Monthly Archives: September 2011

Pond Temperature for KOI Fish

Pond Temperature

One thing that often concerns koi keepers, although it really shouldn’t, is the wild temperature swings that can affect a fish pond during spring each year. Many keepers of koi and goldfish worry about the water temperature, thinking their koi will be harmed by the sudden change from cold water to warm water and back again that is so typical of these seasons.

Yet, there really is little need to worry. Koi are surprisingly hardy fish, which is why they are so popular for our fish ponds. Another reason not to worry too much is because water temperature doesn’t experience the same wild swings that the air outside will feel. Water temperature fluctuates a lot more slowly than the air does, and so if you are faced with a quick cold snap during spring, the chances are the water in your fish pond won’t drop to the same extremes.

If you are still worried, you can buy a fish pond thermometer to keep track of the cold water temperature for you. The main concern with water temperature changes, particularly a change from warm water to cold water, is that the koi and goldfish’s eating habits will change.

As water temperatures get colder, koi and goldfish will eat less, so you need to be careful when you feed them. If you give your goldfish too much food during a cold snap, it simply won’t be eaten at all, and then you could have problems of water contamination which can cause much bigger problems than pond water temperature swings.

Koi are actually quite tough when it comes to handling cold water temperatures, but less so when it comes to living in a polluted fish pond.

Controlling Fish Pond Water Temperature

If you are concerned about water temperature swings, you can install a heater to help combat any erratic warm water to cold water fluctuations. A small, 100 watt electric pond heater will reduce temperature changes in a fish pond. Don’t expect such a heater to increase water temperature in cold weather. See it rather as a mechanism to slow down cooling rather than heating which means overnight temperature drops will be less severe.

Water Temperature Swings and Feeding

During cold water temperatures, your koi’s metabolism slows down, so they will eat less. They will also be less active, meaning that they digest less of the food that they do eat, so you need to be careful of this. The reason is that less food they digest, the more waste they will excrete. This waste can build up if you’re not careful, making the fish pond water dangerously toxic for your goldfish. For this reason, it’s best to give them food that is low in protein during colder water temperatures.

Koi’s growth potential is much more limited in cold water than in warm water. Protein is the key component that spurs growth in koi, which is why during summer, when they are swimming in warm water, they should eat food that is high in protein, to maximize growth. But in winter, in cold water, the koi will not utilize this protein, and instead it will simply exit the gold fish as a waste product, dirtying the fish pond water. This by-product protein takes the form of ammonia (NH3), something that your filter can have a big problem dealing with. It also contributes to very poor water quality, so it really is essential not to feed your koi food that is high in protein when the water temperature is cold.More info at :


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Aquaponic garden by CCRES AQUAPONICS

Aquaponic garden


If you are thinking of setting up your own Aquaponic System but are still not very aware of what is involved, here are some things which should help with the basic requirements.

The first thing you will need to know about this system is that it combines the principles of aquaculture with those of hydroponic gardening, resulting in a new and highly effective way of growing plants and fish at the same time. With a tank of no more than 20 square feet and some netted pots you will be able to grow enough plants to supply your entire family with fresh organic food and even give some away or sell it at your local produce market or farmer’s market if you choose.

Because this system relies heavily on fish (they are the ones providing the food for the plants), you will need to take good care of them in order for the system to give proper results. This means that you will need to make sure that the water has the appropriate temperature, PH level and light, as well as the necessary amount of oxygen to accommodate the fish and keep them in good condition. Basically, monitoring the water and feeding the fish is all you have to do in order to grow plants in an Aquaponic garden. It’s quite simple and the results are spectacular.

The great thing about this type of gardening is that you will not need to bend, stoop or dig in the dirt to take care of the plants. Placing the fish tank and the netting pots at waist level will make all activities you need to do in order to take care of the plants and fish easy as a children’s game. You can say goodbye to digging, bending and stretching, and crawling on your knees to take the weeds out of the ground. You will have everything you need within arms reach.

The Aquaponic System is suitable for almost any age as well as for people with all levels of activity. It requires little time and it gives great results. As long as you take good care of your fish your plants will grow bigger and bigger, will develop normally and at the end, you will harvest the best veggies you have ever tasted!More info at:


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The Aquaponics System is easy to set up

The Aquaponics System is easy to set up


With all the scam business plans and systems promising to solve all of your problems with minimum effort and investment, putting your hopes into another completely new activity can seem a bit unreasonable to many people. Some people are simply less willing to try new things out of the fear of getting scammed. However, the new Aquaponic System truly is as simple and profitable as it seems!

Once you have tried Aquaponics you will never want to go to the grocery store again! But before that, here are just a few of the many reasons you should start your own mini Aquaponic farm.

