FUCOSE

FUCOSE

#Fucose is an essential hexose deoxy sugar the human body needs to optimally communicate from cell to cell. Simply put, it plays an important role in transmitting information in the brain. Research studies show that this sugar stimulates brain development and can also influence the brain to be able to create long-term memories. This is further supported by studies in which doctors inhibited protein containing fucose; amnesia was the result.

Fucose is found in a number of places in the human body. Its location in the male testes suggests that it may play an important role during reproduction. Also found in the epidermis, it may help in maintaining skin hydration. Beyond these locations, this sugar is found at the articulation between each nerve, in the tubules of the human kidney, and in significant quantities in human breast milk.

It’s important not to confuse this with the similar sounding fructose. While both are sugars that can be commonly found in the body, fructose is a simple monosaccharide sugar found in many foods. For example, you can find a high amount of fructose in baby food, salad dressing, blackberries, tree fruits, honey and even some root vegetables. On the other hand, fucose, as previously stated, can be found in the human body naturally.

Studies also show that fucose may play a role in certain diseases, such as cancer and its infection method. Though research is not yet conclusive, there is promise shown for using fucose to inhibit both breast cancer and leukemia, in addition to tumor growth, in general. Some studies have even gone as far as to conclude that this hexose deoxy sugar seems to be among the most effective sugars at attempting to prevent cancer cells from growing.

Research indicates that even taking in fucose in extremely high amounts does not seem to present any real ill side effects, though recommendations are that the average 150-pound (68.2 kg) human adult can safely handle 34 grams of this sugar on a daily basis. During urination, fucose leaves the body, so people who urinate frequently can experience a deficiency in fucose. People with rheumatoid arthritis also generally are deficient in this kind of sugar. Many people opt to take supplements to ensure they have the right amount in their body. Seaweeds such as kelp, beer yeast, and medicinal mushrooms are also a good alternative to supplements and for people who have difficulty taking pills.

#CCRES #ALGAE TEAM

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FUCUS TREATMENTS

Fucus Treatments

Fucus Treatments

Our best source of biological iodine and our best protection against thyroid disruption is to body-load with iodine contained in iodine-rich whole raw seaweeds as regular daily consumption. If our bodies have an ongoing full complement of I-127, we can better resist taking in incidental I-131. This means that eating seaweeds regularly in the diet, especially the big northern kelps, to provide both dietary iodine and protection against the ongoing I-131 hazards.
No land plants are a reliable natural source of iodine. 

Garlic grown near the sea often has relatively high amounts of biological iodine. Besides garlic, root crops, such as turnips, carrots, potatoes, parsnips, and sweet potatoes, are plant sources of iodine. However, the best natural source of biological iodine is seaweed. Any seaweed contains more available dietary iodine than any land plant. The seaweeds with the most available iodine are the giant kelps of the northern hemisphere. The highest concentrations of iodine occurs in Icelandic kelp (8000 ppm), Norwegian kelp (4000 ppm), and Maine and California kelp (1000-2000 ppm). The seaweeds with the least amounts of iodine are nori (about 15ppm) and sargassum (about 30-40 ppm). The amounts of iodine in land plants can be greatly increased by fertilizing food plants with seaweeds applied directly to the soil as topical mulch or tilled into the soil.
The complexity of many thyroid dysfunction cases precludes a simple set of all-purpose formulas. Each thyroid patient has a unique thyroid presentation. I try to compose an individualized functional treatment plan for each, using a few basic methods. Diet and behavior modification also are very important in thyroid case management. What follows are some of my treatment approaches and some general guidelines and notes:

Treatment Guideline 1: Rather uncomplicated seaweed therapy seems to help relieve many of the presenting symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. Some of the results are very likely from whole body remineralization (especially potassium, zinc, calcium, magnesium, manganese, chromium, selenium, and vanadium), in addition to thyroid gland aid from both sustained regular reliable dietary sources of biomolecular iodine and from thyroxin-like molecules present in marine algae, both the large edible seaweeds and their almost ubiquitous epiphytic micro-algae, predominantly the silica-walled diatoms. Seaweeds provide ample supplies of most of the essential trace elements required for adequate enzyme functioning throughout the body but especially in the liver and endocrine glands.

