Yearly Archives: 2011

The Background of Nishikigoi Born

The Background of Nishikigoi Born  There are so few literature existed about Nishikigoi breeding, it is however in the back of year A.D. 720 only Nihonsyoki stated that Keikou tennnou (Emperor)saw Nishikigoi in the Kukuriyano miya pond and also Suiko tennnou (Emperor) year of A.D. 620 that he saw the Nishikigoi swimming in the Pond of Sogano Umeko’s pond on the Garden as well.
1) Geographical environment
In the age of no road is well prepared for mass transportation the ship is utilized as one of the way to carry mass volume goods.
It is understood that the river running southern Niigata Prefecture Uono gawa river,for instance,also it is utilized for carring daily life goods and also it includes local products and fishes for commercial bases.
One of local town and city who has historiography museum, where you will be able to see ancient fishing tools and farming tools so that they tell some kind of trade among towns and cities in local district.
It is told also in the winter ship is useless so the river should have been crowded to carry / to pass the winter goods and salmon fishing vessel before comming winter/snow seasons.
Under these environments river fishes are treated as fresh fish and also sold as processed food to the other local region.
The origin of Nishikigoi,Yamakoshi hamlet is deeper snowy place in mountain area where faces to Kita Uonuma county and snow pile up to over five(5) meters,one one(1)meter or more snow falling over a night is often experienced.
In January the snow month,communication often disconnected even with adjacent villages.
The Nishikigoi for food is a valuable source of Protein under these severe meteorogical conditions and they are kept in a farming pond in the summer time for building seeds of Nishikigoi.
It is also so called TANADA (Terraced Paddy Fields) breeding, this way keep continuing from ancient time and from the year around 1970 the pond was converted to breeding pond for adjustment on the rice productions policy,it is thought the rice terrace breeding will be continued until such time the rice farming policy is changed.
The kind of fish is rich in Uono Gawa river which being start flowing Mt. Tanigawa dake summit in boarder of Gunnma and Niigata prefecture.
The quality of water is fine and just fit for breeding so the Nishikigoi captured is further developped and trade activities followed before snow falling.
The Koi for food is MAGOI and three different kind and the ASAGI MAGOI is majority in this region then TETSUMAGOI and DOROMAGOI can not be seen.
In this category,the relation with MAGOI is deeper and evolution from ASAGI MAGOI has longer history, by mutation in latter Edo era AOI KOI was born and this leads to ASAGI Koi.
BY way of Jyu Ni Daira Gawa river the origin of Uono Gawa river start flow and TETSUMAGOI carried to Yamakoshi hamlet wuth HI GOI products a key of born the KOHAKU.
It is referred to us that the word origin of UONO being AINU word of 500 ponds and it means the place with many ponds.
The era of war in Japan, Nitta Yoshisada changed the name to IONUMA and in the MEIJI era the district on Kita Uonuma ,Minami Uonuma and Naka Uonuma gunn were consolidated and governed as one.
The area in this region testifys the existence of many ponds such name as Wanagashima,Aosima,and Shimojima and local name that conveys word/name of island (Shima) and surrounding on them piling up of soil makes farming land and they lead living people around in longer history.
The stratums on the Uono Gawa vicinity is much of gravel so the ASAGI Koi conveyed by Uonuma fits to Yamakoshi county’s stratums and his quality of water and moreover it is said that the changement of the color tone is essential matter to live the fish having a factor to have imperfect protection color for which gives effectiveness on Nishikigoi’s born.

2) The history of Nishiki Goi.
The Nishikigoi ASAGI carried into Yamakoshi hamlet by Uonuma district being strange kind in this region and it was told that wealthy farmer wanted but due to clay quality of water the residual Blue color on the back close to white with no color is most of them which is quite differ from remaining on Uonuma district.
Due to this, ASAGI Koi tend to be breed together with KOI for food, it is however this leads accidental happening to born Nishikigoi.
The TETSUMAGOI was breeding for food in the farming pond in Yamakoshi hamlet,the HIGOI happened to born by close relation crossbreeding and being treated as present on a happy events.
It is however,around end of Edo era year 1818-1829 red color with white body among white colored MIZU ASAGI and HIGOI were emerged.
Based upon this ,ancestor of a kind of KOHAKU born in MEIJI era but on year 1830-1843 emerged NIshikigoi with half red color on the head and also red color around a mouth.
On year 1874-1875, Beni Hakusyu (variety) based light rouge type was emerged and it was dispersed locally.
On year 1899, Mr. Kunizou Hiroi, Yamakoshi Higasiyama village developed and fixed the kind,and its family is distributed in the local district,also improvement was carried and finally KOHAKU was completed.
And, moreover some activities were carried between KOHAKU and Koi with Aka Kuro pattern by close relation crossbreeding,and TAISYOU SANSYOKU,Taisyou era year 1917 and also KUROKO ,RAN GI were born which leaded the kind of Koi now a day.
On the way to improve the kind for the Nishikigoi,the German Koi accelerated its activities much. Fourty fishes with AISYU GURTEN kind were presented by Dr. Buruno Hopha of Fish Disease Laboratory in Munich Germany to Mr. Shinnnosuke Matsubara of Fishery Training Chef and they were given to Nagano prefecture mainly to improvement on KOi for food.
Of the two, Mr. Kichigorou Akiyama in Fukagawa Tokyo did crossbreeding it with ASAGI and got DOITSU(German)ASAGI this is called SYUU SUI and also by crossbreeding among SYUU SUI,KOHAKU and Taisyou SANSYOKU goes via decade of generation the KAGAMI UROKO and TAISYOU SANN SYOKU on the DOITSU KOHAKUwere developped.
The unique on the DOITSU (German) is that it has the strong heredity and being relayed to its type the KAGAMI UROKO, KAWAGOI with no scale and also so called WAGOI and its intermidiate type of YOROI GOI for which there are three types.
Whichever the body shape is contrast from WARINN and they are brought up for keeping superior body shape with efficient feeding developed for which the DOITSUGOI was essential KOI indeed and moreover All Japan Nishikigoi Promotion Association takes a role to supervise the Nishikigoi exhibition under the indipendent division.
Talking to the NISHIKIGOI after year 1945,the development on OUGON,KIN GINN RINN and its fixing of type is essential and can not be aside.
On year 1947, the new one with OUGON GOI features the chest fin/gold leaf was developped by Mr. Sawata Aoki,Yamakoshi Takezawa village(now Nagaoka city).
The show up of this Golden colored Koi gave astonishiment to breeder in Yamakoshi hamlet/village,it is however,evolution were advanced rapidly in 50 years.
The blood having golden colored Nishikigoi has now 26 varieties and the one who produced/developed could be memorized forever.
Also, person who did the settlement on gold and silver scale to promote Nishikigoi as splendid and elegantly would need recording in the history.
In year 1965, the Nishikigoi that has scales with gold colors and silver which have not have over neck thru tail was developed by Mr. Uedera.
Many of breeders have introduced Silver Scale,and made crossbreeding with KOHAKU, TAISYOU SANSYOKU,SYOWA SANSYOKU and further crossbreeding with golden system would accelerate evolution.
The activities on Nishikigoi to improve stands by settlement of a kind, introduction of German Koi to get Goldengoi and also settlement of Gold Silver scale,the history stands also by its application on them.
The kind tells that biological stand point,like as HIKARI MUJI system,all the child fishes born by the same mother Koi should have the same character classification, but in Nishikigoi world a kind classification is the name of heredity expression and it is not saying by a kind determination.
Presently,there are 82 different kind of Nishikigoi and breeders are pursuing splendid and elegent expression’s.
All Japan Nishikigoi Promotion Association has over 16 countries with about 70 professional members ,the Nishikigoi as Japan Nationa fishes being exported over 40 countries and we expect the Nishikigoi takes a role as visitor’s with peace mission over the world keeping good communication among peoples.