  1. Aquaponics does not require a large amount of money or time, which basically means that you have almost nothing to lose. All you need is a few containers for the fish and the vegetables, an oxygenizer for the fish tank and another few materials to complete the building of the system All of which are relatively cheap. In addition, the time needed for maintenance is quite low – just a few minutes each day. You just have to feed the fish, put out the seeds, and then wait for them to grow so you can harvest your crops.
  2. The Aquaponics System is easy to set up and can be placed anywhere in your house or garage as long as you have enough light for the plants to develop normally and a reasonable temperature for both the plants and the fish. You can set it up yourself from beginning to end so there are no extra costs associated with installation.
  3. You can plant a wide variety of plants, which means that, with few exceptions, no matter what veggies you want for dinner you can harvest them on the spot from your Aquaponic garden, hassle free. The best thing is that they are all natural, organic plants which will taste better and be far cheaper than the ones from the market.
  4. Last, but not least, you will no longer have to pay a fortune for organic produce. You will have them all conveniently at hand without paying more each time oil price go up or some natural disaster takes out major suppliers. You will be independent financially and, because the system will pay for itself in about a year, the crops and the fish you get will be almost complete profit. You can use it for your own personal needs or you can even sell the crops locally and make some extra money. What could be better? You eat true organic foods that taste great and you get to make extra money as well.More info at:


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Organic food by CCRES


Organic food by CCRES


Nutrition is, naturally, very important for good health. Unfortunately, a large amount of the food found at the local grocery store is not all that healthy. Years ago fast-food was the new kid in town and everyone ate fresh food that was grown locally and prepared daily. Now that the fatty, highly processed foods have taken over the supermarkets and local stores it’s getting more and more difficult to find good quality food. Unfortunately, organic food, while it tastes better and is healthier, is generally more expensive and can be hard to find in some areas of the country. What is even more alarming is that the price of organic food grows significantly almost day by day and fewer people can afford to buy the fresh fruits and vegetables necessary for a balanced diet. If you are looking for an alternative and/or want to start growing your own vegetables and fish, Aquaponic farming system is tailor made for you.

Aquaponics’ principles are simple: you grow fish in a tank, proliferate the plant seeds, care for them during their development period and in less than one year harvest your own crops. It is as simple as it can be to get fresh veggies and herbs, as well as grow fish, and have a balanced diet with little money and almost no effort. It may sound unbelievable but this is the plain truth!

What is even better is that you can place your mini aquaponic farm wherever you want in your house. You can keep it hidden in your garage or you can make it the center of your living room and show it off to your friends and relatives. Anywhere you like where there is a little space and appropriate light you can put your small tank and veggies. The Aquaponics System will offer you total independence from ever-rising prices. You will be able to have whatever veggies you want without paying full market prices for inferior products.

This way not only will you save some money for the little pleasures of the life that you have always postponed, but you will also have fresh food on your table and will be able to offer your family a healthy, tasty meal. So, why spend lots of money and let others make fortunes on your behalf when you can have everything you need for your meal with Aquaponic farming? It has never been so easy!More info at :


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No more genetically modified vegetables

Have you ever thought that you can transform your garage in a greenhouse with a minimum investment and effort? If you love freshly harvested vegetables and love fish, then is high time that you did something for you and your family and the best thing you can do is offer them fresh ingredients for tasty and nourishing meals. Once you find out how, you will never be dependent on the market again! No more genetically modified vegetables, no more preservatives injected to maintain them fresh for a longer time, just organic, healthy food grown in your garage or inside your house.

The best thing about this type of farming is that it does not require any land, thus you will not have to get dirty and do hard labor in order to have your veggies on the table. You need just a lighted space where you can place this wonderful system made up of an aquarium and some other pots for growing vegetables. So, no ground, no dirt, no labor! You will be able to place it anywhere in the house, you can even start this type of farming in your flat!

But what it is this type of farming? Well it is called aquaponics and it is a far better version of hydroponics. If in hydroponics you could only grow plants, which most of the times needed fertilizers to grow normally, in aquaponics you will also grow fish and use their aquarium for feeding your plants. This way you will no longer need any type of fertilizer to make your veggies grow big and beautiful, as the fish will provide them with all the nutrients they need. In change, the plants will clean the water, thus providing your fish with a clean and oxygenized environment.

So, you will not only have organic vegetables grown in your own house, but you will also have fresh fish for your meals or for decoration (if you are a vegetarian). This is not all! You can put the system so that it will be at your arm’s reach, so that you will not have to bend in order to harvest your crops. Thus, less effort and more comfort for you!

Aquaponic farming is the best solution for having fresh vegetables and fish in the comfort of your home or even in your garage! It will take you a few minutes each day to take care of your plants! In addition you can have it with minimum of effort and money, so this is ne convenient way to diminish your costs with food! Do not waste more time and start your aquaponic farming as soon as possible for fresh veggies and tasty fish from your own home!More info at :


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Slatkovodne Ribe HCOIE

Carassius carassius Lat.

