sukoba ili post-ratne obnove.

Profesor Edward u svojoj novoj knjizi navodi kako je ključni problem klasične poljoprivrede u tome što se temelji na zemlji i korijenju. Biljke naime oko 30 posto ukupne dostupne energije troše upravo na korijenje, četvrtinu na stabljiku i preko trećine na sjemenje. U nedostatku dovoljnih izvora energije, biljka će kao prioritete postaviti korijenje zbog izvora vlastite prehrane te samu stabljiku kao strukture na kojoj se nalazi sjemenje. U konačnici, upravo sjemenje najviše trpi pri nedostatku energije i potrebne vode.

Sve biljke na zemlji nastale su iz alga u procesu koji je započeo prije 500 milijuna godina. Alge, za razliku od biljaka na zemlji, nisu toliko podložne klimatskim promjenama jer su gotovo potpuno neovisne o zemlji, a njihova struktura ne uključuje “suvišne” dijelove koji troše veliki dio dostupne energije.

Proizvodnja hrane, a primarno žitarica, zahtijeva iznimno velike površine plodne zemlje, a samo jedna tona zrna žitarica zahtijeva preko 10,000 tona vode. Uspješni uzgoj sjemenja i bilja traži i iznimno velika sredstva uložena u umjetna gnojiva. Samo cijena fosfora koji se masovno koristi u poljoprivredi porasla je za čak 7 puta u posljednjih dvije godine. Zaštita bilja i žitarica traži i velike iznose uložene u pesticide i različita sredstva koja dodatno podižu cijenu proizvodnje hrane. Pri proizvodnji genetski modificirane hrane potrebna je i veća količina vode. Umjetna gnojiva pak vrlo brzo propadnu na dubinu znatno ispod korijenja bilja što im naravno smanjuje učinkovitost. Tome treba dodati kako se tek oko 5 posto pesticida učinkovito iskoristi, dok praktički velika većina propada u zemlju i truje podzemne vode, čineći iznimno velike štete širem području. Površine pesticide pak raznosi vjetar i dodatno zagađuje okoliš.

Nove znanstvene spoznaje i suvremeni pristupi poljoprivrednoj proizvodnji temeljeni na zemlji, prema profesoru Edwardu, ne pridonose značajno povećanju efikasnosti proizvodnje, niti rješavaju ključno pitanje velikih nestašica hrane s kojima će se čovječanstvo suočiti. Zato se u posljednje vrijeme sve više pozornosti pridaje mogućim promjenama globalne strategije proizvodnje hrane, prema novim oblicima prehrambene proizvodnje koji ne bi ovisili o klimatskim promjenama i vremenskim uvjetima.

Prijedlog rješenja nudi se u instaliranju alternativnih mikrofarmi koje bi proizvodile 20 do 30 puta više alternativne hrane po hektaru nego klasične žitarice uzgojene na zemlji. Umjesto klasičnih modela uzgoja s korištenjem umjetnih gnojiva, pesticida i navodnjavanja, model mikorfarmi nudi okretanje ka sunčevoj energiji, ugljičnom dioksidu i steriliziranim otpadnim vodama. Mikro-plodovi koji se mogu uzgajati uključuju široki spektar različitih mikroorganizama kao što su alge, gljive, planktoni i drugo.

Hrvatska i energetski potencijal uzgoja zelenih algi
Hrvatski centar obnovljivih izvora energije (HCOIE) godinama promiče sve prednosti korištenja alternativnih izvora energije, pa tako i korištenje energije iz zelenih algi.  Upravo s tim ciljem osnovan je i poseban Hrvatski centar za biogorivo iz alga. Iako su alge vrlo otporne na različite klimatske uvjete, idealnim se smatra umjerena temperatura u rasponu od 20-30 stupnjeva celzija uz puno sunčanih dana.

Hrvatskoj je, naravno, potrebno više stručnjaka upućenih u to područje, ali i snažniji poduzetnički duh te adekvatno zakonodavstvo i mehanizam koji bi poticali razvoj svih novih alternativnih tehnologija za korištenje novih i obnovljivih izvora energije. Prije svega potrebno je bolje informirati javnost o svim novim globalnim trendovima, kako u području obnovljivih izvora energije, tako i o novim tehnologijama proizvodnje hrane.