3) Nishikigoi Competitive Exhibition and its significance
The said competitive Exhibition was opened in order to exhibit the products by breeders in back year 1912,it was opened at elementary school at Kawaguchi town,Kita Uonuma Gunn in Niigata prefecture,in year 1914,Nishikigoi were exhibited in Tokyo as Taisyou Exhibition for which it is told us it is the first Nishikigoi exhibition in Japan wide.
By the trigger on the exhibition,breeding associations were establishied in Higashi Murayama, Takezawa Mura, and Ohta Mura village for which they run the exhibition yearly bases in turn.
It is also told that some of local activities such time that harvesting crops in autumn open small sized competitive exhibition.
It is thought after activities were took place any breeders could participate freely to such exhibition so the Nishikigoi breeding activities were spread over Niigata prefecture.
The Nishikigoi competition was not took place during war,but in order to make reconstruction many of local did the exhibition in parallel with reconstruction activities.
The first competitive exhibition in Niigata prefecture took place on year 1962, the Nagaoka city is one of frequent and the competition now count for 53rd as of year 2006.
The city who opened Nishikigoi Competitive Exhibition so far ranked Nagaoka city,Yamakoshi village (now Nagaoka city),and Kawaguchi town who runs 45 times and for Hiroshima prefecture with 42 times.
The exhibition runs prefecture bases so the breeder get together to demonstrate their products and have a meeting opportunities to information exchange.
As the other association, Zen Nippon sougou Nishikigoi competition by Zen Nippon Rinn Yuukai and also Zen Nippon Ai Rin Kai competition are also run so the Nishikigoi is now dispatching Japan national fishes with terminology of Nishikigoi are all Japanese word.
The competitive exhibition now opens frequently in overseas with Nishikigoi exported from Japan and also born oversea locally and got higher level of appreciation.

Author: Mr. Satoru Hoshino

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CCRES AQUAPONICS promotion association

CCRES AQUAPONICS promotion association


Tedori Fishland
Hinago Yogyojo
Shinohara Nisikigoi



海港錦鯉企業集團 Harbour Koi Group
Koi san Europe
Thai Nippon Fish Farm
Mungkorn intercorpration

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42nd All Japan Combined Koi Show by CCRES AQUAPONICS



42nd All Japan Combined Koi Show(2011)


90bu Kohaku

Kris Kasemsarn (Thailand)

Parent M Kohaku
handling by Thai Nippon Fish Farm


70bu Sanke

Didi Wikara (Indonesia)

Parent  Hiryu
handling by Samurai Koi Center

40bu Kohaku

Edy Yonathan (Indonesia)

handling by Narita Koi Farm
Samurai Koi Center

Kokugyo Prize
85bu Kohaku

David&Kelvin (Singapore)
Parent  Miss Japan
March, 2007 Auction koi
handling by Narita Koi Farm
Max Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
80bu Kohaku

Mitsuzo Kaneko (Nagano)

Parent  Yamato
handling by Nagashima Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
70bu Kohaku

譚 永権 (China)

Parent  Zipangu
handling by Narita Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
65bu Sanke

P&T (Thailand)

Parent Hiryu
December, 2010 Auction koi
handling by Narita Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
65bu Male Kohaku

Saburo Iizuka

handling by Narita Koi Farm

Kokugyo Prize
60bu Kohaku

Tadashi Nakanishi
Parent Yamato
March, 2010 Auction koi
handling by Yasuai Gyoen

Kokugyo Prize
25bu Sanke

Mr Fujimoto (Aichi)

handling by Narita Koi Farm

Sakura Prize
Best in Variety
85bu Hikari Utsuri

Jonkie Budiman (Indonesia)

December, 2008 Auction koi
handling by Samurai Koi Center

Best in Variety
85bu Sanke

Jitsuro Takagi (Fukuoka)

Parent Rainbow
October, 2007 Auction koi
handling by Narita Koi Farm

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Zoohigijena u ribnjaku i prevencija bolesti

Zoohigijena u ribnjaku i prevencija bolesti

Svrha čišćenja i dezinfekcije u ribnjačarstvima je održavati zbroj čimbenika koji opterećuju vodu, uključujući i uzroke bolesti na što nižoj razini. Ribe su u prirodnom okolišu stalno pod utjecajem bakterija, virusa, gljivica i parazita. Biološka ravnoteža postoji sve dok u riba ne prevladaju stresna stanja uzrokovana negativnim čimbenicima okoliša. Gubitci zbog nastale bolesti traju toliko dugo dok opterećenje ne oslabi ili smanjena riblja populacija ne prekine infekcijski lanac.