Treatment Guideline 2: Regular biomolecular seaweed iodine consumption is more than just thyroid food: it can also protect the thyroid gland from potential resident I-131-induced molecular disruption and cell death when the thyroid gland is fully iodized with I-127. The fear of eating seaweed that might be contaminated with I-131 is easily mitigated by allowing the seaweed to be stored for 50 days prior to dietary consumption; this will give enough time for most (99%) of any I-131 to decay radioactively.
A simple folk test for iodine deficiency or at least aggressive iodine uptake is to paint a 2-inch diameter round patch of USP Tincture of Iodine (strong or mild) on a soft skin area, such as the inner upper arm, the inside of the elbow, the inner thigh, or the lateral abdomen between the lowest rib and the top of the hip. If you are iodine deficient, the patch will disappear in less than 2 hours, sometimes as quickly as 20 minutes; if it fades in 2 to 4 hours, you may just be momentarily iodine needy. If it persists for more than 4 hours, you are probably iodine sufficient. Iodine deficiency seems to predispose to thyroid malignancy; this could explain the apparent thyroid cancer distribution “fans” downwind of nuclear facilities in previous ‘goiter belt’ areas. This test is of course easier to use with Caucasians and may not offer sufficient color contrast in brown-skinned people.

Treatment Guideline 3: Many patients with underactive thyroid glands complain of a sense of “coldness” or feeling cold all of the time; often they are over-dressed for warmth according to ‘thyronormal’ people’s standards. They may also present a low basal body resting temperature, as measured by taking their armpit temperature before rising in the morning. (Remember to shake down the thermometer the night before). Other symptoms may include sluggishness, gradual weight gain, and mild depression. For these patients, add 5 to 10 grams of several different whole seaweeds to the daily diet; that is, 5 to 10 grams total weight per day, not 5 to 10 grams of each seaweed. I usually suggest a mix of 2 parts brown algae (all kelps, Fucus, Sargassum, Hijiki) to one part red seaweed (Dulse, Nori, Irish moss, Gracillaria). The mixed seaweeds can be eaten in soups and salads or easily powdered and sprinkled onto or into any food. I recommend doing this for at least 60 days, about two lunar cycles or at least two menstrual cycles; watch for any changes in signs and symptoms and any change in average daily basal temperature.
Note that patients can have a normal 98.6°F temperature and still feel cold and also present many of the signs and symptoms of functional hypothyroidism. Do not insist that all hypothyroid patients must have abnormally low basal resting temperatures. If no symptoms improve or the temperature remains low (less than 98.6°F), continue seaweeds and request a TSH and T4 test. If TSH and T4 tests indicate low circulating thyroxin levels, continue seaweeds for another 2 months. It may take the thyroid that long to respond positively to continual regular presentation of adequate dietary iodine. Powdered whole seaweed may be much more effective than flakes, pieces, or granules. The powdered seaweed is best added to food immediately prior to eating; do not cook the seaweed for best results.
All corticosteroids tend to depress thyroid function. Before trying to fix the thyroid, be sure to inquire about both internal and topical steroid use, including Prednisone and topical creams. These, as well as salicylates and anticoagulants, can aggravate existing mild hypothyroidism.

Treatment Guideline 4: Partial thyroidectomy cases can be helped by regular continual dietary consumption of 3-5 grams of whole seaweeds three to four times a week. By whole seaweed I mean untreated raw dried seaweed, in pieces or powder, not reconstructed flakes or granules.