Obitelj ciprinida

Karas zbog masivnog tijela, lagano bočno spljoštenog i prekrivenog velikim ljuskama, sliči šaranu. No, za razliku od njega, tijelo mu je daleko kraće, rijetko je duži od 40 cm. Glava mu je relativno mala s dosta velikim očima i ustima usmjerenima prema gore, bez brkova. Peraje su oblih rubova. Tijelo mu je obojeno smeđe-maslinasto, uvijek tamnije po leđima, a svjetlije po bokovima. Trbuh mu je žućkast, peraje sive s izuzetkom analne i trbušne peraje koje su često crvenkaste.

Karas voli sve vode stajaćice, bogate vodenom vegetacijom i muljevita dna, ribnjake, jezerca, kanale, mrtve rukavce, rijeke jako sporog toka. Karas može odoljeti ekstremnim uvjetima kao što su prezasićenost i manjak otopljenog kisika ili znatno niski vodostaj. Mrijesti se uz obale obrasle travama.
Mrijest traje od svibnja do lipnja. Ženka oslobadja oko 300000 jajašca (ovisno o težini), koja se nakon oplodnje hvataju i grupiraju po stabljikama vodenog bilja. Nakon inkubacije od oko 7 dana mlađ ostaje na stabljkama još neko vrijeme.
Karas je svežder, hrani se zooplanktonom i drugim malim organizmima, ali i algama i životinjskim plijenom, crvima, ličinkama kukaca. Riba toplih voda, prvenstveno se hrani u ljetnom razdoblju, a zimu provodi letargičkom stanju .Lovimo ga udicom na kruh, crva ili glistu.

Patuljasti som, Cvergl, Bucov Ictalurus nebulosus Lat

Obitelj Ictaluridae
Patuljasti somić ima debelu i glatku kožu. Glava mu je široka i masivna, a završava velikim ustima s osam jako razvijenih brčića koji mu služe za pretraživanje hrane po dnu. Oči su male i bočno postavljene. Izbočena, uzdužna linija proteže se po bokovima. Leđna i prsna peraja imaju nazubljene i trnovite bodlje.
Obojenost, obično tamna, crna je na leđima, a svjetlija po bokovima s bakrenim odsjajima, postaje bijelo-žućkasta po trbuhu. Peraje su tamne. Patuljasti somić je podrijetlom iz Sjeverne Amerike gdje doseže značajnu veličinu i težinu od nekoliko kilograma. Kada je donesen u Europu, početkom 19. stoljeća, mislilo se dobiti slične primjerke, no na žalost to se nije dogodilo, jer u našim vodama rijetko prelazi 500 grama.
Patuljasti somić osobito voli mirne vode ili vode slabijeg toka, veća i manja jezera, bare, kanale, mrtvice. Živi na dnu, češće muljevitom ili prekrivenom bogatom vodenom vegetacijom, štiteći se od svjetla. Aktivnost mu je poglavito noćna.
Izuzetne izdržljivosti, podnosi značajni manjak kisika u vodi, a zna preživjeti i za vrijeme vrlo niskog vodostaja pod uvjetom da se može uvući u mulj. Sasvim se dobro osjeća u toplim vodama preko 20° C, no naglo mu zahlađenje zatvara tek. U hladnim vodama potpuno prekida prehranjivanje i zimu provodi u stanju poluletargije. Svežder i proždrljiv, patuljasti somić se zanima za sve što se može pojesti. Pored toga, posjeduje nerazmjerno razvijen želudac u odnosu na tijelo. Stoga sve prolazi kroz njegova velika usta: riblja jajašca, ličinke i raznovrsni kukci, mlađ i malene ribice, punoglavci, gliste, biljke… Polaganje jajašaca započinje u lipnju ili srpnju kada temperatura vode. Parovi očiste zonu na pješćanom dnu i tu izdube rupicu u obliku lijevka u koju ženka polaže otprilike 5.000 jajašaca koje mužjak odmah oplodi.
Mlađ ostaje u blizini gnijezda a zatim, tijekom nekoliko tjedana, pokrene se u obliku kompaktne kugle koja se rasprsne kada zaprijeti kakva opasnost. Najbolje ga je loviti, naravno na dnu, udicom s dužim vratom, jer je proždrljiv i proguta je vrlo duboko. Za mamac je najbolja glista, iako voli i kukuruz. Dobro ga je pripremiti paniranog u mješavini soli, mljevene paprike i brašna, te takvog baciti na vruče ulje. Naravno prethodno je dobro očistiti ga od iznutrica.