Čišćenje zemljanih bazena ribnjaka ponajprije se odnosi na mulj na dnu ribnjaka. Preporučuje se svakih 3 – 5 godina ljetno ili zimsko isušivanje ribnjaka uz prozračivanje i izmrzavanje dna. Pritom mulj gubi vodu i na površini ispuca pukotinama u obliku mozaika. Ako se tada obavi vapnjenje sljedeće sezone na dnu ribnjaka oblikuje se sloj biološki djelatnog mulja od nekoliko centimetara. Ako ovu agrikulturnu mjeru zanemarimo kroz 15 – 20 godina, nužno je vađenje mulja jer se dno ne može više isušiti. Doza za dezinfekciju dna šaranskih ribnjaka je 0,1 kg/m² (1 t/ha ), a kod pojave zaraznih bolesti za završnu dezinfekciju doza je i do 1 kg/m². Nakon vapnjenja ribnjak se puni vodom i u roku 2 – 3 tjedna dolazi do prirodne neutralizacije. Ribnjak se može poribiti kada se pH vrijednost vode stabilizira ispod 8,5.
„Ljetno vapnjenje“ ribnjaka u borbi sa algama obalja se u razmaku 2 – 3 tjedna sa dozom 50 – 200 kg/ha rasipanjem vapna po površini vode.
Posebna pažnja treba se obratiti na površinu dna gdje se nalaze hranilišta. Višak nepojedene hrane može vrenjem razviti otrovne količine amonijaka, nitrita i sumporovodika uz posljedični manjak kisika u vodi.

Osim dezinfekcije ribnjaka posebnu pažnju u prevenciji bolesti treba obratiti na redovitu dezinfekciju ribolovnog pribora i mreža te transportnih sredstava i bazena.

Odsjek HZPSS-a Osiječko-baranjske županije
Boris Župan, dr. vet. med., stručni savjetnik za ribarstvo

Boris Župan
dr. vet. med.


dio projekta


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Plan poribljavanja ribnjaka za sportski ribolov

Plan poribljavanja ribnjaka za sportski ribolov

Za donošenje godišnjeg plana poribljavanja vlasnik treba kontinuirano pratiti stanje u ribnjaku.

Potrebno je voditi evidenciju o:

  • kvaliteti vode,
  • vrsti i veličini riba koje se izlovljavaju,
  • pojavi bolesti i eventualnim uginućima.

Na osnovi procjene ribolovne vode i njenih mogućnosti odabiru se glavne i dopunske vrste za poribljavanje.

Kao glavna ciprinidna vrsta odabire se šaran (Cyprinus carpio), a od predatornih vrsta smuđ (Stizostedion lucioperca) i štuka (Esox lucius). Od dopunskih vrsta preferiraju se biljojedne ribe bijeli amur (Ctenopharingodon idella) te bijeli tolstolobik (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) i sivi tolstolobik (Aristichthis nobilis) koji su prirodni melioratori. Kao hrana grabežljivim vrstama riba služe manje zanimljive vrste kao što su babuška, bodorka, uklija i druga bijela riba.

Za određivanje količine ribe za poribljavanje možemo se služiti prosječnim podacima za poribljavanje za takvu vrstu vode (Adamek Z.,1995.)




Šaran 297,0
Linjak 63,7
Štuka 84,3
Smuđ 105,4

Količina biljojednih vrsta je 10 – 15% u odnosu na šarana, a količina bijele ribe mora zadovoljiti hranidbene potrebe predatornih vrsta.

Budući da na ribnjaku nije predviđena prihrana (izuzevši hranu koja služi za primamljivanje i mamce) i s obzirom na namjenu, a to je isključivo sportski ribolov, moguće je izvršiti i gušći nasad ribe. To se preporuča samo kada to dozvoljavaju fizikalno – kemijski parametri vode i kada je intenzitet izlova veći.

Uzimajući u obzir tržište slatkovodne ribe ponuda je veća u proljeće i jesen, a tada su i cijene povoljnije (pratiti tržište ribe – TISUP).

Prvo poribljavanje treba obaviti u proljeće prije nastupa lovostaja u otvorenim vodotocima za određene vrste. Drugo poribljavanje obavlja se u jesen, no poribljavanje se može obaviti i više puta godišnje kako bi se povećala atraktivnost ribolovne vode.

Kod samog poribljavanja potrebno je obratiti pozornost na izjednačavanje temperature vode u transportnim bazenima i temperature vode u ribnjaku kako bi se izbjegao stres i naknadna uginuća. Riba se iz bazena najčešće ispušta putem lijevaka. Na taj način često dolazi do mehaničkog oštećenja i ozljeđivanja. Riba ne smije padati na obalu ili u plićak, već u vodu minimalne dubine 1m. Ako to dozvoljava količina ribe najoptimalnije bi bilo prenošenje do vode u kantama (kiblama).

Svaku pošiljku ribe treba pratiti Svjedodžba o zdravstvenom stanju životinja. Ribu za poribljavanje treba nabavljati isključivo sa ribnjaka koji redovito prate zdravstveno stanje (prema naređenim mjerama iz Zakona o veterinarstvu) kako bi se izbjeglo prenošenje bolesti i moguća uginuća.