Treatment Guideline 5: Patients with thyroid glands on thyroid replacement hormone (animal or synthetic) can respond favorably to replacing part or all their entire extrinsic hormone requirement by adding dietary Fucus in 3 to 5 gram daily doses, carefully and slowly. Fucus spp. has been the thyroid folk remedy of choice for at least 5000 years. The best candidates are women who seek a less hazardous treatment than synthetic hormone (after reading variously that prolonged use of synthetic thyroid hormone increases risk for heart disease, osteoporosis, and adverse interactions with many prescribed drugs, particularly corticosteroids and antidepressants).
Fucus spp. contains di-iodotyrosine (iodogogoric acid) or DIT. Two DIT molecules are coupled in the follicular lumina of the thyroid gland by a condensing esterification reaction organized by thyroid peroxidase (TPO). This means that Fucus provides easy-to use-prefabricated thyroxine (T4) halves for a boost to weary thyroid glands, almost as good as T4. European thalassotherapists claim that hot Fucus seaweed baths in seawater provide transdermal iodine; perhaps hot Fucus baths also provide transdermal DIT.
The best results with Fucus therapy are obtained with women who were diagnosed with sluggish thyroid glands and who are or were on low or minimal maintenance replacement hormone dosages. They may remark that they miss, forget, or avoid taking their thyroid medication for several days with no obvious negative short-term sequelae; others claim to have just stopped taking their medication. I do not recommend stopping thyroid medication totally at once. Thyroxin is essential for human life and all animal life; it has a long half-life in the body of a week or more, so that a false impression of non-dependency can obtain for up to 2 months before severe or even acute hypothyroidism can manifest, potentially fatal.
Even though I personally do not recommend it, women regularly stop taking their thyroid replacement hormone, even after years of regularly and faithfully taking their medication. In many cases, their respective thyroid glands resume thyroxine production after a 2- to 3-month lag time with many of the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism presenting while their thyroid glands move out of inactivity. This complete cessation of taking thyroid replacement can only be successful in patients who have a potentially functioning thyroid gland. Those who have had surgical or radiation removal of their thyroid glands must take thyroid hormone medication containing thyroxine to stay alive.
Fucus can be easily added to the diet as small pieces, powdered Fucus in capsules, or freeze-dried powder in capsules. Sources of Fucus in capsules are listed under Seaweed Sources at the end of this paper. The actual Fucus is much more effective than extracts. A nice note is that Fucus spp are the most abundant intertidal brown seaweeds in the northern hemisphere. This is of especial interest to those patients who might be trading one dependency for another, as seems to be the case for some. A year’s supply can be gathered in an hour or less and easily dried in a food dehydrator or in hot sun for 10 to12 hours and then in a food dehydrator until completely crunchy dry. Fucus dries down about 6 to 1 (six pounds of wet Fucus dry down to about one pound). It has a modest storage life of 8 to 12 months in completely airtight containers stored in the dark at 50° F. A year’s supply at 4 grams per day is slightly more than 3 pounds dry. Encapsulated Fucus is available from Naturespirit Herbs, Oregon’s Wild Harvest, and Eclectic Institute.

Treatment Guideline 6: Aggressive attempts to replace thyroid replacement hormone with Fucus involve halving the dose of medication each week for 4 weeks while adding 3 to 5 grams of dried Fucus to the diet daily from the beginning and continuing indefinitely. If low thyroid symptoms appear, return to lowest thyroid hormone maintenance level and try skipping medication every other day for a week, then for every other 2 days, then 3 days, etc. The intent is to establish the lowest possible maintenance dosage by patient self-evaluation and/or to determine if replacement hormones can be eliminated when the patient ingests a regular reliable supply of both biomolecular iodine and DIT. Thoughtful, careful patient self-monitoring is essential for successful treatment.

Treatment Guideline 7: A more conservative replacement schedule is similar to the aggressive approach, except that the time intervals are one month instead of one week, and the Fucus addition is in one gram increments, beginning with one gram of Fucus the first month of attempting to halve the replacement hormone dosage, and increasing the amount of Fucus by a gram each succeeding month to 5 grams per day. The conservative schedule is urged with anxious patients and primary caregivers.
There is some concern that excess (undefined) kelp (species either unknown or not mentioned) consumption may induce hypothyroidism. It seems possible. The likely explanation is an individual’s extreme sensitivity to dietary iodine: Icelandic kelp can contain up to 8000 ppm iodine; Norwegian kelp can contain up to 4000 ppm iodine. Most kelps contain 500 to 1500 ppm iodine.
The only definitive study I have seen is a report from Hokkaido, Japan, where study subjects, at a rate of 8% to 10% of total study participants, presented with iodine-induced goiter from the consumption of large amounts of one or more Laminaria species (Kombu) of large kelps, known to be rich (more than 1000 ppm) in available iodine. Reduction of both total dietary iodine and/or dietary Kombu led to complete remission of all goiters. The apparent iodine-induced goiters did not affect normal thyroid functioning in any participants. Two women in the study did not care if they had goiters and refused to reduce their Kombu intake. Note that the Japanese have the world’s highest known dietary intakes of both sea vegetables and iodine.
Reduction or elimination of seaweeds from the diet is indicated for at least a month in cases of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, to ascertain if excess dietary iodine is a contributing factor to a disease condition. Other dietary iodine sources, particularly dairy and flour products, should also be reduced and or eliminated during the same time period. Some individuals do seem to be very dietarily iodine-extraction efficient and iodine sensitive simultaneously.

