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ALL ABOUT ALGAE AND THE ORIGIN OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS

ALGAE AND THE ORIGIN OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Life began about 3.5 billion years ago in the oceans with the appearance of prokaryotes.

The oldest reliable date for the appearance of the eukaryotes is about 1.9 billion years ago, when the first members of a group of unicellular organisms called acritarchs appear in the fossil record  in China.

Acritarchs …
Are probably the remains of a group of ancient eukaryotes
Were plankton
Some resemble dinoflagellates while others resemble green algae
Their relationship among living organisms is uncertain

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
http://www.geo.arizona.edu/palynology/ppacrtrc.html

Eukaryotic cells came into existence probably by a process called endosymbiosis.

Mitochondria arose first, as an early eukaryotic cell engulfed but did not digest a bacterium capable of aerobic respiration. The two organisms lived together, one inside the other, and both benefited.

Fungi, plants and animals are all probably derived from protists.

Fungi and animals are eukaryotes organisms that lack plastids.

Another line of evolution, one that had mitochondria, entered another endosymbiosis with a photosynthetic cyanobacterium, which later evolved into a chloroplast.

This line gave rise to algae including green algae, which in turn produced true plants, the embryophytes.

Several clades exist that still have some extant members whose plastids have numerous prokaryotic characters. Chloroplasts of red algae especially resemble cyanobacteria.

The kingdom Protista contains eukaryotes that cannot be assigned with certainty to other kingdoms

The kingdom Protista is an artificial grouping and classification does not represent evolutionary relationships.

This kingdom is also known as Protoctista.

Protists covered in this course are those photosynthetic organisms that function like plants in ecosystems.

They are the “grass of the ocean”.

Protists to be studied include:

Algae: photosynthetic organisms studied by phycologists.
Slime molds and oomycetes: heterotrophic organisms that are traditionally studied by mycologists, although these organisms are not fungi.

Another group of protists not included in this course are the ciliates, flagellates, and other heterotrophs.

The phylogenetic relationship among the different groups of protists is controversial, e.g. the relationship between the green and brown algae.

ORIGIN OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS

DNA Structure

In prokaryotes, proteins do not surround the DNA. Its numerous negative charges are neutralized by calcium ions. In eukaryotes, the DNA is packaged with histones forming nucleosomes. The DNA condenses into chromosomes.

The genome is a short circle of DNA containing about 3,000 genes, and lack introns. In eukaryotes, the DNA molecule carries thousands of genes. The chromosomes of eukaryotes have a homologous and never occur as a single chromosome in normal circumstances. Eukaryotic genes have introns, which do not code for any type of RNA.

Nuclear structure and division

Prokaryotic cells lack nucleus. The DNA circle is attached to the plasma membrane. As the cell grows and the plasma membrane expands, the two daughter DNA molecules are separated.

The nuclei of plants, animals and fungi are very similar in structure, metabolism, mitosis and meiosis. Apparently these three clades diverged after the nucleus had achieved a high level of complexity.

In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is found in the nucleus.

The nucleus is surround by two double-layered membranes with nuclear pores.

A nucleolus is present.

The nuclei are typically haploid or diploid. Mitosis assures that each daughter cell receives one of each type of chromosome to maintain the species number of chromosomes.

Meiosis usually occurs as part of sexual reproduction. The pairing of paternal and maternal homologous chromosomes, followed by crossing over and genetic recombination assures genetic diversity.

Some groups of organisms have a unique mitotic process that may represent an earlier divergence in the history of eukaryotes.

Organelles

Prokaryotes lack membrane bound organelles. They have ribosomes and storage granules, which are not-membrane bound organelles.

Photosynthetic prokaryotes have folded plasma membrane that projects into the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles that compartmentalize the cell and perform different functions simultaneously.

Ribosomes of prokaryotes are 70S, being smaller and denser than the 80S ribosomes of eukaryotes.

Flagella and cilia are uniform in eukaryotes having a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules. A few prokaryotes have flagella, and never have the 9+2 arrangement. They are not composed of microtubules or tubulin.

Endosymbiotic Theory.

This hypothesis attempts to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

In 1905, K. C. Mereschkowsky had speculated that plastids were prokaryotes living inside eukaryotic cells.

In the 1960s, plastids and mitochondria were discovered to have their own DNA and ribosomes, both with prokaryotic features.

Plastids and mitochondria divide similarly to prokaryotes.
They lack microtubules.
Their DNA is small and circular, contains a small number of genes, and is organized like prokaryotic DNA.
Their ribosomes are sensitive to the same antibiotics that interfere with prokaryotic ribosomes.

Chloroplasts and mitochondria could have originated from bacteria that were phagocytized by a large heterotrophic prokaryote.

Mitochondria could have derived from an aerobic prokaryote that was ingested but not digested.
Chloroplasts could have been derived from a photosynthetic prokaryote, probably a cyanobacterium.
Chloroplasts originated several times.
An endosymbionts is an organism that lives within another dissimilar organism.

These bacteria were then adopted as endosymbionts rather than being digested.

With time these endosymbionts became simplified and specialized to perform only photosynthesis or respiration.

The DNA of the endosymbionts and many or its functions were transferred to the nuclear DNA.

The nuclear membrane could have originated from an infolding of the plasma membrane of a prokaryote.

Prokaryotes have their single circular chromosome attached to the plasma membrane.

Infolding of other portions of the plasma membrane may have given origin to the ER and Golgi complex.

Primary endosymbiosis gave rise to a clade containing red algae, green algae and a small group called glaucophytes.

Glaucophyte chloroplasts still produce a thin film of cyanobacterial wall between themselves and the cell.
Red algal chloroplasts have chlorophyll a but not b, and the cyanobacterial pigment phycobilin, organized into particles called phycobilisomes.
Green algal cells do not have traces of bacterial wall or phycobilin, but instead have chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid accessory pigments, all of which are similar to chloroplasts in true plants.

Chloroplasts have chlorophyll a but not bacteriochlorophyll. This suggests that the cyanobacteria and not photosynthetic bacteria is the ancestor of chloroplasts.

Prochlorophytes are a type of cyanobacteria that have both chlorophyll a and b, and lack phycobilins.

The prochlorophytes Prochloron and Prochlorothryx are closely related to chloroplasts and are thought to have a common ancestor. Prochloron exists as an obligate endosymbiont of marine invertebrates called ascidians.

Secondary endosymbiosis happened when a eukaryote engulfed another eukaryote.

Euglenoids originated when a eukaryote engulfed a green alga. The green alga has become so reduced that only the chloroplast remains.

Heterokonts have two different flagella of different length and ornamentation. They appear to be monophyletic.

One flagellum is long and ornamented with distinctive hairs (tinsels).
The other flagellum is shorter and smooth (whiplash).

Heterokonts are also known as stramenopiles.

Molecular sequence and these unique flagella provide evidence for the close relationship of oomycetes, chrysophytes, diatoms, and brown algae.

They were involved in one or several endosymbiosis with entire cells of red algae.

Heterokonts appear to have diversified and then some entered into secondary endosymbiosis and became photosynthetic, whereas others did not. Lack of chloroplasts in these heterokonts is an ancestral condition.

Pigmented heterokonts may have originated through one or several secondary endosymbioses.

Most pigmented heterokonts have chlorophyll a and c, lack phycobilins, and have four chloroplast membranes instead of two as in red algae, green algae, glaucophytes and plants. Some have the remnant of red alga nucleus called the nucleopmorph, which still contains a nuclear envelope and a few genes.

These cells have four types of DNA; heterokont eukaryotic nucleus, red alga eukaryotic nucleomorph, chloroplast prokaryotic DNA circles, a mitochondrion prokaryotic DNA circles.

Types of cytokinesis

Several types of cytokinesis occur in algae.

Cytokinesis may occur by furrowing or by cell plate formation.