Odsjek HZPSS-a Osiječko-baranjske županije
Boris Župan, dr. vet. med., stručni savjetnik za ribarstvo
Boris Župan, dr. vet. med.


dio projekta

Hrvatskog Centra Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)

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Kemijski parametri kvalitete vode za uzgoj slatkovodne ribe

Kemijski parametri kvalitete vode za uzgoj slatkovodne ribe

Prije planiranja gradnje objekta za uzgoj slatkovodne ribe, treba izmjeriti količinu dotoka vode i parametre kvalitete vode po mjesecima u različitim godinama uključujući sušnu i vlažnu godinu.

Toplovodne ribe (šaran, linjak i dr.) uzgajamo u ribnjacima s temperaturom vode tijekom ljeta iznad 20°C. Riba se uzgaja u ribnjacima s bogatim sadržajem organskih tvari, koje na dnu ribnjaka stvaraju produktivni sloj mulja.

Hladnovodne ribe (pastrva) uzgajaju sa u vodi temperature 10 do 17°C. Temperatura vode ljeti ne smije prelaziti 20°C. Voda mora biti bistra, dobro obogaćena kisikom a siromašna organskim tvarima s tvrdim i nezamuljenim dnom.

Količina dostupne vode i njezina kvaliteta je presudni parametar, kada odlučujemo o vrsti ribe koju ćemo uzgajati.

Kisik je osnovni element, bez kojeg riba ne može živjeti. Unosi se u vodu iz atmosferskog zraka i asimilacijom biljaka i biljnog planktona. Sadržaj otopljenog kisika omogućava ribama disanje, probavu hranidbu, razvoj, reprodukciju i dobro zdravstveno stanje. Sadržaj otopljenog kisika u vodi mijenja se sa temperaturom vode (Antalfi Antal i Tölg Istvan) do gornjih granica, kako je navedeno u tabeli:

Temperatura vode C°
Kisik mg/l

Što je voda hladnija mogućnost otapanja kisika je veća. Topljivost plinova u vodi ovisi o parcijalnom tlaku zraka i smanjuje se pri padu tlaka i porastu temperature. Potreba za kisikom ovisi od vrste ribe. Smuđ treba 2 do 3 mg kisika/l a šaran i linjak mogu podnijeti 0,7 mg/l . U zimskom razdoblju, kada ribe vegetiraju i sve životne funkcije su svedene na minimum, mogu podnijeti za jednu noć i 0.5 mg/l kisika. Za razvoj ikre i ličinke ribe trebaju najmanje 5 mg/l kisika.

Tijekom transporta ribe iz boca napunjenih kisikom pomoću uređaja za kisik dobivaju potreban sadržaj kisika. Ako transportiramo ribu bez dodatka kisika, riba ugiba brže ili sporije ovisno od duljine transporta i količine ribe.

Tijekom ljetnih mjeseci u šaranskim ribnjacima unosom dodatne hrane povećava se organska tvar u vodi. Gnojidbom se intenzivno razvija biljni i životinjski plankton. U lipnju, srpnju i kolovozu u ranim jutarnjim satima (4 do 7 h ujutro) najčešći je nedostatak kisika. Riba pliva usporeno, gubi ravnotežu, zijeva, ubrzano diše, gura usta iz vode i čuje se šum kao da pada kiša po površini vode. Riba nastoji na taj način nadoknaditi manjak kisika i ako stanje potraje duže vrijeme, riba masovno ugiba. Odmah treba osigurati dotok svježe vode u ribnjak, uključiti aerator (ako ga ima u ribnjaku), izmjeriti sadržaj kisika, voziti se čamcem po ribnjaku, uključiti pumpu za vodu da raspršuje vodu po površini ribnjaka. Riba ne reagira na lupanje i kretanje ljudi po nasipu, nego zijeva i može se loviti iz čamca rukom. Kada se riba povuče u dubinu vode, razbacujemo po površini vode ribnjaka gašeno vapno u prahu prema rezultatima analize vode. Vapno se ne smije razbacivati, ako su ribe na površini, jer će to izazvati oštećenje sluznice i škrga riba, te uginuće. Za ovakvo ponašanje ribe, kažemo da riba ” puši” a povezano je sa raspadanjem prevelikog broja modrozelenih algi. Voda je zelene boje i kaže se da voda “cvijeta”.

Tijekom zimskih mjeseci može također doći do nedostatka kisika, ako je ribnjak predugo zaleđen. Ugljični doksid, sumporovodik, amonijak metan i drugi plinovi se nakupljaju u vodi pod ledom. Na površini leda pravimo “okna ” dužine 2m i metar širine, dužom stranom okrenuta u smjeru vjetra, kako bi se površina prirodno proširivala. Snijeg na ledu onemogućava ulazak sunčeve svjetlosti i proces asimilacije je smanjen. U zimskim mjesecima, kada se ljudi mogu kretati po ledu “okna” se održavaju svakodnevno a zbog sigurnosti kretanja ljudi, rubove treba obilježiti granama. Sadržaj otopljenog kisika možemo izmjeriti kemijskom analizom po Winklerovoj metodi, za što nam je potrebna oprema i kemijski reagensi. Najjednostavnija je upotreba aparata za mjerenje kisika.

Ph reakcija vode za uzgoj ribe optimalna je u granicama 7 do 8. Mjeri se orijentacijski pomoću Ph trake ili točnije Ph metrima (; Ako je Ph reakcija veća od 9 postoji opasnost za pastrve kao i kod nižeg Ph od 4. Šaran ne podnosi Ph veći od 10,5 i ne manji od 4,5.

Sadržaj ugljičnog dioksida u vodi nastaje disanjemriba, bakterija, planktonaa dijelom dolazi i iz atmosferskog zraka. Biljke ga troše u procesu asimilacije. Tijekom zimskih mjeseci ribe se mogu pojaviti na “oknima”, što može biti znak nestašice kisika ali i viška karbonatne kiselina, koja nastaje vezanjem ugljičnog dioksida sa vodom.