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CCRES FUCUS

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Fucus vesiculosus, may be an effective alternative treatment for hypothyroidism for some people as it contains iodine found naturally in the sea. Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid, is a condition where the thyroid gland fails to produce enough thyroid hormone. This results in one’s metabolism falling outside of the desired range. There are a wide range of thyroid medications available, both natural and pharmaceutical. As with all medicines, Fucus can occasionally cause side effects, so always consult your healthcare practitioner before starting treatment.

#Hypothyroidism

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common form of hypothyroidism. It is considered to be an autoimmune disease as the body mistakes the thyroid gland for a foreign body and sends antibodies to attack it which eventually destroy it over time. This leaves the body without essential thyroid hormones that are required for controlling body temperature, appetite and rate of metabolism. If left untreated, hypothyroidism can lead to serious health disorders that could prove fatal.

Symptoms

Symptoms of an underactive thyroid include tiredness, reduced heart rate and pulse, weight gain, dry skin and hair, hair loss, sensitivity to cold, confusion, anxiety, depression, joint pain, headaches, numbness in the extremities and menstrual problems. However, as these symptoms can be attributed to any number of health problems they are often overlooked. If you are experiencing a combination of the aforementioned symptoms without any obvious cause, contact your doctor immediately for a check-up.

#Iodine

According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, those who experience hypothyroidism due to a iodine deficiency may be able to treat their condition with kelp. Iodine, found naturally in kelp, is required to enable the thyroid gland to function correctly. The majority of people in the western world use iodized salt and therefore do not need to supplement with iodine unless they suffer from hypothyroidism.

#Fucus

Fucus is rich in iodine and is available in many different forms including tinctures and standardized extracts. According to the NYU Langone Medical Center, fucus is often referred to as kelp as it is present in a large number of kelp tablets. However, kelp is not considered to be the same as fucus as it is actually a different form of seaweed. The University of Maryland Medical Center recommends a dose of 600mg fucus one to three times per day to stimulate thyroid activity. It is not recommended to self-treat hypothyroidism with fucus.

#CCRES #ALGAE TEAM

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2015年の総市場規模は16億ドルを超える見通し

CCRES ALGAE TEAM
㈱グローバル インフォメーションは、米国の市場調査会社SBI Energy (aka Specialist In Business Information)が発行した報告書「藻類バイオ燃料技術:世界市場および製品動向(2010年~2015年)」の販売を開始しました。

2005年から2007年までの藻類バイオ燃料産業への企業の参入は、原油の高値および環境上の懸念から拍車がかかり、550%と記録的に跳ね上がりました。しかしそれ以来、原油価格は下落し、先頃の金融危機が多くの産業の障害となっています。同レポートによれば、「藻類バイオ燃料への関心は現在も維持されています。しかし同時に、産業は期待の先走りに苦しめられてもいます。」と報告されています。藻類によるバイオ燃料製造技術の現在の市場は、相当量の開発活動と規模を縮小した試験で構成されています。今後はデモンストレーションと商業利用が進められ、藻類によるバイオ燃料製造の各種新技術が2015年には総市場の3分の1を占めるに至るでしょう。

なぜ 藻類なのか?