In almost all algae with wall, cytokinesis is similar to that of plants.

In some green algae, the phycoplast consists of microtubules oriented parallel to the plane where the new wall will form, which is perpendicular to the orientation of the spindle.

Embryophytes arose from green algae that divide with a phragmoplast rather than a phycoplast.

CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS GROUPS OF ALGAE

The following notes are base on Raven et al, 8th Edition, and Mauseth.

DIVISION CHLOROPHYTA

Also known as green algae.

A diverse group of about 17,000 species.

Most chlorophytes are aquatic, but some green algae can live on the surface of snow, on tree trunks, in soils, or symbiotically with protozoans, hydras or lichen-forming fungi.

Chlorophytes range in size from microscopic to quite large: unicellular, colonies, branched and unbranched filaments, thalloid.

Green algae have chlorophylls a and b and store starch as a food reserve inside their plastids.

Most green algae have firm cell walls composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and peptic substances.

The flagellated reproductive cells of some green algae resemble that of plant sperm.

Based on studies of mitosis, cytokinesis, reproductive cells and molecular similarities, the green algae have been divided into several classes. Three of these classes will be studied here:

Body construction in Green Algae

Motile colonies: aggregation of unspecialized cells; flagella present: this is considered to be an ancestral condition, a plesiomorphy.
Nonmotile colonies: similar to the motile colonies but cells have lost their flagella; this is considered an apomorphy.
Filamentous body: cells divide transversally, but sometimes producing a branch; some parts of their body may become specialized, e.g. holdfast for attachment.
Membranous body: cell division occurs in two planes forming a sheet of cells.
Parenchymatous body: cell division occurs in three planes; cells are interconnected by plasmodesmata and true parenchyma tissue is formed.
Coenocytic or siphonous body: karyokinesis occurs without cytokinesis resulting in a large multinucleate cell; the cell remains unspecialized.

Life cycles in Green Algae

The alternation of heteromorphic generations in angiosperms can be traced to green algae.

Monobiontic species consists of only one free-living generation. In some, the haploid phase represents the individual; in others, it is the diploid phase.

In dibiontic species, both stages of the alternation of generations are multicellular

The gametophyte is haploid and the sporophyte diploid.
The two phases may be isomorphic (similar) or heteromorphic (different body plan).
Sporophytes produce spores in sporangia (sing. sporangium).
The sporophyte usually produces spores by meiosis, but some by mitosis – these spores are diploid and produce a new sporophyte in a form of asexual reproduction.
Some gametophytes produce spores by mitosis, which develop into new gametophytes – asexual reproduction.
Gametes are produced in gametangia.
Gametes may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous.

Cytokinesis in the Chlorophyta

The following notes are based on Raven et al.

The classes Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae form a phycoplast during cell division, which is system of microtubules parallel to the plane of cell division.

Nuclear envelope persists during mitosis.
Mitotic spindle forms and then disappears at telophase.
Daughter nuclei are separated by the phycoplast in which the microtubules lie perpendicular to the axis of division.
The role of the phycoplast is presumed to ensure that the cleavage furrow will pass between the two daughter nuclei.
Cytokinesis is by cell plate formation or development of a furrow.
The Chlorophyceae form four narrow bands of microtubules known as flagellar roots, which are associated with the flagellar basal bodies (centrioles) of the flagella.
The Ulvophyceae have a persistent spindle but do not develop a phragmoplast or cell plate.

The class Charophyceae does not form a phycoplast but develop a phragmoplast like land plants.

Formation of a phragmoplast, which is parallel-aligned microtubules and microfilaments at right angles to the forming cell plate, is to generate a guiding and supporting matrix for the deposition of new cell plate.

The phragmoplast is a system of microtubules, microfilaments and ER vesicles that is oriented perpendicular to the plane of division.
It serves in the assembling of the cell plate and the cell wall.
As the cell plate matures in the center of the phragmoplast, the phragmoplast and developing cell plate grow outward until they reach the of the dividing cell. See pages 64-67in Raven et al.
Spindle is persistent through mitosis.
Cytokinesis is by cell plate formation or furrowing, just like bryophytes and vascular plants.

The flagellar root system of microtubules provides anchorage to the flagellum.
The multilayered structure is often associated with one of the flagellar roots.
The type of multilayered structure is often an important taxonomic character.
The flagellar root had multilayered structure of the Charophyceae is very similar to that found in the sperm of bryophytes and some vascular plants.

Class Chlorophyceae

There are approximately 350 genera and 2650 living species of chlorophyceans.

Mostly freshwater species.

They come in a wide variety of shapes and forms, including free-swimming unicellular species, colonies, non-flagellate unicells, filaments, and more.

Cytokinesis may be by furrowing or by cell plate formation.

When flagellate, the flagella are apical and equal in length, and directed forward.

They also reproduce in a variety of ways, though all have a haploid life cycle, in which only the zygote cell is diploid.

The zygote will often serve as a resting spore, able to lie dormant though potentially damaging environmental changes such as desiccation.

Chlamydomonas is motile unicellular chlorophyte.

Two equal flagella.
One chloroplast with a red photosensitive eyespot, or stigma, aids in the detection of light.
Chloroplast has a pyrenoid, which is typically surrounded by a shell of starch.
The cell wall is made of a carbohydrate and protein complex inside which is the plasma membrane; there is no cellulose in the cell wall.
Reproduction is both sexually and asexually.
See the Life Cycle diagram on page 331 in Ravel et al.

Volvox is a motile colony.

The colony consists of a hollow sphere called the spheroid, made up of a single layer of 500 to 60,000 vegetative, biflagellated cells that serve primarily in photosynthesis.
Specialized reproductive cells undergo repeated mitoses to form many-celled spheroids, which are released after producing an enzyme that dissolves the parental matrix.
Sexual reproduction is oogamous.

Chlorococcum is a unicellular, non-motile chlorophyte.

Found in the soil.
Reproduces by forming biflagellated zoospores.
Sexual reproduction happens by the fusion of biflagellated gametes, which fuse in pairs to form zygotes.
Meiosis is zygotic.

Hydrodictyon is a non-motile colony.

The individual cells are cylindrical and initially uninucleated and eventually becoming multinucleated.
The cells form a hollow cylinder.
At maturity, the cells contain a large, central vacuole surrounded by the cytoplasm containing the nuclei and a large reticulate chloroplast with numerous pyrenoids.
It reproduces asexually through the formation of many uninucleated, biflagellated zoospores.
The zoospores are not released but form an arrangement within the parent cell, then lose their flagella and form the components of a mini-net.
Sexual reproduction is isogamous and meiosis is zygotic.

There are also filamentous and parenchymatous Chlorophyceae, e.g. Oedogonium, Stigeoclonium, and Fritschiella.

Class Ulvophyceae

Mostly marine algae with a few representatives in fresh water.

Filamentous septate, filamentous coenocytic (siphonous) or thalloid

Filamentous species have large multinucleate cells separated by septa; some may be netlike others straight chains. They have a netlike chloroplast.
Siphonous algae are characterized by very large, branched, coenocytic cells
Thalloid species have a single nucleus and chloroplast.

Majority has one plane of division, unlike the Ulva with three planes

Spindle and nuclear envelope persist through mitosis.

Flagellated cells may have two, four or many flagella directed forward

Alternation of generations with a haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte.

They have sporic meiosis or a diploid, dominant life history involving gametic meiosis.

Cladophora is a filamentous septate ulvophyte.

It forms large blooms in fresh water.
There are both marine and fresh water species of Cladophora.
Each cell is multinucleated and has one single, peripheral, net-like chloroplast with many pyrenoids. Marine species have an alternation of isomorphic generations.
Most of the fresh water species do not have an alternation of generations.