Mrena Barbus barbus – Lat

Obitelj Ciprinidae
Mrena ima mišičavo tijelo, vretenasta oblika, gotovo cilindričnog, savršeno prilagođnog plivanju u brzim i snažnim strujama. Prekrivena je ljuskama duboko zarinutim u tijelo i bogatom sluzi. Stoga se vrlo teško čisti. Snažna i zdepasta glava završava ustima s mesnatim usnamam a na gornjoj rastu četiri brka. Oči su malene. Zaobljenih leđa i ravnog trbuha, lijepo se može postaviti na dno. Repna joj je peraja jako nazubljena, a analna kratka. Okoštala velika zraka leđne peraje nazubljena je na kraju. Obojenost je od smeđo-zelene na leđima do zlatnih tonova po bokovima te žutkastih po trbuhu. Repne, analne i zdjelične peraje su joj narančaste. Mrena nastanjuje tekućice i duboke vode. Najdraža su joj staništa brzi tokovi rijeka , jer pružaju istovremeno i sklonište i prehranu, dna bogata šljunkom, velikim blokovima, glomaznim kamenjem, odlagališta, nosači mostova, podnožja vodopada, otočići, vodena vegetacija, protustruje, vrtlozi… Ta snažna brkata riba, kojoj neme ravna po snazi, vrhunska je plivačica, stalno se kreće, s izvanrednom lakoćom, između kamenja, hridi i šljunka, nadmeće se sa snažnim vodenim strujama, uz pomoć ustiju oblikovanih poput prijanjaljke hvata se za podlogu. Mrena je svežder, dobrog apetita. Neumorno rujući po dnu, može prevrnuti i veće kamenje u potrazi za dnevnim obrokom. Na njihovu žalost, i jajašca riba i mlađ su na njenu jelovniku. Ali i ličinke, kukci u svim fazama razvoja, školjke, rakovi slatkih voda, kao i alge, mahovine, crvi… Razmnožavanje se odvija u funkciji temperature vode, u svibnju-lipnju, katkada u srpnju, u gornjim tokovima rijeka. Polaganje jajašaca se odvija u plitkim zonama jako bogatim kisikom sa šlujnčanim ili kamenitim dnom. Ženka polaže od 3.000 do 8.000 jajašaca, vrlo otrovna, koje obično oplodi nekoliko mužjaka. Mlađ se pojavi 10 do 15 dana kasnije. Lovi se udicom na dnu, a mamac je crv, glista… Kadkad je dobar sir (podravac) i mesni narezak.

Pastrvski grgeč Micropterus salmoides – Lat

Obitelj Centrarchidae
Pastrvski grgeč ima produljeni i zdepast oblik. Glava mu je snažna, a oko veliko i izražajno. Donji čeljusni zub vidljivo strši nad gornjom čeljusti, a obje imaju brojne zube. Škržni je poklopac prekriven ljuskama i završava mekim vrhom. Leđna se peraja sastoji od dva različita susjedna dijela, prvi je kratak, nizak i dračav, a drugi nešto višlji. Zdjelične se peraje nalaze u okomici prsnih peraja, a analna peraja ima na početku tri dračave zrake.
Glede boja, leđa su mu zeleno-brončasta, a trbuh bijel. Bokovi maslinasto zelene boje sa srebranstim odsjajima tvore tamnu prugu koja ide od škrgnog poklopca do repne peraje. Pastrvski grgeč ne voli tekućice. Ako ga i ima u rijekama to je isključivo u najmirnijim zonama ili, iznimno, u sporim riječnim strujama(rijeka Drava). Zatvorene vodene površine su njegovo omiljeno stanište.
Sezona velikih aktivnosti za njega započinje točno nakon mriještenja, krajem svibnja ili početkom lipnja, a dostiže vrhunac usred ljeta. Pastrvski grgeč tada provodi sate nepomičan, potpuno kamufliran u vegetaciji, među lopočima koje, čini se, osobito voli. No drago mu je i drugo vodeno bilje, korijeni ili potopljeno granje.
U jesen se često mogu vidjeti jata pastrvskih grgeča u potrazi za hranom. Tada se kljukaju s mlađi radi prikupljanja zaliha energije kako bi lakše odoljeli hladnoćama zime koju inače provode blizu dna u poluletargičnom stanju. Mladi pastrvski grgeči žive u jatima i uglavnom se hrane plankotonom. Odrasli primjerci su grabežljivci. Oportunist, pastvrski grgeč može progutati odjednom sve što mu je dostupno. Sve ulazi u njegova velika usta: kukci i vodeni sisavci, male ribice, žabe, glodavci i ptičice.
Njegov veoma raznolik prehrambeni režim omogućuje mu prilagodbu bilo gdje pod uvjetom da goleme grabežljivice poput štuka i somova ne dominiraju zonom. Pastrvski grgeč razmnožava se tijekom proljeća kada temperatura vode dostigne 16 do 18° C.
Jednom kada su jaja oplođena, mužjak otjera ženku i odvažno čuva snesena jaja čija inkubacija traje 5 do 6 dana. Čuva zatim svoje mlade 2 do 3 tjedna, do njihova prvog zaveslaja perajama. Mladi će živjeti u jatu niz godina. Rast im je dosta brz, već na kraju prve godine dostignu dužinu od 12 do 15 cm. Samački će im biti završetak života. Lovi se umjetnim mamcem(vobler, manja žlica, meps…) ili mrtvom ribicom povlačenjem(špinanjem), živom ribicom na postavu… Meso je, po meni, jedno od ukusnijih u slatkovodnih riba. Priprema: očišćen, posoljen i nadjeven s malo slanine i bijelog luka, te kriškom limuna, ubačen u pećnicu biti će za prste polizat (ko ima). U prirodi je izuzetno dobar na rašljama.