藻類は原料油としての使用が可能です。つまり、藻類はバイオディーゼル、再生可能ディーゼル、再生可能ジェット燃料、藻油、航空用バイオ燃料、バイオガソリン、エタノール、バイオメタン、ブタノール、水素など、実に多くのバイオ燃料の製造用に加工が可能ということであり、これはすばらしいメリットです。また、藻類によるバイオ燃料製造は、ケイソウ類・ラン藻類・緑ソウ類の遺伝子組み換え、養殖用オープンポンドまたは光バイオリアクター、燃料処理用リファイナリー・ダイジェスター・ファーメンター、抽出用プレスおよび遠心分離機といった幅広い技術を必要とします。

藻類バイオ燃料の製造技術市場の今後の展望とは?

藻類バイオ燃料の製造技術市場は、養殖技術の売上が大半を占めると予測されています。残りの市場は採取、抽出、燃料製造設備の区分が占める見通しですが、これらは2015年には、合計で16億ドルを超える市場規模に成長すると予測されています。同レポートによれば、「2010年には推計2億7,100万ドルとされる同市場のこの成長は飛躍的なもので、約43%との年間成長率の予測もあわせ、この数値は同産業が急速に変化を遂げ、進化する産業であることを明確に示すものです」と報告されています。

市場調査レポート: 藻類バイオ燃料技術:世界市場および製品動向(2010年~2015年)Algae Biofuels Technologies – Global Market and Product Trends 2010-2015

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Merry Christmas

Merry Christmas

As 2014 comes to a close, I’d like to take this opportunity to thank you for supporting our work. It’s because of people like you that countless individuals around the world are now living better life stories. With your support, we’re able to take meaningful and measurable action in a number of ways.
Thank you again for helping to empower individuals and strengthen green communities in Croatia, and around the world. Together, we’re building the kind of world we want all our children and grandchildren to live in.
From everyone at the Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (#CCRES) – Merry Christmas, and have a happy holiday season.

Sincerely,  Željko Serdar

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Palmaria Palmata Fights Ebola

 
 

P A L M A R I A   P A L M A T A

is a cold water algae species that is found in the middle to lower shore in many parts of Europe and the North Atlantic Coasts of America. It can grow in depths of up to 20m on both exposed and sheltered shores. It is found growing on rocks and on the stipes of L. hyperborea and Fucus serratus as an epiphyte.

Palmaria palmata can be eaten raw, roasted, fried, dried, or roasted, or as a thickening agent for soups.

 
CONSTITUENT
Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, calcium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, lutein, manganese, magnesium, niacin, phosphorous, potassium, riboflavin, selenium, silicon, sodium, tin, vitamin C, zeaxanthin, and zinc.

PARTS USES
The entire plant, dried and cut.

TYPICAL PREPARATIONS
Added to food in the form of dried flakes or powder for a slightly salty flavor, can be drunk as a tea. Also suitable as an extract or capsule.

SUMMARY
Palmaria palmata is an excellent source of phytochemicals and minerals, and a superior source of iodine.
 
PRECAUTIONS
Don’t overdue, and avoid it entirely if you suffer hyperthyroidism. You only need a few flakes, or as little as a quarter-teaspoon a day, to get your mineral needs, and it is best to get your minerals from a variety of whole food and whole herb sources. Don’t use on a daily basis for more than 2 weeks at a time, taking a 2 week break before using again. This will prevent you from overdosing iodine with potential imbalance in thyroid function. For periodic use only and not to be taken for extended periods of time. Not to be used while pregnant.
For educational purposes only.
CCRES ALGAE TEAM 
part of 
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources



This information has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
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FUCUS ALGA I ŠTITNJAČA

Štitnjača i Fucus alga

 
Štitnjača, žlijezda smještena u području vrata, s prednje strane dušnika, stvara hormone koji u svom sastavu imaju jod, a uvelike kontroliraju metabolizam našeg organizma. 