Ulva consists of a two-cell thick flat thallus that may grow up to a meter in length.
It is known as sea lettuce.
Ulva is anchored to the substrate by a holdfast produced by extensions of the cells at its base.
The cells of the thallus are uninucleate and have one chloroplast.
Ulva is anisogamous and has an alternation of isomorphic generations.

Codium and Halimeda are examples of siphonous marine algae.

Very large, coenocytic cells that are rarely septate characterize siphonous algae.
Cell walls are only produced during reproduction.
Siphonous green algae are diploid, with gametes being the only haploid stage.
Halimeda has calcified cell walls.

Examples to study:
Thalloid: Ulva.
Siphonous: Acetabularia, Codium, Ventricaria, Halimeda.
Filamentous septate: Cladophora.

Class Charophyceae

Growth habit may be unicellular, filamentous, colonial or thalloid (parenchymatous).

Considered closely related to plants due to structural, biochemical and genetic similarities.

The orders Coleochaetales and Charales have plant-like characteristics. These include:

Asymmetrical flagellated cells always have two flagella.
Breakdown of the nuclear envelope at mitosis
Persistent spindles or phragmoplast at cytokinesis.
Presence of phytochrome, flavonoids and chemical precursors of the cuticle.
Other molecular features.

Spirogyra is an unbranched, filamentous charophyte.

Found in fresh water, often forming blooms.
Cells uninucleate.
Filaments are surround by a watery sheath.
Chloroplasts one or more, flat ribbon-like with numerous pyrenoids.
Asexual reproduction occurs by fragmentation.
There are no flagellated cells at any stage of its life cycle.
Sexual reproduction takes place through the formation of a conjugation tube.
The cytoplasm of one cells migrates to the other cell and function as isogametes.
A thick wall of sporopollenin surrounds the zygote.
Meiosis is zygotic.

Desmids are a large group of fresh water charophytes.

Lack flagellated cells.
Desmid cells consist of two sections of semi-cells joined by a narrow constriction.
Sexual reproduction is similar to Spirogyra.

Two orders of Charophyceae, the Coleochaetales and the Charales, resemble bryophytes and vascular plants.

They have plant-like microtubular phragmoplast operating during cytokinesis.
They are oogamous and their sperm are ultrastructurally similar to those of bryophytes.

Morphological and molecular studies indicate that an early basal split in the green algae gave rise to a chlorophyte clade containing most of the green algae, and a streptophyte clade that includes the Coleochaetales and Charales, zygnematalean green algae, and land plants (bryophytes and vascular plants).

Coleochaetales

Include branched filamentous and discoid genera.
Growth occurs at the apex or peripheral cells, and the plant is anchored in mud or silt by translucent rhizoids.
Coleochaete has uninucleate vegetative cells that each contains one large chloroplast with an embedded pyrenoid.
It reproduces asexually by zoospores that are formed singly within cells.
Sexual reproduction is oogamous.
The zygotes remain attached to the parental thallus, which stimulate the growth of a layer of cells that covers the zygotes.
These parental cells have wall ingrowths are believed to function in nutrient transport between gametophyte and sporophyte.

Charales

The thallus in some stoneworts is encrusted with white lime, giving a crusty texture (hence the name brittlewort).
The Charales exhibit apical growth.
The thallus is differentiated into nodal and internodal regions.
The nodal regions have plasmodesmata.
Sperms are produced in multicellular antheridia.
Eggs are produced in oogonia enclosed by several long, tubular, twisted dells.
Sperms are the only flagellated cells in their life cycles.
Zygotes are surround by sporopollenin.

Examples to study:

Filamentous: Spirogyra, desmids.
Thalloid: Coleochaete.
Branched filamentous: Chara

Division Rhodophyta

Red algae are mostly marine organisms found in tropical and warm waters. Fewer than 100 species occur in fresh water. Some occur in cooler regions of the world.

Many species are found in very deep water.

There are 4100 to 6000 known species.

Red algae are mostly structurally complex multicellular organisms with very few species unicellular or microscopic filaments.

They may grow attached to the substrate, submerged vegetation and a few are free floating.

Unique Features Of Cells

Their cell wall lack plasmodesmata but they have pit connections. It is not known if these pits are used for intercellular transport.

Red algae do not produce flagellated cells, and lack centrioles.

Most red algae cell walls are made of cellulose microfibrils that are densely interwoven and are held together by mucilage.

The mucilage is a sulfonated polymer of galactose such as agar and carageenan.

Some species called coralline algae, deposit CaCO3 in their walls.

Coralline algae play an important role in coral reef building.

Many produce toxic terpenoids that deter herbivores.

Food reserves are stored as floridean starch in granules.

Floridean starch resembles glycogen.

Chloroplasts are reddish (rhodoplasts) and contain chlorophyll a, α and β-carotene, accessory water-soluble pigments called phycobilins (phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, allophycocyanin).

These pigments absorb well green and blue-green wavelengths that penetrate deep into the water.
Chloroplast chemicals resemble those found in cyanobacteria and may have originated from this group by endosymbiosis.

Complicated Life Histories

Many reproduce asexually by discharging spores, called monospores, into the water.

All red algae have complex life cycles, reproduce sexually and have no flagellated stages.

Gametophyte, carposporophyte, tetrasporophyte.

The simplest form of sexual reproduction involves the alternation of a haploid gametophyte and a diploid sporophyte.

The gametophyte produces spermatangia (sing. spermatangium) that release nonmotile
The female gamete or egg is produced in the carpogonium, on a same gametophyte.
The carpogonium develops a protuberance called the trichogyne for the reception of the spermatia.
The spermatium fuses with the trichogyne and the nucleus travels to the female nucleus and fuses with it.
The resultant diploid zygote then produces a few diploid carpospores, which are release into the water.
Carpospores produce sporophytes that form haploid spores, which in turn produce new gametophytes.

In some red algae, the zygote produces a carposporophyte generation, which remains attached to the parent gametophyte.

The carposporophyte divides mitotically and eventually produces carpospores.
The carpospores are released and settle onto a substrate, and grow into separate diploid sporophytes.

In many red algae, the diploid zygote is transferred to another cell of the gametophyte called the auxiliary cell where it proliferates into many carpospores.

The carpospores produce a new generation called the tetrasporophyte.
Meiosis occurs I in specialized cells of the tetrasporophyte, called the tetrasporangia.
Each tetraspore germinates into a gametophyte.

Division Phaeophyta

Phaeophytes are also known as brown algae

It is an entirely marine group especially abundant in temperate and cold waters.

Common in the intertidal and subtidal zones; dominant alga of rocky shores.

About 1,500 species.

The Thallus

Size – few are microscopic, most much larger – up to 60 m. Larger forms with complex structure.

There are no known unicellular or colonial representatives of this group.

The simplest form of plant is a branched, filamentous thallus (pl. thalli): a relatively undifferentiated vegetative body.

The thalli range in complexity from simple branched filaments to aggregation of branched filaments called pseudoparenchyma.

Adjacent cells are connected by plasmodesmata without desmotubules connecting the ER.

Pigments

Cells contain numerous disk-shaped, golden-brown plastids that are similar both biochemically and structurally to those of chrysophytes and diatoms.

Chlorophyll a and c (no Chlorophyll b), ß-carotene, fucoxanthin and other xanthophylls.

Food reserves are typically complex polysaccharides, sugars and higher alcohols and sometimes fats.
Glucose and mannitol are polymerized together as laminarin.
Mannitol is a six-carbon sugar-alcohol; it is linked together with glucose in a beta-1,3 linkage.

The principal carbohydrate reserve is laminarin and true starch is absent.

There are two groups based on the presence or absence of pyrenoids.

Kelps

Kelps (Macrocystis and Nereocystis) and rockweeds have a highly differentiated bodies

The walls are made of cellulose and algin, an alginic acid, a long-chained heteropolysaccharide.
Some have stem-like, root-like, leaf-like organs.
Since they do not have vascular systems, these structures are not true stems, roots, or leaves. Termed rhizoid, holdfast, stalk or stipe, and blade.
Kelps have a meristematic region between the stipe and the blade.
Sargassum and Fucus grow from repeated divisions from a single apical cell.
Some species have floatation bladders.
Some free-floating species have lost the holdfast.