Prije nekoliko godina njemački istraživački tim sa Sveučilišta u Bremenu predložio je da se na području od 20-30 km uzduž mediteranske obale izgradi serija bioreaktora u kojima bi alge apsorbirale CO2 i proizvodile čistu bioenergiju. Područje s dosta sunca i blizu mora idealna je lokacija za takve energetske instalacije. Iako je njihova prvobitna ideja podrazumijevala jug Španjolske, nema naravno nikakvih razloga da i Hrvatska, ukoliko pokaže interes za takve projekte ne pokuša pronaći zainteresirane investitore. Činjenica da su klimatski uvjeti idealni za instaliranje uzgajališta algi, da je njihov uzgoj i prerada u biogorivo ekološki potpuno prihvatljiv, te da uzgoj algi neposredno potiče i razvoj niza pratećih industrija (farmaceutska, kozmetička, prehrambena) sigurno bi trebala naići na određenu pozornost onih koji sudjeluju u kreiranju buduće energetske slike zemlje. Budući da se alge hrane sa CO2 , instaliranje njihovih uzgajališta neki povezuju i sa neposrednom blizinom klasičnih elektrana na ugljen ili kruta goriva, jer zajedno čine sinergiju koja je ekološki iznimno prihvatljiva.

Primjer venecijanskog zaljeva i problem tamošnjih algi poučan je primjer inovativnog pristupa problemima. Početkom 1990-ih godina, nagomilane alge počele su se komercijalno koristiti u proizvodnji specijalnih papira. Prije dvije godine grupa talijanskih stručnjaka predložila je da se alge nagomilane u Venecijanskom zaljevu iskoriste i za proizvodnju čak 40 MW energije, odnosno polovicu ukupno potrebne energije za opskrbu centra grada. Talijanska vlada je tada odlučila uložiti čak 200 milijuna eura  za ekološki projekt kojim bi se iskoristio energetski potencijal nakupljenih algi te ujedno značajno smanjila emisija štetnih plinova. Taj projekt trebao bi ujedno biti i prvi konkretan veliki primjer efikasne komercijalizacije morskih algi u jednoj urbanoj sredini.

Početkom 2012. godine osnovan je konzorcij od 12 organizacija iz 6 mediteranskih zemalja (Italija, Grčka, Cipar, Malta, Libanon i Egipat) financirana većim dijelom iz EU ENPI fondova koji bi istražio mogućnost komercijalnog korištenja morskih algi u proizvodnji energije. Vjerojatno ne postoji poseban razlog da se i Hrvatska aktivnije ne uključi u niz sličnih inovativnih međunarodnih projekata.

Budući da alge vjerojatno mnoge ipak najprije asociraju na gadljive zelene naslage koje ometaju kupanje na jadranskim plažama, utoliko je korisno bolje upoznati i popularizirati mogućnost njihovog korištenja i u neke vrlo korisne svrhe. Možda je uzgoj algi jedan od budućih inovacijskih iskoraka toliko nam potrebnog poduzetničkog duha, tim više što su uvjeti za njihov uzgoj u Hrvatskoj iznimno dobri.

 Autor/izvor:  dr.sc. Damir Kušen, veleposlanik RH u Finskoj

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Algae: An Important Source for Making Biofuels

Biofuels are the alternative fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, methane and others obtained from the biomass. Biomasses are the wasted materials obtained from the plants, animals and human beings. With the increasing prices of the crude oil and importance of achieving self-reliance in energy and growing concern for the environment alternative fuels are receiving more government and public attention.


The government of US has set the targets for using of 36 billion gallons of biofuels by the year 2022 as a result most of the gasoline sold here is mixed with ethanol. Similarly, biodiesel mixed with petroleum diesel is found to create lesser pollution without affecting the performance of the engines. Methane gas is also increasingly used for the production of electricity and also driving the vehicles. Ethanol, biodiesel, and methane are all biofuels obtained from biomass like wasted crops, crops containing sugar, vegetable oil etc.


Due to increasing demands of the biofuels, many farmers are now tempted to raise the crops that would yield biofuels instead of the food crops. This leads to misuse of limited resources available in the form energy, fertilizers and pesticides. In some parts of the world large areas of forests have been cut down to grow sugarcane for ethanol and soybeans and palm-oil tress for making biodiesel. US government is making efforts to make sure the farming for biomass materials does not competes with the farming of food crops and that the farming of biomass would require lesser fertilizers and pesticides.

Algae used as Biomass


One of the most important promising sources of biofuels is algae. Algae are single celled (most of them) microorganisms that grow in salt water, fresh water and even in contaminated water. Algae can grow in sea, rivers, ponds, and also on land not suitable for production. Like other plants, algae also absorb energy from the sun in the presence of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the process called photosynthesis. Just like other wasted plants and crops, algae also carry energy and it can be used as an important biomass material. There are more than 65,000 known species of algae having different colors like green, red, brown and blue-green that offer wide range of options for obtaining the biofuels from them.