Jednostavnije rečeno, hormoni štitnjače kontroliraju brzinu kojom će se zbivati izmjena tvari u našem organizmu, koliko brzo će se tvari uz prisustvo kisika razgraditi, a novonastale strukture ugraditi u stanicu. Jod je neophodan element za normalan rad ove male žlijezde, te svaki nedostatak joda u organizmu vrlo brzo dovodi do nastanka jedne od najraširenijih bolesti „nutritivnog karaktera” – uvećanja štitnjače ili takozvane „guše”.
Treba istaći da je u razvijenim zemljama nedostatak joda u prehrani relativno rijetka pojava, te je najčešće povezan s malom koncentracijom joda u vodi za piće i zemlji na kojoj se voće i povrće uzgaja. Ako se zna da je područje na kojem pojedinac živi siromašno jodom zbog raznih okolišnih čimbenika, onda se tim osobama mora sugerirati uzimanje većih količina joda putem hrane.
Namirnice koje su najbogatije jodom jesu: alge, najviše od svih Fucus, morske ribe, jaja, jogurt, sir, jodirana sol. Pojedine namirnice na neki način brane organizmu pravilno iskorištavanje joda i mogu umanjiti sposobnost organizma da iskoristi jod za sintezu hormona štitnjače. Dobro je znati da u te namirnice ubrajamo: karfiol, kelj, prokulice, repu i kikiriki. Najviše su riziku izloženi strogi vegetarijanci (veganisti) koji takve namirnice svakodnevno koriste u prehrani i to u velikim količinama. U zemljama u razvoju gušavost je vrlo često posljedica jedne autoimune bolesti koja smanjuje funkciju štitnjače, pa nastupa hipotireoza.

HIPOTIREOZA

Hipotireoza, odnosno smanjena funkcija štitnjače, dovodi do usporavanja tjelesnog metabolizma. Bolest se razvija izrazito polako. Uz uvećanje štitnjače i pojave gušavosti (što i nije svaki puta pravilo, jer se štitnjača može povećati i samo s jedne strane), javlja se umor, zaboravljivost, uvećanje tjelesne mase, nepodnošljivost hladnoće, zatvor stolice, suhoća kože i kose. Ako je uzrok autoimune prirode, onda se u organizmu stvaraju protutijela koja napadaju vlastito tkivo štitnjače, a posljedica toga je smanjeni nastanak hormona. Hipotireoza se može javiti u svako životno doba, ali je mnogo raširenija među starijim osobama. Ako se razvije tijekom adolescencije može usporiti rast i razvoj sekundarnih seksualnih osobina, a ako se javi u najranijem djetinjstvu vrlo često i normalni razvoj moždanih funkcija. Stoga se danas redovito nivo hormona štitnjače kontrolira odmah po rođenju djeteta. Slabo aktivna štitnjača kod žena vrlo često dovodi do uvećanja vrijednosti kolesterola u serumu. Terapija se sastoji u davanju sintetskih molekula hormona štitnjače. 

Simptomi hipotireoze proizlaze iz usporenih metaboličkih procesa, smanjene potrošnje kisika, poremećenog metabolizma određenih vitamina, lipida i proteina, a s obzirom da u pravilu nastaju postepeno, često prolaze nezapaženi u ranim fazama bolesti. 

Glavni simptomi su: 
– kroničan umor, malaksalost 
– bolovi u mišićima I zglobovima 
– usporenost, pospanost, otežana koncentracija 
– snižena tjelesna temperature, nepodnošenje hladnoće 
– bezvoljnost, napetost, razdražljivost, promjene raspoloženja 
– opstipacija 
– porast tjelesne težine 
– povišene razine kolesterola, LDL i triglicerida u krvi 
– usporen rad srca, smanjeni minutni volume srca / oslabljena srčana funkcija 
– anemija 
– edemi (oticanje nogu, ruku, lica, jezika, kapaka) 
– smanjeno znojenje 
– suha, ispucala kosa koja pojačano opada 
– suha koža koja se ljuska, sklona crvenilu, svrbežu, aknama i upalama 
– krhki, ispucali nokti 
– promuklost (uslijed otoka glasnica), česte grlobolje 
– nagluhost 
– zamagljen vid 
– poremećaj menstruacijskog ciklusa 
– sterilitet 
– pojava gušavosti 
– miksedemska koma – najteži stupanj bolesti s gubitkom svijesti i hipotermijom 