Some of the kelps have modified elongated cells in the center of the stipe that are capable of conducting carbohydrates from the blades near the water surface to the lower parts of the alga.

Some brown algae have evolved sieve tubes comparable to those found in food-conducting tissue of vascular plants. These are called trumpet cells.

Sieve tube elements are joined end-on-end by the sieve plates.

Of great economic importance: fertilizer, food especially in Japan, source of algin – stabilizer & moisture retainer in many products such as ice cream, cake frosting, paint, pharmaceuticals, processing of natural and synthetic rubber.

Life Cycle

Their life cycle involves an alternation of generation, and meiosis occurs during spore formation (sporic meiosis).

The ends of the branches are called receptacles and are swollen with large deposits of hydrophilic compounds. Scattered over the surface of the receptacles are small openings that lead to cavities called conceptacles. Gametangia develop in the conceptacles.

The gametophytes of the primitive brown algae produce reproductive structures called plurilocular gametangia. They may function as male or female gametangia or produce flagellated haploid spores that give rise to new gametophytes.

The diploid sporophyte produces both plurilocular and unilocular sporangia.
The plurilocular sporangia produce diploid zoospores that produce diploid sporophytes.
Meiosis takes place in the unilocular sporangia producing haploid zoospores that germinate to produce haploid gametophytes.

Zoospores have tinsel and whip flagella.

Some groups (e.g. Fucus) do not form spores and have a gametic life cycle without alternation of generations.

Phylum Bacillariophyta

An ancient group that appeared in the fossil record about 250 million years ago, and became abundant in the fossil record about 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous.

Diatoms are unicellular or colonial organisms that form an important component of the phytoplankton.

They may count for as much as 25% of the primary production of the earth.

There may be as many as 100,000 species, some of the most diverse and abundant algae on earth.

Diatoms are the primary source of food for many marine animals; they provide essential carbohydrates, fatty acids, sterols, and vitamins to the consumers.

Diatoms live in both freshwater and marine habitats, but are especially abundant in cold marine waters.

Diatoms can also inhabit terrestrial habitats such as damp cliff faces, moist tree trunks and on the surfaces of buildings.

The Walls Of Diatoms Consist Of Two Halves

Cell wall in two parts known as frustules, are made of polymerized silica (SiO2  H2O, 95%) and carbohydrates especially pectin (5%).

The shell is composed of an upper and lower half, with the lower half fitting neatly within the upper, like a Petri dish.

The shell is highly ornamented and perforated with microscopic holes so precisely spaced that they are used commercially to test the resolution of expensive microscope lenses.

These holes connect the living protoplast with the external environment.

Freshwater forms are usually cylindrical in shape: pennate.
Marine species are usually spherical or circular: centric.

Chrysophytes form sometimes “brown blooms” in fresh and salt water.

Diatoms have chlorophyll a and c, and the golden-brown carotenoid fucoxanthin.

Two large chloroplasts are present in pennate diatoms, and many discoid chloroplasts in centric species.

Food is stored in the form of oils and chrysolaminarin, a soluble polysaccharide stored in vacuoles.

Some species are heterotrophic absorbing organic molecules from the environment. Other heterotrophs live symbiotically in foraminiferans.

Fossil frustules make the diatomaceous earths mined for use as filters, insulating material and abrasive polish.

Reproduction In Diatoms Is Mainly Asexual

Reproduction is usually asexual. Changes in the environment or critical small size triggers sexual reproduction.

Yellow-green algae

Some phycologists as a division or class consider the yellow-green algae different from the chrysophytes. Others include them in the chrysophytes.

They have a variety of body shapes: unicellular, filamentous, siphonous or large multicellular body form.
They have chlorophyll c.
Asexual reproduction occurs by isogamy in Vaucheria.
Sexual reproduction consists of biflagellated sperms and a multinucleated egg.
The zygote breaks off and after a period of dormancy germinates forming a new “tube” filled with haploid nuclei.

Division Chrysophyta

Also know as the golden-brown algae.

Chrysophytes are photosynthetic, unicellular colonial organisms; some plasmodia, filamentous and tissue-like forms. About 1000 known species.

Abundant in freshwater and marine environments worldwide.

Chrysophytes contain chlorophylls a and c, and accessory pigment fucoxanthin, a carotenoid.

Cells usually have one or two chloroplasts.

They store food in a vacuole in the form of polysaccharide chrysolaminarin, which is stored in a vacuole usually found in the posterior of the cell.

Some species are heterotrophic ingesting bacteria, algal cells and organic particles.

Some species have cell wall containing cellulose and impregnated with minerals. Others are without walls. One group has silica plates on the cell surface.

Reproduction is mostly asexual by means of zoospores with unequal flagella of similar structure.

Some species can reproduce sexually.

Resting cysts are formed as a result of sexual reproduction at the end of the growing season.

In many ways, golden algae are biochemically and structurally similar to brown algae.

Division Dinophyta

The dinophyta are also known as dinoflagellates.

Molecular evidence indicates that the dinoflagellates are closely related to ciliate protozoa such as Paramecium and Vorticella, and to apicomplexans, a group of parasitic flagellates whose cells contain a non-pigmented plastid, e.g. Plasmodium that causes malaria.

Apicomplexans, dinoflagellates and others form a group called alveolates.

Most are unicellular biflagellates.

About 4000 known species, most of which are members of the marine phytoplankton.

Their flagella beat in two grooves, one encircles the cell and the other extends lengthwise.

The nonmotile dinoflagellates produce flagellated cells that beat in grooves.

Their chromatin is always condensed into chromosomes.

Many are covered with cellulose plates forming a theca.

About half of the dinoflagellates lack photosynthetic apparatus and feed by ingesting food particles or absorbing dissolved organic compounds.

They have chlorophyll a and c, β- and γ-carotenes, a carotenoid called peridinin,  fucoxanthin, a yellow-brown carotenoid, and other xanthins..

Some pigmented flagellates carry out photosynthesis and also feed by absorbing carbon compound through a protruded peduncle; this is called myxotrophy.

When dinoflagellates are symbionts, they lack theca, e.g. zooxanthellae of giant clams, corals, worms, etc.

Dinoflagellates store their food as oils and starch.

Under adverse periods of low nutrient levels, dinoflagellates form resting cysts that are carried by currents.

Reproduction is mostly asexual but sexual reproduction has been observed in some species.

Some species produce bioluminescence and powerful neurotoxins that are accumulated by fish and mollusks.

They have a characteristic type of nuclear and cell division.

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/dinoflagellata.html
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/dinoflagellate.html
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/alveolates.html
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/apicomplexa.html
http://www.nmnh.si.edu/botany/projects/dinoflag/

Phylum Oomycota

Oomycetes is a distinct heterotrophic group of about 700 species.

Unicellular to highly branched, coenocytic and filamentous forms.

Oomycetes are either saprobes or symbionts.

They inhabit aquatic environments: marine, freshwater or moist terrestrial habitats.

Their cell wall is made of cellulose.

Their food reserve is in the form of glycogen.

Asexual reproduction is by means of motile zoospores, which have the characteristic two flagella of heterokonts.

Sexual reproduction is oogamous: one gamete large and nonmotile, the other small and motile.

Eggs are produced in the oogonia.
The antheridium contains many male nuclei.
The fertilized egg forms a thick-walled zygote called the oospore.
The oospore serves as a resting stage during stressful conditions.

Oomycetes are also called water molds, white rusts and downy mildew.

Water Molds Are Aquatic Oomycetes.

Abundant in fresh water.

Mostly saprophytic and a few parasitic including species that cause diseases to fish and fish eggs.