Algae keep growing extensively in the nature and it generates lots of waste that could even create problems of disposal. Since algae carries energy, it can be used as an important source of alternative or renewable energy since algae is available in abundant quantities that can last forever. Algae can be used as the biomass materials to obtain various biofuels. Various colonies of algae can be considered to be small biological factories containing lots of energy.

Biofuels from Obtained from Algae


Like the wastes from the plants, the algae can also be used as the biomass to produce various types of biofuels. One of the most popular types of biofuels, biodiesel, is obtained from the vegetable oil. The same biodiesel can also be obtained from algae oil. The biodiesel from algae can be mixed with the petroleum diesel and used for the running of the vehicles. It can also be used as the fuel for jets, airplanes, refineries, and pipelines. The biodiesel obtained from algae can be readily used with automobile and jet engines without the need to make any modifications in the engine. It meets all the specifications of the petroleum diesel fuel.


The algae biomass can also be used for making ethanol and butanol biofuels, which are type of alcohols. Butanol is considered to have more efficiency than ethanol and it is obtained from dried algae that act as a biomass. The carbohydrates extracted from algae are converted into natural sugars, which are then converted into butyric, lactic and acetic acids by the process of fermentation. Further fermentation of butyric acid is carried out to produce butanol.


The biomass obtained from algae can also be used to produce biogas that contains methane and carbon dioxide. Methane is an important component of natural gas, so this biogas can be used just like the natural gas for producing heating effect and also to produce electricity.

Advantages of using Algae as Biomass


One of the important advantages of algae it that it can be grown in almost any type of water: salt, fresh, and even contaminated water. It can be grown in vast sea and river water, small rain water ponds and even commercial or domestic manmade ponds. It can also be grown on non-arable unproductive lands increasing the utility of waste lands.


Another important advantage of growing algae for producing biofuels is that it does not displace the farmland used for growing the food crops. The farmers using various resources for producing biodiesel instead of the food crops has been one of the major concerns for the government, algae helps solving this tricky problem.


Algae have the potential to yield 30 times more energy than the crops grown on land, which are currently being used to produce the biofuels. This would further encourage the use of algae for producing biofuels and land for producing food crops.


Another important advantage of algae is that it uses carbon dioxide for its growth. Thus the pollution causing carbon dioxide produced from the other sources can be utilized to grow algae, which helps keeping the environment cleaner. 



special thanks to   
Escapeartist, Inc
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“CCRES is a member-based non-profit organization with membership open to research institutions, public and private sector organizations, students, and individuals.” 

says Zeljko Serdar, President & CEO of CCRES

Who are we?

CCRES is a biotech NGO founded in 1988 and incorporated in the Republic of Croatia. Our Main research center is located in Zagreb, Croatia. CCRES Algae is producing various types of enhanced algae, harboring high value products for the global aquaculture markets.
What do we do?

CCRES Algae’s Project have been designed to alleviate some of the bottlenecks of the aquaculture industry. Our current products include a range of algal products for the different growth stages of many aquaculture species.  Our pipeline products include a range of algal based, orally-delivered high value traits for ornamental and edible markets of fish and crustaceans. CCRES Algae’s Project have been scientifically designed as an oral application, replacing the need for costly techniques, specifically injections.
While biodiesel is the fuel end product that is pursued most, algae can be processed to yield other energy products such as ethanol, diesel, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons. We have started exploring production of these products as well.
The various uses of algae will be examined such as its role in the nutraceutical, food, cosmetic and animal feed industries and as a replacement for petroleum as a transportation fuel.
Our Technology

CCRES Algae‘s technology has been efficient and safe.

Our Potential

CCRES Algae’s potential is not restricted to the vast aquaculture market. Developing products for the entire animal husbandry industry (poultry, cattle, swine, etc.,) is just around the corner.
The Algae Production CCRES Courses will begin with an overview of photosynthesis and the carbon cycle, the taxonomy of algae and the basics of cell biology.  Safety in the lab and the process of experimental methodology are also included in the curriculum. CCRES students will learn about algae growth factors such as temperature, light, CO2 and nutrients.  The different kinds of photobioreactor designs will be explored, including closed vs. open systems.  CCRES students will learn about the importance of cultivation protocols, and when to feed, harvest and how to process the algae.  Analytics will be covered as well which includes the use of the microscope and learning about the basic algae handling and testing procedures such as dilution, cell counting and dry weight measurment.
project of
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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