– usporen / smanjen rast u djece 

 
Hipertireoza
Hipertireoza ili uvećana aktivnost štitnjače dovodi do uvećanog stvaranja aktivnih hormona, te po tome nastupa ubrzanje metabolizma, srce brže kuca, krvni tlak je veći, nastupa gubitak težine, povećanje apetita, znojenje, nepodnošljivost topline, izbočenost očiju. Obično se hipertireoza javlja uslijed prisutnosti protutijela u krvi koja stimuliraju štitne stanice, ali se razlog stvaranja tih protutijela još uvijek ne zna. Hiperaktivnost štitnjače ima i svoj genetski uzrok i mnogo je raširenija bolest u žena u usporedbi s muškom populacijom. Zbog ubrzanog metabolizma osobe koje pate od hipertireoze iskorištavaju prehrambene tvari mnogo brže. Ako gubitak težine počinje predstavljati veliki problem moraju se u prehranu uvesti namirnice bogate bjelančevinama kako bi se nadoknadio gubitak mišićne mase. To su meso, riba, jaja, mlijeko i mliječni proizvodi, ali i dodatne količine vitamina B-skupine su neophodne jer sudjeluju u metabolizmu ugljikohidrata i bjelančevina. U tu svrhu treba konzumirati nemasnu svinjetinu, fermentirane mliječne proizvode ili uzeti nadopune u obliku pivskog kvasca.

Glavni simptomi hipertireoze su: 
– razdražljivost, nemir, nervoza, promjene raspoloženja 
– smanjena sposobnost koncentracije 
– dvoslike, smetnje vida, povlačenje kapaka i izbuljene oči 
– tremor (drhtanje ruku, osjećaj “treperenja” tijela) 
– povišen krvni tlak, tahikardija (ubrzan rad srca) 
– pojačano znojenje, nepodnošenje topline 
– opadanje kose 
– učestale stolice 
– gubitak tjelesne težine 
– poremećaj menstrualnog ciklusa 
– malaksalost 
– nesanica 
– guša (povećana štitnjača), osjećaj “knedle” u grlu, pritisak u vratu
 
Konzumiranje namirnica bogatih jodom je jedan od najboljih načina da imate zdravu štitnjaču. Jod je neophodan za zdravu funkciju štitnjače jer joj pomaže da proizvodi hormon tiroksin. Štitnjača koristi tiroksin da regulira metabolizam. Najbolji prirodni izvor joda je alga fucus

Aloe vera – biljka koju bi svi trebali uzgajati

CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES:

Aloe Vera se sastoji od vitamina; A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, C i E, sadrži i folnu kiselinu i više minerala od kojih najviše ima; magnezija, mangana, cinka, bakra, kroma, kalcija, kalija, željeza i 20 vrsta aminokiselina. Za sada je ustanovljeno da žele Aloe vere ima preko 240 hranjivih i ljekovitih sastojaka.

Originally posted on Matrix World:

Autor: Ljubica Šaran

Matrix World

Aloe veru ne treba posebno predstavljati, čak ni u našoj kulturi koja ne favorizira prirodne lijekove i preparate, svi znaju koliko ekstrakt ovog jednostavnog sukulenta pozitivno utječe na obnavljanje i zaštitu kože, no zapravo to je gotovo sve što javnost zna o biljci koja osim nevjerojatnih nutricionističkih svojstava ima toliko ljekovitog utjecaja na ljude da s pravom zaslužuje prastari naziv „biljka lijek za sve.“

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The Effects of Astaxanthin – Type 2 Diabetes

The Effects of Astaxanthin – Type 2 Diabetes

 

Draining the World Wealth


Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide epidemic that is critically linked to prevalence of obesity. More than 220 million people have diabetes and by the year 2030 the figures are expected to grow to 360 million. The diabetes is aggressively growing in both emerging and developed country. According to WHO, the Asian continent has over 90 million people suffering from diabetes – India (40 million) China (29 million); Indonesia (13 million) and Japan (7 million). The prevalence of diabetic patients remains pervasive in USA (22 million), Brazil (6 million), Pakistan (8 million); Russia (6 million); Italy (5 million) and Turkey (4 million). Even in the African region over 10 million people suffer from diabetes, especially in Nigeria where it is expected to reach 5 million within the year 2030.
Diabetic complications lead to heart disease (approximately 65% of death amongst diabetics), blindness, kidney failure and amputations. As a result, the indirect and direct medical expenditure of diabetics represent almost 5 times that of a non-diabetic.