Species may be homothallic or heterothallic.

Saprolegnia and Achlya are common water molds that reproduce sexually and asexually.

Some Terrestrial Oomycetes Are Important Plant Pathogens

Terrestrial oomycetes produce motile zoospores when water is available.

Terrestrial oomycetes are important plant pathogens; the genus Phytophthora is particularly destructive to plants.

They attack important crops like grapes, pineapples, onions, strawberries, apples, citrus fruits, cacao, etc.

Phytophthora cinnamomi killed millions of avocado trees in southern California, and destroyed thousands of hectares of Eucalyptus timberland in Australia.
Phytophthora ramorum was the cause of the disease called “the sudden oak death.” It attacks many species of oaks and also 26 other species of plants including firs and coastal redwoods.
The great potato famine in Ireland (1846) was caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans.
A gene has been found in a species of wild potato, Solanum ulbocastanum, from Mexico, that is resistant to potato blight. The resistant gene has now been inserted in the commercial potatoes, Solanum tuberosum.
The genus Pythium attacks and rot seeds in the wild (preemergence damping-off) and seedling (postemergence damping-off)

Before a diatom can undergo mitosis, it must be living in an environment with sufficient silicon to allow it to construct a new shell.
The diploid protoplast undergoes typical mitosis within the shell, and then the two-shell halves separate.
One protoplast gets the top half, and the other gets the bottom half.
In either case, the protoplast then secretes a new “bottom” to the “Petri dish”(i.e., a new half fitting inside the old half).
This means that after every mitotic division, one of the resulting diatoms is smaller than the original. This can go on for several generations.
Eventually, the protoplast inside the tiny shell undergoes meiosis rather than mitosis. Four haploid gametes are released from the shell, which is discarded.
When two gametes meet and fuse, the resulting diploid cell is called an auxospore (zygote).
The auxospore grows into a normal size of the species.
It then secretes a silica case of the original size…and the cycle begins anew.
Sexual reproduction in centric diatoms is usually oogamous, and in pennate diatoms non-motile isogamous.

Division Euglenophyta.

Mostly unicellular fresh water organisms; one colonial genus.

Molecular evidence indicates that earlier euglenoids were phagocytic.

About one third of euglenoids contain chloroplasts; their chloroplasts resemble those of the green algae and suggest that they were formed from endosymbiotic green algae.

About two thirds of the genera are colorless heterotrophs that depend on particle feeding and absorption of dissolved organic compounds.

They are mostly freshwater organisms living in waters rich in organic compounds and particles.

Cell structure:

Cell membrane, with pellicle immediately beneath the membrane.
Lack cell wall; one genus has a wall-like covering made of manganese and iron minerals.
The pellicle is made of  protein strips arranged in the form of a helix; it may be rigid or flexible.
Single flagellum for movement coming from the reservoir, and a second non-emergent flagellum.
Flagellar swelling and the stigma or eyespot makes the light-sensing system.
Contractile vacuole used in maintaining water balance.
Pyrenoids are found in chloroplasts. It is a region where rubisco is found and paramylon, a polysaccharide is stored.
Pigments present: chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids and several xanthophylls.
Euglenoids grown in absence of light have been known to lose their chloroplasts and become heterotrophic.
Reproduction in euglenoids is asexual, by mitotic cell division. Sexual reproduction is unknown.
The nuclear membrane remains intact during mitosis in a way similar to the fungi.
About 900 species are known.

An intact mitotic nuclear envelope is probably a primitive condition. The break down of the nuclear membrane is probably a derived condition that appeared after euglenoids separated from the main stack of protists.

http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/courses/botany_130/Diversity/Euglena/Euglena.html
http://www.life.umd.edu/labs/delwiche/PSlife/lectures/Euglenophyta.html
http://www.csupomona.edu/~jcclark/classes/bot125/resource/survey/euglenophyta.html

ECOLOGY OF THE ALGAE

The Ecology of the algae is not found in your textbook.

Algae are dominant in salt and fresh water habitat.

Everywhere they grow, they play a role similar to that of plants in terrestrial habitats.

Along rocky shores, the large and more complex members of the brown, red and green algae grow forming bands that reflect the ability of the seaweeds to withstand exposure.

Seaweeds in this intertidal zone are exposed twice a day to large fluctuations of humidity, salinity and light, in addition to pounding action of the surf and forceful, abrasive water motions.

Polar seaweeds endure months of darkness under the sea ice.

Seaweeds are the food source to a host of herbivores and parasites.

Large beds of seaweeds provide a safe habitat for many aquatic organisms, e.g. kelp beds off the coast of California.

Plankton refers to all suspended drifting organisms found in all bodies of water.

Planktonic algae and cyanobacteria constitute the phytoplankton found in oceans and fresh water.
Heterotrophic plankton and usually swimming microorganisms are called zooplankton.
Bacteria and some heterotrophic protists form the bacterioplankton.

Phytoplankton is found at the base of the food chain.

Colonial and single-celled chrysophytes, dinoflagellates, diatoms and green algae are the most important organisms at the base of the food chain in freshwater habitats.
Unicellular and colonial haptophytes, dinoflagellates and diatoms are the primary producers of the ocean.

In both marine and freshwater habitats, phytoplankton populations are kept in check by seasonal climatic changes, nutrient limitation and predation.

Phytoplankton is the major producers of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Phytoplankton reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by fixing it during photosynthesis.

Phytoplankton is important in the deposition of CaCO3 deposits on the ocean floor.

The CO2 fixed by photosynthesis and the calcification process is replaced by atmospheric CO2

Several types of multicellular algae are important members of coral reefs and deposit a substantial amount of calcium compound important in coral building.

Some haptophyte protists produce substantial amounts of sulfur oxides that are added to the atmosphere and reflect sunlight helping to maintain a cooler temperature.

CCRES ALGAE TEAM
part of
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources

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CCRES Microalgae Process Design

CCRES Microalgae Process Design

Join the ranks of hundreds of 
Energy Day organisers across Europe for the 
2015 EU Sustainable Energy Week!

CCRES Microalgae Process Design

The waters of the world house a tremendous variety of microorganisms able to use light as the only source of energy to fuel metabolism. These unicellular organisms, microalgae and cyanobacteria, have the potential to produce energy sources and biofuels, and many other products. To make economical large-scale production of such bulk products possible, the optimal design of bioreactors and cultivation strategies are essential.
Target group
The course is aimed at PhD students, postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers, as well as professionals, that would like to acquire a thorough understanding of microalgal metabolism and photobioreactor design. An MSc level in bioprocess technology, or similar, is recommended.
Course contents
This course provides the essential skills for designing optimal microalgae-based production processes, for both research and commercial purposes.
Through lectures, digital cases and a photobioreactor practical session, the participants will learn:
1) how to describe microalgal metabolism quantitatively;
2) how to apply basic design principles and set up mass/energy balances for photobioreactors;
3) how to cultivate microalgae in fully controlled photobioreactors; and
4) how to integrate all acquired knowledge into optimal production strategies for microalgae biomass or secondary metabolites.
The daily programme is divided into approximately 5.5 hours of lectures and digital cases, and 2.5 hours of practical work. On Saturday and Sunday, 1.5 hours will be spent on practical work (microalgae do not stop growing at the weekends…). Saturday will also feature an excursion to the CCRES research facility, Zadar, Zaton, followed by a barbecue.
The course will be conducted in English and Croatian.
Course coordinators
Mr. Zeljko Serdar, President of CCRES
Mrs. Branka Kalle, President of Council CCRES
The course will be conducted in English and Croatian.
Location & accommodation
Lectures and practicals will be given at Croatian Center of Renewable Energy. Participants have to book their own hotel room.
Contact information
More information concerning the course content can be obtained from Mr. Zeljko Serdar (solarserdar@gmail.com).
For organisational matters please contact Mrs. Aleksandra Maradin, phone: +385-91-5475049.
Registration
To be able to fill in the registration form, you need to create an account, please contact solarserdar@gmail.com
The number of participants to the course is limited.
The final registration date is 9 June 2014.
Applicants will receive a confirmation of their registration within one week and will be informed about their acceptance to the course 1 May 2015 at the latest. When accepted to the course they will receive instructions for further course details.
The course is free for all CCRES members (which includes materials, coffee/tea during breaks, lunches one dinner and one BBQ but does not cover accommodation).
More info :
We look forward to collaborating with you.
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FUCOSE

FUCOSE

#Fucose is an essential hexose deoxy sugar the human body needs to optimally communicate from cell to cell. Simply put, it plays an important role in transmitting information in the brain. Research studies show that this sugar stimulates brain development and can also influence the brain to be able to create long-term memories. This is further supported by studies in which doctors inhibited protein containing fucose; amnesia was the result.