Sadržaj organske tvari ili KMNO4 test pokazuje stanje organske tvar u vodi. U proljeće kada se voda zagrijava, pojačava se razvoj planktona. Sadržaj organske tvari je u granicama 10 do 20 mg/l. Nakon gnojidbe ribnjaka organska tvar povećava se i do 60 mg/l. Vode sa većim sadržajem od 100 mg/l, smatraju se otpadnim vodama.

Kvalitetu vode za uzgoj ribe određuje također sadržaj amonijaka, nitrita sadržaj vapna, željeza dušika i fosfora.

Uspješan uzgoj ribe uz postizanje dobrog prirasta i bez gubitaka zahtjeva stalno praćenje kemijske kvalitete vode i vođenje evidencije. Mali uzgajivači ribe mogu u slučaju nenormalnog ponašanja ribe i promjene kvalitete vode donijeti vodu na analizu u laboratorije:

  1. Veterinarski fakultet, Zavod za animalnu zoohigijenu, okoliš i ekologiju, Heinzlova 55, Zagreb, telefon 01 23 90 293;
  2. Agronomski fakultet, Zavod za ribarstvo, pčelarstvo i specijalnu zoologiju, Svetošimunska 25, Zagreb, 01 23 93 860.

Vodu za analizu uzimamo u ranim jutarnjim satima u čistu bocu od 1l. Oprezno je napunimo do vrha bez stvaranja mjehurića zraka. Uzorak vode treba dostaviti u roku dva sata u ovlaštenu instituciju za analizu vode.

Odsjek HZPSS-a Bjelovarsko-bilogorske županije
mr. sc. Marija Kuhinek, stručni savjetnik

mr. sc. Marija Kuhinek


dio projekta

Hrvatskog Centra Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)

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Proizvodnja konzumne ribe u šaranskim ribnjacima



Proizvodnja konzumne ribe u šaranskim ribnjacima

Proizvodnja konzumne ribe u šaranskim ribnjacima

Prema podacima Državnog zavoda za statistiku u 2006. u šaranskim ribnjacima proizvedeno je 3202 tone konzumne ribe na 6229 ha. U strukturi proizvedene ribe učešće šarana je 72%, som i smuđ 1,05%, bijeli amur sa 12,08%, te ostale vrste riba sa 14,8%.

Konzumna riba proizvodi se u ribnjacima za uzgoj konzumne ribe ili u tovilištima. To je najjednostavnija proizvodnja. Veličina ribnjaka varira od 1 do 160 ha sa prosječnom dubinom 1,2 do 1,5 m. Površine pod konzumnim ribom zauzimaju najviše površina na pojedinom ribnjačarstvu (70 do 80 % ). Obiteljska gospodarstva na malim površinama najčešće uzgajaju konzumnu ribu. Proizvodnja konzumne ribe može biti od 500 do 2300 kg ha‾¹, što ovisi od boniteta ribnjaka, gustoće nasada, vrsta i težinskih kategorija nasađene mlađi, te ekonomičnosti proizvodnje i potražnje ribe na tržištu.

Konzumna ribe proizvodi se u:

  1. Dvogodišnjem ili
  2. Trogodišnjem pogonu.

Dvogodišnji sustav uzgoja traje dvije kalendarske godine, dakle od mrijesta do proizvedene konzumne ribe prođu dvije godine. Gustoća nasada je 1000 do 1500 kom ha‾ ¹ jednogodišnje mlađi, koja na kraju druge uzgojne godine postiže prosječnu težinu 1,0 do 1,5 kg.

Trogodišnji sustav uzgoja traje tri kalendarske godine. Jednogodišnji mlađ se uzgaja kao dvogodišnji mlađ, koji tek na kraju treće kalendarske godine postiže završnu težinu veću od 2 kg.

Prema intenzitetu uzgoja uzgoj ribe može biti :

  1. ekstenzivan
  2. poluintenzivan
  3. intenzivan

Ekstenzivan sustav uzgoja bazira se isključivo na produkciji prirodne hrane.U poluintenzivnom sustavu riba se nasađuje gušće i uz prirodnu hranu, koja se stimulira gnojidbom prema analizi vode, dodaju se ugljikohidratna krmiva ( kukuruz, pšenica, ječam, raž ).Intenzivan uzgoj se provodi sa gustim nasadom a prirodna hrana je zanemariva, te je hranidba bazirana na izbalansiranim kompletnim smjesama.

Proizvodnja konzumne ribe na našim ribnjačarstvima najčešće je poluintenzivnog tipa.

Ribe za proizvodnju konzumne ribe nasađujemo u:

  1. monokulturi
  2. polikulturi.

Radi boljeg iskorištenja proizvodnog potencijala ribnjaka ribe se nasađuju u polikulturi. Kombinacijom raznih vrsta i težinskih kategorija iste vrste riba prema raspoloživoj količini i vrsti prirodne hrane, treba paziti da nema međusobne konkurencije i negativnog utjecaja na prirast glavne ribe tj.šarana. Uzgojem riba u monokulturi ne koriste se svi potencijali ribnjaka i rijetko se koristi.

Šaran (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758 ) je glavna konzumna riba u našim ribnjacima i hrani se sa zooplanktonom, bentosom i dodatnom hranom- žitaricama.

Biljojedne ribe, kao dopunske vrste ribe, uspješno su aklimatizirane u našim klimatskim uvjetima, ali ne mogu se razmnožavati prirodnim putem, već umjetnim mrijestom. Omogućavaju iskorištenje prirodne hrane ribnjaka, koja samo uzgojem šarana u monokulturi ostaje neiskoristiva, tako da povećavaju ukupnu proizvodnju ribe po hektaru.