ŠTUKA Esox lucius – Linné

Obitelj Esocidae


Vretenasto tijelo ovog velikog grabežljivca završava karakterističnom glavom, širokom i spljoštenom, u obliku pačjeg kljuna. Čeljust joj je opremljena s oko 700 zuba, nagnutih prema unutra. Oči, smještene na vrhu glave, omogućavaju joj široko vidno polje. Leđna peraja, položena na vrhu stražnjeg dijela tijela, služi joj za snažan zalet kad odluči napasti plijen!
Pore na glavi, smještene na obje donje čeljusti povezane s bočnom linijom, omogućuju štuki da osjeti i najmanju vibraciju s velike daljine.
Boje njezinog tijela pogodne su za savršenu kamuflažu: leđa, tamno zelene boje koja ide do crne, prošarana svjetlijim trakama, dok su bokovi zelenkasti, a trbuh bijel.

Stanište i ponašanje

Iako je možemo naći u skoro svim tipovima voda, od ušća do malih rijeka, štuka ipak najviše voli mirne vode, spore tekućice bogate vodenom vegetacijom i pune raznih prepreka, potopljenih stabala, nasutog kamenja, korijenja… gdje se ona može skrivati i proći nezapažena. Ona je samotnjak i oštro brani svoj teritorij protiv svih uljeza, čak i kad su njezine vrste.
Štuka se ne udaljava previše u potrazi za hranom. Ona je lovac u zasjedi, sposobna satima stajati nepomično, glave položene niže od ostatka tijela, jedva mičući trbušnom perajom. Kad je u vodoravnom položaju, nimalo agresivnog izgleda, to je znak da je probavljanje završeno. Ali kad joj je glava usmjerena prema gore, spremna je na skok i to je znak za opći bijeg ostalim ribama!

Način hranjenja

Odmah po rođenju, mlađ se hrani planktonom i ličinkama raznih kukaca. Brzo rastu, u samo šest tjedana dosegnu 6 do 8 cm. Nakon što dosegnu tu veličinu, zanima ih samo riba.
U pravilu, štuka napada samo bolesne, ranjene i spore ribe, ali kad se ukaže prilika, baca se i na žabe i glodavce!


Ovisno o regiji, štuka se razmnožava od veljače na jugu, do svibnja na sjeveru. Ženke biraju plitka mjesta, bogata travom gdje, čim voda dosegne 10-11°C, polažu oko 20 000 jaja koja mužjaci odmah oplođuju.
Jaja sazru desetak dana kasnije. Tijekom sljedećih desetak dana, novorođenčad, još bez usta, stoje zakačena jednim otvorom (sisaljkom) za podlogu. Kad taj period završi, mlađ se uspravlja i započinje plivati i loviti.

Lov štuke

Ovog predatora možemo loviti “špinanjem” varalice ili postavom žive ribice, pri čemu je obavezna sajlica.

Pečena štuka

Očistite, operite ribu i posolite je iznutra i izvana. Na dno tepsije poslažite tanke ploške slanine na koje položite štuku. U utrobu ribe također stavite nekoliko ploški slanine. Štuku lagano pecite i češće polijevajte tekućinom iz tepsije u kojoj se peče. Kada je pečena izvadite je na pladanj. Kao prilog priredite rižu ili prženi krumpir, te zelenu salatu. Dobar tek!

Chondrostoma nasus – Linnaeus, 1758

Obitelj Cyprinidae

Hrvatska imena: Podust, blatnjak (Molve), cipelar, condra, kaluđerka, morunaš, nostnica, oštroglav (Žirovac), patoc (Jasenovac), patuc (Vukovar), pisar, podmost, podovčest, podus, podusta, podustać, podustić, podustrijač, podustva, podvozt, podvust, podvusta, podvuštek, rajtar (Sisak), rijač (Kostajnica), rijać, rijnica, rujač, rujnica, škobalj, tintač(Drava, Bednja, Plitvica), tintar (Osijek), tintaš (Zagreb, Ozalj, Dobra), ugljevka
Englesko ime: Nase, Common Nase
Njemačko ime: Nase