Fucose is found in a number of places in the human body. Its location in the male testes suggests that it may play an important role during reproduction. Also found in the epidermis, it may help in maintaining skin hydration. Beyond these locations, this sugar is found at the articulation between each nerve, in the tubules of the human kidney, and in significant quantities in human breast milk.

It’s important not to confuse this with the similar sounding fructose. While both are sugars that can be commonly found in the body, fructose is a simple monosaccharide sugar found in many foods. For example, you can find a high amount of fructose in baby food, salad dressing, blackberries, tree fruits, honey and even some root vegetables. On the other hand, fucose, as previously stated, can be found in the human body naturally.

Studies also show that fucose may play a role in certain diseases, such as cancer and its infection method. Though research is not yet conclusive, there is promise shown for using fucose to inhibit both breast cancer and leukemia, in addition to tumor growth, in general. Some studies have even gone as far as to conclude that this hexose deoxy sugar seems to be among the most effective sugars at attempting to prevent cancer cells from growing.

Research indicates that even taking in fucose in extremely high amounts does not seem to present any real ill side effects, though recommendations are that the average 150-pound (68.2 kg) human adult can safely handle 34 grams of this sugar on a daily basis. During urination, fucose leaves the body, so people who urinate frequently can experience a deficiency in fucose. People with rheumatoid arthritis also generally are deficient in this kind of sugar. Many people opt to take supplements to ensure they have the right amount in their body. Seaweeds such as kelp, beer yeast, and medicinal mushrooms are also a good alternative to supplements and for people who have difficulty taking pills.

#CCRES #ALGAE TEAM

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CCRES FUCUS

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Fucus vesiculosus, may be an effective alternative treatment for hypothyroidism for some people as it contains iodine found naturally in the sea. Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid, is a condition where the thyroid gland fails to produce enough thyroid hormone. This results in one’s metabolism falling outside of the desired range. There are a wide range of thyroid medications available, both natural and pharmaceutical. As with all medicines, Fucus can occasionally cause side effects, so always consult your healthcare practitioner before starting treatment.

#Hypothyroidism

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common form of hypothyroidism. It is considered to be an autoimmune disease as the body mistakes the thyroid gland for a foreign body and sends antibodies to attack it which eventually destroy it over time. This leaves the body without essential thyroid hormones that are required for controlling body temperature, appetite and rate of metabolism. If left untreated, hypothyroidism can lead to serious health disorders that could prove fatal.

Symptoms

Symptoms of an underactive thyroid include tiredness, reduced heart rate and pulse, weight gain, dry skin and hair, hair loss, sensitivity to cold, confusion, anxiety, depression, joint pain, headaches, numbness in the extremities and menstrual problems. However, as these symptoms can be attributed to any number of health problems they are often overlooked. If you are experiencing a combination of the aforementioned symptoms without any obvious cause, contact your doctor immediately for a check-up.

#Iodine

According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, those who experience hypothyroidism due to a iodine deficiency may be able to treat their condition with kelp. Iodine, found naturally in kelp, is required to enable the thyroid gland to function correctly. The majority of people in the western world use iodized salt and therefore do not need to supplement with iodine unless they suffer from hypothyroidism.

#Fucus

Fucus is rich in iodine and is available in many different forms including tinctures and standardized extracts. According to the NYU Langone Medical Center, fucus is often referred to as kelp as it is present in a large number of kelp tablets. However, kelp is not considered to be the same as fucus as it is actually a different form of seaweed. The University of Maryland Medical Center recommends a dose of 600mg fucus one to three times per day to stimulate thyroid activity. It is not recommended to self-treat hypothyroidism with fucus.

#CCRES #ALGAE TEAM

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Palmaria Palmata Fights Ebola

 
 

P A L M A R I A   P A L M A T A

is a cold water algae species that is found in the middle to lower shore in many parts of Europe and the North Atlantic Coasts of America. It can grow in depths of up to 20m on both exposed and sheltered shores. It is found growing on rocks and on the stipes of L. hyperborea and Fucus serratus as an epiphyte.

Palmaria palmata can be eaten raw, roasted, fried, dried, or roasted, or as a thickening agent for soups.

 
CONSTITUENT
Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, calcium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, lutein, manganese, magnesium, niacin, phosphorous, potassium, riboflavin, selenium, silicon, sodium, tin, vitamin C, zeaxanthin, and zinc.

PARTS USES
The entire plant, dried and cut.

TYPICAL PREPARATIONS
Added to food in the form of dried flakes or powder for a slightly salty flavor, can be drunk as a tea. Also suitable as an extract or capsule.

SUMMARY
Palmaria palmata is an excellent source of phytochemicals and minerals, and a superior source of iodine.
 
PRECAUTIONS
Don’t overdue, and avoid it entirely if you suffer hyperthyroidism. You only need a few flakes, or as little as a quarter-teaspoon a day, to get your mineral needs, and it is best to get your minerals from a variety of whole food and whole herb sources. Don’t use on a daily basis for more than 2 weeks at a time, taking a 2 week break before using again. This will prevent you from overdosing iodine with potential imbalance in thyroid function. For periodic use only and not to be taken for extended periods of time. Not to be used while pregnant.
For educational purposes only.
CCRES ALGAE TEAM 
part of 
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources



This information has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
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World’s Algae Technology Group

 

CCRES

In smaller countries, like Croatia, where oil demand is low, and emission standards are poor, algae biofuel has the potential to significantly reduce reliance on foreign oil. CCRES ALGAE TEAM part of Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES) works on Biodiesel from Microalgae, Fish Food and Protein for the food industry.

Sustainable GreenTechnologies
Green algae are low maintenance, easy to grow and very abundant aqueous life forms that use sun light energy to perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a biological process which produces biomass  (sugars or oils), oxygen and the high-energy molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. All biomass, whether it is sugars or oils, is convertible into bio-fuels, most commonly bio-ethanol and bio-diesel.

Circle CorporationBiodiesel and Ethanol
We have developed algae biodiesel production and algae oil harvesting systems and equipment that properly function for growing algae and harvesting the algae in a very efficient manner for use in algae biofuels such as biodiesel from algae and algae ethanol. We have a patented dredge head which is self-clearing so that human labor is not necessary for operation of a single dredge. Now one operator can run several dredges at the same time. 

Algae Technology Ventures
Algae Technology Ventures offers algae strains, a commercial inoculator photobioreactor for the algae production industry, colleges and universities, and custom-designed closed-loop photobioreators and turnkey algae production facilities.  We also provide cost-effective project management consulting services to the algae industry. 

Bard Holding Inc. Algae.Future. Now.
BARD has developed a unique patent-pending modular system to cultivate algae in a closed-loop, sustainable process. BARD is bringing its know-how to the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetics, chemical, construction, manufacturing, human and animal feed industries. Working closely with leading-edge technology companies, BARD is also poised to enter the rapidly emerging biofuels market.