Bijeli amur ( Ctenopharyngodon idella,Valenciennes ) hrani se višim vodenim biljem, korijenjem trske i dijelovima trulih panjeva. U nedostatku biljne hrane amur konzumira zrno žitarica, pojavljuje se masna degeneracija jetre i dolazi do uginuća. Ako je biljna masa u ribnjaku nedostatna, preporuča se dodavanje nakošene biljne mase pomoću plivajućih hranilica.

Bijeli glavaš (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Valenciennes) smanjuje količinu fitoplanktona, te se smatra čistačem, jer poboljšava higijenske uvjete u vodi ribnjaka i povećava sadržaj otopljenog kisika u vodi. Ne utječe negativno na prirast šarana.

Sivi glavaš ( Aristichthys nobilis, Richardson ) pomoću škržnog aparata filtrira vodu, i nasađuje se zbog negativnog utjecaja na prirast šarana najviše do 30%.Koristi također i dodatnu hranu ( žitarice) i podiže hranidbeni koeficijent.

Linjak ( Tinca tinca, L.) nasađuje se u ribnjacima sa manjom gustoćom šarana i gdje je intenzitet proizvodnje manji. Hrani se sa zooplanktonom i bentosom, tako da je konkurent šaranu. Dobro uspijeva u ribnjacima zaraslim sa barskim i močvarnim biljkama, među kojima žive razne vodene životinje kojima se linjak hrani.

Grabežljive ribe nasađuju se u ograničenim količinama, jer uz korovske vrste riba hrane se i plemenitim vrstama , te mogu nastati veliki komadni gubici kod plemenitih vrsta riba. Najčešće se uzgajaju: som, smuđ, štuka. U nedostatku drugih vrsta riba česta je i pojava kanibalizma, tj. veći primjerci jedu manje unutar iste vrste.

« Divlja riba» ( karas, babuška, deverika, crvenperka, karašić, balavac, sunčanica i dr.) je nepoželjna u prozvodnji konzumne ribe, jer prenosi bolesti, male je ekonomske vrijednosti, povećava hranidbeni koeficijent, slabog je prirasta i negativno utječe na ukupnu proizvodnju ribe.

Prije nasađivanja ribnjaka treba:

1. pripremiti ribnjak za proizvodnju ( isušivanje dna ribnjaka, mehanička obrada tla kad je to moguće, premrzavanje, vapnjenje, prema potrebi izmuljivanje dna ribnjaka, uništiti zaostalu divlju ribu, pripremiti rešetke odgovarajućih profila, koje sprečavaju ulazak divlje ribe na napustu ribnjaka)

2. nasaditi ribnjak ( utvrđivanje broja komada temeljem prosječne težine i ukupne količine ribe, obaviti eventualne ljekovite kupke prema preporuci veterinara)

3. izvršiti kontrolu nasađivanja( iza nasađivanja obilazimo ribnjak radi utvrđivanja uginulih riba o čemu tijekom cijele godine treba voditi evidenciju. Nasađivanje je obavljeno uspješno, ako nema uginuća i ribe se kreću prirodnim pokretima. Ako riba pliva uz obalu neprirodnim pokretima i zijeva znači da smo ribu oštetili prilikom nepravilnog transporta i istovara.

Proizvodnja ribe se kontrolira tijekom cijelog vegetativnog razdoblja pokusnim ribolovima svakih 15 dana od početka svibnja do konca rujna. Riba se lovi sačmaricom na hranidbenim mjestima, vaganjem se utvrđuje prosječna težina i prirast, kondicija, količina utrošene dodatne hrane, te zdravstveno stanje ribe i stanje planktona u ribnjaku. Riba se počinje hraniti kada se temperatura vode trajno poveća iznad 12ºC, tako da se riba tijekom kalendarske godine u našim klimatskim uvjetima uzgaja od travnja do konca listopada.

Utrošak hrane za kg prirasta je od 2,0 do 3,5 i jedina je stočarska proizvodnja, koja bjelančevine, vitamine i minerale koristi iz produktivnog sloja mulja ribnjaka preko planktona, bentosa i vodenog bilja.

Ribnjak se lovi ispuštanjem vode do kraja u jesenskim mjesecima od listopada do konca studenog i u proljeće od veljače do konca ožujka ili travnja ovisno od vremenskih prilika. Radi snabdijevanja tržišta ribom tijekom ljetnih mjeseci na visokoj vodi « ljetnim odlovom» riba se lovi mrežama mamljenjem na hranu. Prakticira se također i ljetni izlov ribe ispuštanjem vode do kraja.

Nakon izlova riba se skladišti u zimnjacima sa stalnim dotokom svježe vode, gdje se riba odmori i očisti probavni trakt od hrane, kako bi se moglo lakše s njom manipulirati na tržište. Izlovljeni ribnjak se ponovo nasađuje mlađem veličine 3 do 5 cm, koji do kraja uzgojne sezone postaje jednogodišnji mlađ, tako da u jednom ribnjaku ostvarujemo « dvije žetve « godišnje.
mr. sc. Marija Kuhinek

Hrvatskog Centra Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)

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Treatment of Nitrite Toxicity – CCRES AQUAPONICS

Why do some fish remain hardy and almost bullet-proof and others die at the slightest disruption to their routine?
We have a fish well suited to Aquaponics called the Murray Cod that has the reputation of being the sort of fish that dies at the most inopportune time in backyard aquaponics systems.

Many people avoid stocking this fine eating fish in systems for that very reason.
Not all fish are the same and some fish are finally tuned specimens that are unable to tolerate the ups and down of wild pH swings and sudden surges in biological activity in recirculated aquaponics systems.

The Murray Cod is one such specimen. Having said that, experienced aquaponics enthusiasts who monitor the chemistry of their water regularly have successfully grown Murray Cod right out to maturity without problem. Its a fine dining fish but there are some guidelines to growing these fish successfully out.
So how do you get the best of health out of your fish? What are the aquaponic secrets the pros use to grow their fish well?