Usta su donja, u obliku ravne poprečne pukotine. Donja usna je pokrivena “hrskavicom”.
Ždrijelni zubi: jednoredni, jako stisnuti s bokova, pa su u obliku noža. Ima ih 6-6, ali i 7-6 ili 6-5. Donja vilica se spaja sa lubanjom ispod sredine oka. Bočna pruga prati liniju trbušnog ruba tijela. Ljuske su relativno male, cikloidnog tipa. Leđna peraja počinje nešto ispred vertikale početka trbušnih peraja i ima obično 9 mekanih perajnih šipćica. Trbušne peraje gotovo dosežu do analnog otvora. Boja leđa varira od sivo-plave do sivo-zelene. Bočne strane su srebrne, a trbušna strana je bijela ili bijelo-žućkasta. Unutrašnjost trbušne šupljine je crna. Kod mužjaka se u vrijeme mrijesta javljaju epitelijalne kvrge.Bentička vrsta. Živi u plovama . Dolazi u svijetlim plitkim vodama sa brzom strujom vode, često pored virova koji nastaju zbog naslaga kod mostova ili stijena. Dolazi u gornjim ravnim dijelovima rijeka. Iako preferira tekućice, može doći i u jezerima. Od početka proljeća do kraja jeseni manji ogranci su neprestano u pokretu krećući se po dnu u potrazi za hranom. U tom periodu skupljaju se blizu zapreka u vodi, kao što su stupovi mostova, nakupine granja, korijenje rubnog drveća i sl. Tijekom zime ogranci se skupljaju u dubokim rupama, zaštićenim od jake struje, gdje provode slabu tjelesnu aktivnost ispod grebena. Hrani se obraštajem algi na kamenju, koji struže svojim oštrim, niskim ustima nalik na prorez, no jede i male rečiće, crve, ličinke kukaca, jaja drugih riba i sl. Mužjaci postaju spolno zreli sa 2-3 godine starosti, a ženke sa 3-4 godine starosti. Mrijest se odvija od ožujka do srpnja. Migriraju uzvodno i ulaze u male pritoke zbog mriještenja u plitkoj vodi na šljunku. Jaja su ljepljiva, tamno obojena i smještena su na kamenje na dnu. Jedna ženka može položiti do 100 000jaja. Mladi se izlježu nakon 2-3 tjedna. Nakon šest godina, što je pristojna starost za Poduste, naraste do 50 cm, a težina mu može biti i do 1,5 kg. Riba je koja živi uglavnom u regiji mladice, a nalazi se u prijelaznim vodama. Podust je glavna hrana mladici, pa u njegovom brojnom stanju znatno ovisi i brojno stanje mladice. Ima indikacija da je smanjeno brojno stanje mladice vezano za masovan izlov podusta posljednjih godina. Podust je vrlo osjetljiv na zagađene vode, pa se vrlo brzo povlači u slučaju istih.

Kod nas podust živi u vodama Dunavskog sliva, međutim, njegovo se područje u Europi proteže od sjevernog dijela Francuske i Nizozemske kroz srednji dio Njemačke do srednjeg dijela bivšeg SSSR-a, te do obale Kaspijskog i Crnog mora. U sjevernoj Španjolskoj i južnoj Francuskoj živi i jugozapadni europski podust (Chondrostoma polylepis), a u području sjeverne Italije podust (Chondrostoma soeta) koji može narasti do 45 cm u dužinu.

Pecanje podusta je aktivno i štap se uvijek drži u ruci, jer kontra mora biti brža i automatska, s obzirom da je je podust vrlo oprezna i plašljiva riba koja će izbaciti mamac iz usta čim joj se nešto učini sumnjivim. Zato najlon mora biti tanak, a udica mala. Umjesto čepa koristi se vrlo osjetljivo pero ili poseban plastični tanki plovak koji se dobro vidi i na kojem se može primijetiti i najmanji dodir ribe. Sa lovom se počinje odmah nakon primamljivanja, jer Podust brzo dolazi na hranjeno mjesto.

Više informacija na:


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How CCRES select KOI

Koi varieties are distinguished by coloration, patterning, and scalation. Some of the major colors are white, black, red, yellow, blue, and cream. While the possible colors are virtually limitless, breeders have identified and named a number of specific categories. The most popular category is Gosanke, which is made up of the Kohaku, Taisho Sanshoku, and Showa Sanshoku varieties.

New koi varieties are still being actively developed.

How to select koi – part 1

How to select koi – part 2

More info at:

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Basic CCRES Aquaponics System Design

Basic Aquaponics System Design

Things like the three major functions of media filled flood and drain grow beds (actually there are more than three functions.)
1-Media filled flood and drain grow beds provide Bio-filtration
2-Media filled flood and drain grow beds provide solids filtration
3-Media filled flood and drain grow beds provide plant support and space for growing
Now we get into the additional functions that many people might forget about.
A-Flood and drain media filled grow beds do all of the above functions without needed any additional aeration added to the system
B-Flood and drain media filled grow beds provide a great home for composting worms.
C-Flood and drain media filled grow beds provide for mineralization of solids.
D-Flood and drain media filled grow beds don’t require net pots or separate seed starting facilities.
E-Leaves don’t foul up outdoor flood and drain media beds
F-Algae isn’t a problem in flood and drain media beds
G-Flood and drain media filled grow beds give you a place to set down your drink as you use extravagant hand gestures to explain some point during an Aquaponic gathering or system tour.

Perhaps there are other points in favor of flood and drain media filled grow beds but there are a few points on the negative side.
-Flood and drain media beds can have a huge impact on temperatures, they make very good chillers on cold nights and they are great water heaters on hot summer afternoons. (constant flood during these times might be appropriate.)
-Gravel is heavy and a pain in the back to wash/haul.
-Lighter manufactured materials are costly and still need rinsing.
-Flood and drain causes water level fluctuation or requires a sump tank or sequencing valves.
-timed pumping can be hard on pumps
-variation in sounds from pumps turning on/off or siphons kicking in/out draw attention to the noise (constant sound fades to the background most of the time.)