Cellena PhotosyntheticProduction System
Cellana’s core technology is a photosynthetic production system that economically grows proprietary algae strains at a commercial-scale. The patented production system, called ALDUO™ technology, is unique in that it couples closed-culture photobioreactors with open ponds in a two-stage process. Previous attempts at scaling up algae production have used a photobioreactor or open pond individually, not coupled. 
Algae.Tec Ltd
Algae crude to transport fuel technology. Algae.Tec is a globally focused advanced algae-to-biofuels company. Algae.Tec is commercialising an enclosed modular high-yield algae-to-biofuels growth system to produce fuel for transport. The fuel is designed to be a  drop-in replacement solution that is cost competitive, and contributes to energy security. The Algae.Tec photo bio-reactors produce high-value sustainable fuels such as biodiesel and jet fuel.
Algae Production Systems
Algae Production Systems has selected a specific methodology to be applied to each of the three steps in the process of producing algae oil, which are 1) grow algae 2) harvest the algae and 3) extract the Oil and biomass. The manner and order in which our process functions is, in some cases, a unique departure from the way in which algae has been grown, harvested and oil extracted in laboratory environments. 

MBD Energy
Direct capture Algal Synthesis significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions by recycling waste CO2, SO2 and NOx to create biofuels and nutrition that would otherwise be sourced from more carbon intensive sources such as crude oil and other fossil fuels.
As a source of low-cost nutrition, Algal Synthesisers can help avoid land clearing and take pressure off farmlands. Used as feed, algal meal results in lower methane emissions from ruminant animals than from livestock grazing on grasses alone.

Origin Oil
OriginOil has proven a system called Single Step Extraction™ that is chemical-free, low-energy, high-flow and low-cost.And Single Step Extraction does more than dewater: it can rupture tough algae cell walls to free up oils and other valuable cellular components that downstream processes can separate out. Finally, we’ve combined Single Step Extraction with an efficient concentration step to achieve a concentrate with up to 10% algae solids.

Algenol Biofuels
Algenol is a global, industrial biotechnology company that is commercializing its patented algae technology platform for production of ethanol and green chemicals. Our patented DIRECT TO ETHANOL® technology enables the production of ethanol for less than $1.00 per gallon using sunlight, carbon dioxide and saltwater and targets commercial production of 6,000 gallons of ethanol per acre per year.

Aurora Algae
Aurora leads the world in the development of high-tech farming; a concept necessary and well timed to catapult us into a new era of innovation. Biochemists and engineers at Aurora have spent years focusing on the technology and science of growing algae. With more than a dozen patents filed on our science, and more than another dozen on our engineering innovations, we have developed processes that are truly revolutionizing farming as we know it.

Solazyme
Biotechnology that Creates Renewable Oils from Microalgae. Solazyme couples proprietary strains of algae with standard industrial biotechnology; converting what the earth produces naturally into what society needs most – oil. Solazyme’s proprietary biotechnology platform creates renewable oils by harnessing microalgae’s prolific oil production capabilities. Through world-class molecular biology and chemical engineering capabilities, we’re able to cost-effectively produce high-value tailored oils.
Sapphire Energy
Sapphire Energy, Inc., one of the world leaders in algae-based green crude oil production, today announced it has secured $144 million in a Series C investment funding. The Series C backers include Arrowpoint Partners, Monsanto, and other undisclosed investors.  All major Series B investors have participated. With this investment round, Sapphire Energy’s total funding from private and public sources substantially exceeds $300 million. 

Live Fuels
LiveFuels is developing an integrated approach to growing, harvesting and processing algal biomass into fuels and other valuable co-products. Our solution uses the productivity of natural aquatic life to fundamentally resolve challenges of cost, risk and scalability. While many algae-to-biofuels companies grow monocultures of algae within expensive enclosures, LiveFuels grows a robust mix of native algae species in low-cost, open-water systems.

Heliae Algae
Heliae’s algae technology package is made for co-location near big, unwanted waste streams. Our technology cost-effectively converts industrial CO2, wastewater nutrients and free sunlight into drop-in, infrastructure-compatible transportation fuels, food, and renewable chemicals. We help fuel a world in need of affordable, clean, conflict-free energy. And, we help feed a hungry world in need of affordable protein that does not exacerbate climate change or further deplete our imperiled oceans.

Bioprocess Algae
BioProcess Algae LLC designs, manufactures, and operates integrated systems to support bioreactor operations and dewatering efforts. Current demonstration activities are supported by commercial scale modular systems that include Grower Harvester™ cultivators, flue gas tie-ins and fully automated operational support such as pH and temperature control, CO2 and nutrient delivery, CIP capability, dewatering and water reuse.

eCO2capture
The ECO2Capture™ Technologies improve the mass transfer of a gas (for example, CO2) into a liquid media (for example, water). The liquid media is distributed across the membrane through the Hybrid-Flow-Controlling-Header (HFCF). The HFCF is designed to allow for an even distribution of the liquid media across the faces of the membrane at the right flow, pressure, and temperature to ensure maximum mass transfer.

HDS International
HDS International (HDSI) is a green technology company providing renewable energy and eco-sustainability solutions. We provide carbon capture and sequestration solutions, as well as industrial, all natural open-water algae biomass production solutions for green energy purposes, including anaerobic digestion and biofuels, as well as for the development of bioproducts and carbon elimination. Our licensed technologies provide us with an attractive strategic position and competitive advantages within our markets.

Kent Bioenergy
Today, Kent BioEnergy has emerged as an industry leader in the development of advanced concepts for culturing and harvesting microalgae – single-celled aquatic plants. With the combination of our solid applied research foundation and extensive practical experience, the company remains focused on producing competitively priced solutions for a wide range of industrial needs from pollution control to renewable energy.

Open Algae
OpenAlgae specializes in serving algae growers with continuous, solvent-free oil and biomass recovery via cost-effective concentration, lysing and oil extraction technologies. Just as oilfield service providers evolved to support oil production processes between the wellheads and the refineries, so too has OpenAlgae evolved to support algae growers in the next-generation biofuel industry.
Solix Biofuels
Solix’s Lumian™ Algae Growth System (AGS™) is a high productivity, reliable algae cultivation photobioreactor system which includes Solix’s proprietary Lumian panels.  Solix’s Lumian panels are designed to maximize light penetration and efficient mixing of CO2 for optimized algae growth. The Lumian AGS4000 is a 4000 liter high productivity AGS ideally suited for the outdoor evaluation of algae species.

Copyright The entire content included in this site, including but not limited to text, graphics or code is copyrighted as a collective work under the United States and other copyright laws, and is the property of The CCRES Inc. © 2010-2013 HRVATSKI CENTAR OBNOVLJIVIH IZVORA ENERGIJE ®. Sva prava pridržana .
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The Pentagon, the largest U.S. consumer of fuel goes green

Last month U.S. Army Energy Initiatives Task Force (AEITF) issued a draft request for proposals (Draft RFP) renewable energy contracts.
 
What’s on offer? Over the next decade, an impressive $7 billion. During the AEITF’s pre-solicitation phase, the Draft RFP is designed to gather information from potential bidders to assist the AEITF to develop a formal Request for Proposal (RFP) that it intends to issue later this year.
 
The United States Armed Forces, which currently fuels 77 percent of its machinery with petroleum-based fuel, has announced an aggressive goal, to be petroleum free by 2040. The Air Force intends to use biofuels for 50 percent of its domestic aviation needs by 2016.

A 2011 Pew Charitable Trusts report, “From Barracks to the Battlefield: Clean Energy Innovation and America’s Armed Forces” reported that Department of Defense clean energy investments increased 300 percent between 2006 and 2009 – from $400 million to $1.2 billion – and are projected at $10 billion annually by 2030, adding that that by 2015, the Pentagon will be spending $2.25 billion each year to harness clean energy technologies for air, land and sea vehicles.