Murray Cod

Nitrite Toxicity

New aquaponic system are more prone to the shock of a spike in ammonia especially if the beneficial bacteria have not had a chance to establish themselves. These natural occurring bacteria commonly need a few weeks for the system to cycle before your fish are introduced. The Ammonia spike is closely followed by a Nitrite spike which most fish can tolerate in low dosage.
However Nitrite toxicity is not limited to just new systems. Over feeding of fish and allowing the feed to settle to the bottom of the tank can result in a secondary surge resulting in sudden shocks to the well being of the fish. The plants will do just fine and keep growing. But the fish might be affected and start to die.

Nitrogen Cycle

A sudden surge in Nitrite can also occur in anaerobic grow beds.
The media in the lower layers is too dense with fish muck. Aerobic bacteria (the oxygen loving kind) is unable to colonize this segment and a meaner strain of bacteria able to live in stagnant no oxygen conditions begins to thrive. Like an engine in reverse this strain of bacteria begins to break the muck converting the Nitrate (the good stuff that plants like to eat) back to Nitrite.

Nitrite toxicity is also known as Brown Blood disease. The blood in the fish turns brown because it cannot absorb the oxygen into the blood stream. The fish are weakened and begin to suffer. Stressed fish struggle to keep alive by frantic gill movement, loss of balance and frantic effort to suck more oxygen into their system by gulping on the surface of the water.

The Danger SignsHealthy fish are sprightly and dart around the tank at speed when startled. Fish that exhibit Nitrite toxicity will be sluggish and exhibit some of these tell tale signs.

  • Rapid gill movement
  • Fish begin to gasp for air at the water surface
  • Fish stay limp and listless near water outlets
  • Tan or brown gills
A healthy aquaponics system shows no Nitrite activity (blue)

Fish that have been exposed to low levels of Nitrite for prolonged periods of time will eventually deteriorate in condition as secondary diseases begin to make an appearance. Fin rot, ich and bacterial infections suddenly occur resulting in a spiral string of sudden fish deaths.

Monitoring your system

Try and keep your aquaponic system clean of uneaten food stuff floating at the bottom of the tank. Make sure you have enough bio-filtration (grow beds) to strip impurities out of the water when recirculating the water. The water should never look foamy and cloudy. Make sure your pump is sufficient in size and capable of turning over the water in the fish tank at least four or five times per hour in volume capacity. Make sure you regularly test the water for Nitrite. Testing for Nitrite is very simple. A $40 dollar API Master test kit will supply all the equipment necessary to conduct the test. Five drops of Nitrite test solution in a vial of fish water will instantly tell you the condition of your water by the colour. A healthy system will turn blue. A bright scarlet colour spells trouble ahead.

So how do we combat this problem and what are the solutions we can employ to grow healthy fish?

In an emergency situation, partial water changes will eliminate the Nitrite – after you’ve eliminated any food found at the bottom of the tank. The addition of salt has a beneficial influence on the fish and will reduce the influence of the Nitrite to strip oxygen from the blood cells. Increase the aeration going to the fish. If necessary an extra aerator with plenty of air bubbling in the water will help keep the fish alive.

Treatment of Nitrite Toxicity
  • Change the Water
  • Add salt
  • Stop Feeding
  • Remove uneaten food.
  • Clean the tank
  • Increase aeration

Keeping your system clean and not overfeeding your fish will generally keep your system running fine and healthy. Regular small feeds throughout the day are preferable to sudden large feeds. Fish sometimes go off their feed for a day or two. Thats okay and nothing to be concerned about. Remove uneaten food. Observe the general tone and condition of your fish.More info at


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Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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Many people keep koi fish in ponds or tanks, but only some can easily identify the types of Koi that are swimming around in them. In this video, we show 38 different types of Koi, including some rare varieties. Use this video to help you learn how to identify Koi when you see them.

Koi types included in this video:
Shiro Utsuri
Hi Utsuri
Ki Utsuri
Kin Shiro Utsuri
Platinum Ogon
Ai Goromo
Budo Goromo
Sumi Goromo
Yamato Nishiki
Doitsu Hariwake
Gin Matsuba
Aka Matsuba
Ochiba Shigure
Beni Kumonryu
Beni Kin Kikokuryu
Kabuto Ogon
Aka Haijiro
Cha Utsuri
Tancho Goromo
Tancho Goshiki
Tancho Kohaku
Tancho Sanke
Tancho Showa
Tancho Yamato Nishiki

Varieties that are missing from this video:
Ki Matsuba
Bekko Varieties
Orenji Ogon

More info at:

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Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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Aquaponics Case Studies

Case Studies

The Able Project, Wakefield


The ABLE project provides an outdoor learning facility for young people whose needs are not met in mainstream education as well as community service participants. The ABLE project combines areas of willow coppice, with a wood chip biomass boiler, a recirculation aquaculture system growing tilapia, carp, sturgeon and catfish, out door vegetable plots, an orchard, beehives, a BMX track and aquaponics greenhouses to provide an interdiscipli nary learning environment catering for a wide variety of interests.

Aquaponics UK designed, supplied, helped build, and commissioned the aquaponics greenhouse systems as well as providing training and continued support.

The Old Mills Project, Elgin


The Old Mills project is designed to produce between 10 15 tonnes of tilapia a year as well as consistent year round production from 600m2 of climate controlled aq uaponics greenhouses.

The site itself includes a water mill that dates back to 1010AD and in the 1200’s was owned by Macbeth. The watermill will be central to the projects aims towards sustainability producing electricity from the three lades that flow through the site, to power pumps and supple mentary lighting.

Learning, employment opportunities and training will be core values of the project as a whole and the site will also include a farm shop, a visitor center and function as a participatory resource for the local community and visitors alike.

Urban Aquaponics, Shoreham


Aquaponics UK, designed an urban aquaponics system for a household in Shoreham Sussex, the system is de signed to incorporate their requirements for fresh herbs, salad crops and duck’s eggs as well as fish for ornamen tal purposes.