Still, I like the gravel beds for their ease of use once installed. If a system is properly designed (has enough grow bed to handle the fish load) the gravel beds provide for a very low maintenance system able to be left to fend for it’s own for a few days. This is important as I travel often and need something easy for the neighbor to check on. If you are going to do NFT or Raft(DWC) systems, you will need separate ways to deal with solids filtration and bio-filtration. With media beds, they take care of solids, bio, and plant space all in one.

Next primary bit of information people often need for designing their home system. How much filtration is needed for some given amount of fish. Here is the rule of thumb I learned.
3 kg of fish in 50 liters of water with 100 liters of grow bed or 6 kg of fish per 100 liters of fish tank with 200 liters of grow bed. THAT IS THE MAX!!!!! Ok so for my poor brain I rounded that out to an easy imperial measure to remember. 1 lb of fish per 5 gallons of gravel (again that is MAX!) Now keeping in mind that you can’t really flood 100 liters of grow bed from a 50 liter fish tank and expect your 3 kg of fish to still be happy. To run this 2:1 ratio, you must have some method of dealing with water level fluctuations. That method traditionally was a sump tank, now there are more options with things like indexing valves.

Instead of using the above numbers, I now usually recommend something more like 20-25 fish per 500 liters of grow bed (assuming fish only being grown out to 500 grams) or 1 fish per cubic foot of grow bed media assuming 1 lb grow out of fish (1 cubic foot is around 7.5 gallons.)

Now I would never recommend some one try to grow a 1 lb fish in only 2.5 or even 5 gallons of fish tank. I’ve read a few places that say you can grow an eating size fish in something as small as 50 gallons, well perhaps you can with a fish as forgiving as tilapia but I like larger tanks. Very small fingerlings are fine in small tanks and I currently have over 100 small catfish in a 100 gallon tank but for grow out of large fish like catfish, my personal minimum size tank would be 300 gallons. I like a 600 gallon tank to grow out really big catfish. 300 gallons is also a good size to have more temperature stability.

Pumping now this is more important that many people think. How big a pump do I need for my system? Well the simple rule here is you should aim to pump the volume of your fish tank each hour. So if you have a 300 gallon fish tank and your design will have the pump run constantly, then you need your pump to move 300 gallons per hour at whatever height you will be asking of it. (A pump with a nominal rating of 300 will probably not move 300 gallons per hour once you hook it to plumbing and expect it to lift that water two feet above the surface of the fish tank.) Most good pumps should have published curves or information that will tell you aprox how much water it will move at different head heights. Now if you are going to be doing timed pumping, you need your pump to move at least the volume of your fish tank during whatever portion of an hour you will have your pump on. So if you plan to run 15 minutes each hour, then you should get a pump that will move 4 times the volume of your fish tank at the needed head height each hour. Then when you run it for 15 minutes, you will get the circulation you need. It is always wise to allow extra flow a bit beyond what you think you will need.

Plumbing and pipe sizes. Oooooh this is a stinger
So many people start their first systems with too small of pipe and find out later they should have used larger. Yea, the bigger pipe and fittings costs more but buying both the smaller stuff and a set of the larger stuff costs even more yet. Please remember that in Aquaponics there is this stuff we call bio-slime that can clog small piping. Algae can clog piping as well. For larger pumps, I’ll connect the pump according to the pipe fittings the pump comes it. for small pumps, I now adapt up to larger pipe and I’ve found that a little tiny pump can sometimes actually move much more water than I expected. Even my ten gallon aquarium with a 20 watt pump is adapted up to 1″ and 3/4″ pipe.

Gravity drain plumbing, MAKE IT BIG!!!
Example, My big system, the pump uses 1 1/2″ pipe, about half of the flow from the pump is being sent to the fish tank (probably 30 gallons a minute) the SLO (solids lifting overflow) drain from the fish tank is 3″ sewer pipe. If I were to send all 60 gallons per minute from my pump to the fish tank, it would overflow even with the 3″ drain. I know it is a real bummer cause the really large fittings get costly but so would overflowing the system and burning up the pump when the sump runs dry. Some people will use two 2″ fittings instead which can work but keep in mind that the more pipe walls you are dealing with the more resistance. In other words, two 2″ pipes does not equal one 4″ pipe. A pump pushing water through a 1/2″ pipe can still over top a 1″ overflow. And then remember that the overflow will probably have grills or mesh over it and that can clog too (on to a next important point.)