Driving the Pentagon’s green drive is Executive Order 13423, which mandates that the Department of Defense achieve a 30 percent reduction in non-tactical fleet fossil fuel use by 2020.

A second key piece of legislation driving the Pentagon’s mandate is the Renewable Fuel Standard, which Congress enacted in 2005 as part of the Energy Policy Act, amending it in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The amended standard mandated that by 2022 the consumption volume of the renewable fuels should consist of: 15 billion gallons of conventional biofuels, mainly corn-grain ethanol; 1 billion gallons of biomass-based diesel fuel; 4 billion gallons of advanced renewable biofuels, other than ethanol derived from cornstarch, that achieve a life-cycle greenhouse gas threshold of at least 50 percent; and 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels produced from wood, grasses, or non-edible plant parts, such as corn stalks and wheat straw.

The draft AEITF RFP marks the beginning of the AEITF’s plan to develop a large, coordinated procurement process for renewables. The AEITF’s new program was developed in response to a National Defense Authorization Act that requires Department of Defense facilities to derive at least 25 percent of the electricity they consume from renewable energy by 2025, and a Department of Defense “Net Zero Energy” initiative, which challenges DOD installations to produce more energy than they consume, with emphasis on the use of renewable energy and alternative fuels.

So, what is holding back the production of commercially viable amounts of biofuels? Key barriers to achieving the renewable fuel mandate are the high cost of producing biofuels compared with petroleum-based fuels uncertainties in future biofuel markets, a lack of subsidies and crop insurance, along with a shortage of significant investment.

These factors have combined to produce a “perfect storm” up to now for biofuel producers, resulting in “designer fuels” of high cost for Pentagon testing.

To give but one example.

In October 2010 the Navy purchased 20,055 gallons of algae biofuel at an eye-watering cost of $424/gallon.  Nevertheless, the contract was one of the biggest U.S. purchases of a non-corn ethanol biofuel up to that time. A year later, the Navy reportedly spent $12 million for 450,000 gallons of biofuel. The bad news was that the biofuel’s cost worked out to around $26.67 per gallon, roughly six times the current cost of traditional gas.

The good news?  In a single year, the cost per gallon of biofuel plummeted by a factor of 15.9.

Furthermore, $7 billion in funding is likely to prove a significant game changer in the field.

So, where does this leave the investor? No single biofuel source, from jatropha, algae or camelina has yet to emerge as the clear winner, though the last seems most likely to emerge as the frontrunner. Accordingly, investors must do their homework and seek out potential winners.

For those wishing to broaden their portfolios, two websites will prove of immense value.

The first is http://www.usa.gov, the federal government’s website for the U.S. government, where one can come to grips with federal legislation and Pentagon initiatives.

The second is Jim Lane’s http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/, the self-proclaimed “world’s most widely read biofuels daily.” While the site has an element of tub-thumping boosterism, it nevertheless remains an immensely valuable source of information about the biofuel market and the major players.

It is important to remember how different the biofuels picture is now from even a year ago. The Pentagon, the largest U.S. consumer of fuel, is now under pressure to meet the various federal mandates, and careers and promotions hang in the balance.

 CCRES special thanks to 
John C.K. Daly ,
U.S.-Central Asia Biofuels Ltd

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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CCRES – ALGAE BIOFUELS AND AQUAPONICS

 

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 
(CCRES)
 
Algae, the Source of Biofuels, and Aquaponics
Algae can be used as important types of biomass materials from which the biofuels can be obtained. Algae absorb the energy from the sun in the presence of carbon dioxide and store it. A number of processes can be carried out on algae to convert it into biofuels like alcohol, biodiesel and even biogas. The biodiesel obtained from algae can be mixed with petroleum diesel and it can be used for running of trucks, cars and many types of engines that use diesel. Biodiesel can also be used as the fuel in the jets, airplanes, refineries and pipelines. The biomass obtained from algae can be used as the renewable sources of energy since it is available in abundant quantities and will be available for unlimited period of time.
One of the important advantages of algae is that it can grow in any type of water like salt, fresh, and even contaminated water. It can be grown in vast sea and river water, small rain water ponds and even commercial or domestic manmade made ponds. Algae has the potential to yield 30 times more energy than the crops grown on land, which are currently being used to produce the biofuels. This could encourage the use of algae for producing biofuels instead of the land that can be used for producing food crops. The harvesting cycle of algae is 1 to 10 days, which permits several harvests in short period of time and using the resources more effectively.

Algae and Aquaponics
As described earlier, algae can be grown in any type of water and in type of water storage system. Besides the naturally occurring seas, rivers, and ponds, it can also grow in manmade ponds. The manmade ponds can be at homes for domestic purpose or in large lands made for commercial production of algae. For the better growth of algae some nutrients may be added to water. Besides using these ponds for algae growth they can also be used for the growth of fishes and other aquatic animals.
Aquaponics is the system where one can grow the fishes and plants like algae in one integrated system. The waste given by the fishes act as important nutrients for the plants, while the cover of plants provides the natural filter for the fishes in the living areas. Aquaponics is the combination of words aquaculture and hydroponics. Aquaculture is the cultivation of fish or other water based animals, while hydroponics is the growth of plants in water. In aquaponics one can grow the water animals as well the plants at the same time. Thus the manmade small or big pond can be effectively used for growing fishes as well plants like algae.
The plants usually prefer warm-water so the water in aquaponics is also warm. The fishes grown in aquaponics are of warm-water type and not of cold-water type. The fishes grown in aquaponics can be consumed by the owner, they can be given to the friend, can be sold in the market to earn money or they can be kept as the pets. The harvesting period of fishes ranges from 7 to 9 months. When aquaponics is combined with a controlled environment greenhouse, high quality crops can be grown throughout the year and in any part of the world.
Aquaponics comprises of the water tank where the fishes are raised and fed. There is a chamber, where the uneaten foods and other particles and solids are collected. The bio-filter converts ammonia into nitrates, which act as the nutrients for the plants. There is also a portion for the growth of the plants. The lowest part of tank is a sump from where fresh water is supplied to the tank and old water is removed.
The concept of aquaponics can be extended for the growth of algae. Instead of the plants, one can grow algae, which has the harvest cycle of one to ten days. At the same time the fishes can also be grown. In the period of about nine months, while the fishes will harvest once, algae will be harvested several times. The large quantities of algae collected this way can be used as the biomass for producing the biofuels like biodiesel.
The advantages of using aquaponics for the growth of algae is that in a single place harvesting of both, the algae as well as fishes can be done. This would increase the profitability for the owner if they already have aquaculture or hydroponics. While earlier they would get only a single product from the infrastructure, they could now get two products. Since harvesting time of algae is short, it would keep the owner busy and this could become a continuous source of income for them.
The major limitations of aquaponics are the high initial costs required for housing, tank, plumbing, pumps and bedding. One should also do thorough research for the chances of success of such project. The system also has number of points of failure and requires intensive maintenance.
CCRES 
special thanks to   
Escapeartist, Inc
 CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 
(CCRES)
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The CCRES Algae Production Module

 

CCRES Algae
The CCRES Algae Production Module will begin with an overview of photosynthesis and the carbon cycle, the taxonomy of algae and the basics of cell biology.
Safety in the lab, OSHA compliance and the process of experimental methodology are also included in the curriculum. Students will learn about algae growth factors such as temperature, light, CO2and nutrients.
 The different kinds of photobioreactor designs will be explored, including closed vs. open systems.  Students will learn about the importance of cultivation protocols, and when to feed, harvest and how to process the algae.
 Analytics will be covered as well which includes the use of the microscope and learning about the basic algae handling and testing procedures such as dilution, cell counting and dry weight measurment.
The various uses of algae will be examined such as its role in the nutraceutical, food, cosmetic and animal feed industries and as a replacement for petroleum as a transportation fuel.
CCRES ALGAE PROJECT
part of 
CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)
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