The system is also intended to provide a learning re source for afterschool clubs and classes as well as dem onstrating sustainable urban food production.

Commercial trial system, Colchester


A trial system growing oriental herbs and tilapia is being used as a proof of concept for a larger commercial system which will when operational, supply high value London restaurants through the Low Hub food distribution chain.

The Able Project, Heckmonwike


Aquaponics UK has been working with the ABLE project and a Sustainable Aquaculture MSc student from the University of Stirling to develop a proposal for the integration of aquaponics into the redevelopment of a brown field site. The project would create community assets, recycle local green wastes, providing training and employment and sustainably produce food for local consumers.

Sanford Housing Coop, New Cross, London


Aquaponics UK are advising members of the Sanford housing cooperative on adopting aquaponics to meet the salad and fresh herb requirements of the 130 strong community.

The buildings on site are currently being heated by biomass boilers and solar thermal systems and aquaponics is seen as a further way in which the community can lower their footprint and produce more of their own food.

Aquaponics in schools with the ABLE project.


Aquaponics UK hosted an Erasmus student from the Basque country for three months alongside an MSc student from Stirling. During this time, the students worked with staff from both the ABLE project, ABLE to Build and Aquaponics UK to develop a number of small scale demonstration systems and helped install them in a variety of schools, colleges and offices across Yorkshire under the ABLE Aquaponics scheme.

Over the same period we also collectively promoted aquaponics at the 2009 Harrogate Flower Show and received a great deal of interest from schools, community projects, garden designers and growing enthusiasts alike.

Aquaponics at Stirling University


Aquaponics UK designed and supplied a low energy lighting system for the research greenhouses and their use in bumble bee research. The installation of a variety of aquaponic systems around the institute of aquaculture is in it’s planning phase.

The installations will provide both intriguing and captivating learning resources and the will be used to demonstrate how the architectural and design elements of aquaponics can be combined with hard science, to provide diverse and highly productive food growing systems for all involved.

The institute of Aquaculture at Stirling and more specifically the Systems Research Group, has been an extremely valuable pool of knowledge, ideas, contacts and has been instrumental in the establishment of Aquaponics UK.

Charlie Price from Aquaponics UK has also been working through the Institute with CEFAS to provide information to the growing UK tilapia industry both on aquaponics and renewable energy systems, and in Oct09 will give a presentation to key stakeholders including representatives from DEFRA on the role aquaponics can play in the future of our collective food supplies.

Birmingham Regeneration Plan, CAT

Aquaponics UK has been advising a sustainable architecture student on a visionary proposal for the redevelopment of an industrial site in Birmingham. The proposal includes the reuse of industrial buildings into food production systems and the site being made into a functional and aesthetically pleasing space for the communities involved. The student is working with the Center for Alternative Technology in Wales and the project is in the preliminary design and concept stage.


Aquaponics in Afghanistan


We are currently supporting an initiative in Afghanistan, being coordinated by US marines based in the Helmand province. The initiative is aimed at providing aquaponics resources for training local villagers and school children and is ultimately viewed as a viable high value alternative to opium production.

Aquaponics UK provided free equipment to the project with the support of Hydrogarden and Oase, as well as continued support to ensure the project reaches its full potential. A demonstration farm incorporating aquaponics is planned in Lashkar Gar with the support of USAID. Aquaponics UK, along with a variety of stakeholders, will work together to ensure methodologies are adopted appropriately and to the direct benefit of the Afghan people.

WOTR, India


Aquaponics UK are working with “Pathways to Empowerment” within the WOTR project programme. Huge problems exist in many of India’s rural communities in which the WOTR work, due to a variety of issues ranging from soil infertility to the over extraction of ground water resulting in, amongst other things, poorer livelihoods for the farming communities and some alarming suicide rates (183,000 in the last 15 years).

WOTR have implemented 728 watershed projects, in 996 villages and impacting on the lives of 740,000 people across India. We are currently in the early stages of helping to design a variety of systems for a demonstration farm at the WOTR center.

Baobab Farm, The Haller Foundation, Kenya


One of our newest staff members, Rebecca Bainbridge, is working with the Haller Foundation at Baobab Farm. Rebecca, under a scholarship from Aquaponics UK, will work with staff from the Baobab Farm from Sept-Dec 09 to develop household scaled aquaponics systems suitable for sub Saharan applications.

The Baobab farm is based in an old quarry and provides a unique demonstration farm exhibiting integration on many levels and providing a training facility for local farmers. We will keep you informed of Becky’s progress on the website in the coming months.

Aquaponics In Uganda

We are working with an organisations in Uganda to develop a commercial scale aquaponics farm producing tomatoes and around 5 tonnes of tilapia per year.

The system is designed to act as a demonstration and training facility as well as exhibiting the commercially viable nature of aquaponics in areas where soil fertility and water scarcity are an issue.

University of the Virgin Islands, USA


The University of the Virgin Islands was the first academic institution to conduct prolonged and detailed research in the field of aquaponics. UVI has a proven track record and runs yearly short courses in Aquaponics and green water systems.

The founder and director of Aquaponics UK, Charlie Price, spent some time at UVI back in 2006 and also completed their short course. Over the coming few years Aquaponics UK through the Institute of Aquaculture at Stirling, aims to develop research projects with UVI to develop our knowledge base further.

Katho University, Belgium

Aquaponics UK have been helping advise staff at Katho University of the setting up of a small scale trial system growing salad crops and tilapia. The system is intended as a first step towards developing educational aquaponics within the university. Progress is ongoing.

These are just some of our recent and current projects, and are listed in order to give you an idea of the range of applications and work that we do. There are numerous other people and projects to which we provide information and advice, and in time we aim to provide detailed information on the case studies in order from us all to learn from each other experiences, to share ideas and to collectively move things forward.

More info :


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Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

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