Fish will swim through pipe.
I’ve had a 2 inch fish swim through 3/4″ piping with six elbows! I’ve had tilapia fry make it through a gravel bed to get into the sump tank where they rode through the pump to get into a different fish tank!!!! And one of them survived!! But you can’t expect them all to survive or even expect any of them to survive. Most fish find that sunning them selves on the surface of a grow bed to be very bad for their health. However, finding the fish on the grow bed is a little more pleasant than discovering one in a ball valve, or more accurately part of one in the ball valve “I wondered why that was so hard to close!” I’ve found that most fish find NOT swimming after eating to be very dangerous. I guess this will bring us to the next topic, tank covers. Most of the fish I find out of the tank get eaten by something else, like my chickens.

Fish tanks should have covers.
1-Fish tank covers keep fish in. Any fish tank that doesn’t have a huge amount of extra depth above the water line risks fish jumping out.
2-Fish tank covers keep debris out. In outdoor systems things like leaves can really clog up the works. Even with a tank cover some leaves are gonna get in but a cover will keep huge amounts of plant matter out of your fish tank and also the screens, grates, pumps, traps and plumbing.
3-Light. Shade the tank to keep excess sunlight out and avoid a major algae bloom. Pea soup can really mess with dissolved oxygen levels even to the point of killing fish. String algae can just gunk things up and create more work in pump/screen cleaning. A cover over the tank will keep light out or at least make it easy to throw extra fabric, shade cloth or a tarp over to block the light and stop the algae.
4-children and pets. Kids love to play in water but if you have children around, make sure your tank cover will keep them out unless supervised. I also recommend covers if you have ducks around or dogs/cats that might manage to get into trouble while trying to sneak a snack.
6-Since my property isn’t fenced, I’ve also added a lock to the cover on my large tank. Yea I know it will only keep honest people honest.

Next topic,
Galvanized tanks, Don’t do it!!!!!!
Metals!!!!!!!!!! They are generally not appropriate for aquaponics.
Many metals can quickly corrode in aquaponics. They can build up to toxic levels for fish in a recirculating system. Of particular importance to note are copper and zinc. Both can be particularly detrimental to some types of marine life. Galvanized tanks can leach zinc into water and it becomes more problematic the lower the pH. Copper plumbing can leach too. In our household plumbing this in not normally a problem as the water is only taking the single trip through the plumbing but in an aquaponics system the water circulates through the parts constantly and aquaponics also sometimes tends to the acidic side which can speed the process. Hence a copper coil would not be a good idea for a water heater for aquaponics. There are other metals that can be an issue (perhaps nickle from chipped bathtubs) but copper and zinc are the two that cause the most issues in Aquaponics in my reading.

Look for something that won’t affect your pH. This rules out limestone and marble since they will cause a really high pH. Also, I don’t recommend shells, my system is full of them and my pH stays at 7.6 unless I’m really overloading it. I’ve heard that Diatomite will lower pH but one might want to be careful if growing trout in such a system since it apparently also has levels of zinc that might be bad for trout at the lower pH. I like river rock of 1/2″ size. Lava rock can also be good if you can get it in the right size range but it is really difficult to get washed very clean. Clay balls are great if you can afford them and your back can’t afford the lifting of gravel. I recommend using small buckets and baskets for the washing. I can do the washing so long as I don’t lift too much at any one time. Set up the washing station so you don’t have to bend over too much and it can be done without injury.

Plumbing a bypass
Don’t restrict your pump. If your pump gives more flow than you can handle, then use a bypass. Simply a T back into the same tank where the pump is located. Put the ball valve on that flow and adjust the ball valve till the flows are balanced as needed.

I think I’m about out of steam on this post. All these things I’ve repeated many times on forums to help out people struggling in one way or another with their physical system designs. I hope these things help more people on their journey into Aquaponics.More info at:

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Addicted to Aquaponic Gardening

You Know You’re Addicted to Aquaponic Gardening When…

Your fish recognize you

You buy a special home for the BSF maggots you are growing to feed your fish.
You are known throughout the neighborhood as the house that grows the fish.
You know the temperature of your fish tank every day.

You talk about bacteria aging like it was a fine wine

You banish your car to the driveway so you can have more room to grow in the garage

You stress out over a .1 move in pH or ammonia.
You buy a bigger truck so that you can haul more gravel.
Your non-gardening spouse becomes conversant in aquaponic terms
You look forward to a Saturday afternoon spent at the dump looking for old bathtubs and barrels
You plan vacation trips around visiting other aquaponic gardeners.
You travel 150 miles to pick up 20 tilapia
When considering your budget, plants and fish are more important than groceries
You could swear your fish are on the verge of speaking to you
The terms “bacteria”, “poop” and “waste” have taken on entirely new meanings
You’d rather go to an aquarium store to shop than a clothes store.
You take every single person who enters your house on a “garden tour”
You look at cattle trough and think “grow bed”
You ask for tools for Christmas, Mother/Father’s day, your Birthday and any other occasion you can think of.
Invasive pond life like algae and duckweed are now fish food.
You know how many bags of Hydroton your car will hold.
Your preferred reading matter is forum threads
And last but not least:
You know that the four seasons are:
Planning your System
Cycling your System
Maturing your System
Expanding your System


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