Type 2 Diabetes: A Preventable Disease

High Blood Sugar 

In most cases, diabetes is treated with medication, although about 20% of diabetics may be managed by lifestyle changes. This means that even if we cannot change the genetic influences, fortunately, for most of us diabetes is preventable; for example, making dietary changes, taking nutritional supplements and exercising. To highlight this, people in high risk groups who achieve a 5-7% cut in body weight will reduce risk of developing diabetes approximately 58% across all age and ethnic groups.
While the debate between the contributory effects of carbohydrate and fat intake continues unabated, research reveals a strong link between foods with high glycemic index and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Excess blood glucose needs to be converted by insulin (produced by the pancreas ß-cells) into glycogen stores, however, when glycogen stores are full, glucose is converted into fat. Over time, the body’s cells may eventually become desensitized to insulin making it necessary to produce more insulin to achieve the same affect. It is this process that would eventually lead to a state known as hyperinsulinaemic state. As a result, the body looses its ability to control high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) that could result in toxic conditions and promote further complications such as kidney failure.

New Evidences Emerging from Human Studies

In an anti-aging study conducted by Iwabayashi et al., (2009), 20 female volunteers with increased oxidative stress burden ingested 12 mg/day of astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Results evidenced a significant decrease of diabetes-related parameters that collectively predict trends in diabetes development. Firstly, astaxanthin reduced cortisol by 23 percent.

Astaxanthin Retards Glucose Toxicity and Kidney Damage

Astaxanthin displayed positive effects in a type 2 diabetic mouse model in that it reduced the disease progression by retarding glucose toxicity and kidney damage. This has profound implications for people who belong to high risk groups, display pre-diabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) or want to manage advanced diabetic kidney problems (nephropathy).
Studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyperglycemia contributes to the onset of Diabetes mellitus and its complications. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins and mitochondria, prevalent in diabetic conditions, is a major source of ROS. For example, pancreatic ß-cells kept in high glucose concentrations show presence of advanced glycosylation products, a source of ROS, which cause the following: i) reduction of insulin expression and ii) induction of cell death (apoptosis). ß–cells are especially vulnerable to ROS because these cells are inherently low in antioxidant status and therefore, requires long term protection. A recent study demonstrated that antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, vitamins C and E) exerted beneficial effects in diabetic conditions such as preservation of ß-cell function, so it is likely that a more potent antioxidant such as astaxanthin can do the same or better.
In another study conducted by Preuss et al. (2009), 12 rats fed with 25mg/kg of astaxanthin show a significant decrease in insulin resistance by 13.5%.

Modulation of Glucose Toxicity

Uchiyama et al., 2002 demonstrated in obese diabetes type 2 mouse model that astaxanthin preserved pancreatic ß -cell dysfunction against oxidative damage. Treated mice received 1 mg astaxanthin/day at 6 weeks of age and then tests performed at 6, 12 and 18 weeks. Observations of astaxanthin treated mice (N=8) included: i) significantly reduced fasting glucose sugar levels at 12.


Figure 1. Astaxanthin improved the glucose levels in the Intraperitoneally Glucose Tolerance Test (IPGT) in diabetic mouse model (Uchiyama et al., 2002) Figure 1. Astaxanthin improved the glucose levels in the Intraperitoneally Glucose Tolerance Test (IPGT) in diabetic mouse model (Uchiyama <em>et al.</em>, 2002)
Figure 2. Astaxanthin preserved insulin sensitivity in the diabetic mouse model (Uchiyama et al., 2002) Figure 2. Astaxanthin preserved insulin sensitivity in the diabetic mouse model (Uchiyama <em>et al.</em>, 2002)
Figure 3. Astaxanthin protected kidney function measured by urinary albumin protein loss (Naito et al., 2004) 
 Figure 3. Astaxanthin protected kidney function measured by urinary albumin protein loss (Naito <em>et al.</em>, 2004)

Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy

As well as substantiating observations by Uchiyama et al., Naito demonstrated that astaxanthin treated type 2 diabetic mice which normally shows renal insufficiency at 16 weeks of age in fact exhibited 67% less urinary albumin loss.

Figure 4. Astaxanthin reduced the amount of DNA damage indicated by urinary 8-OHdG levels (Naito et al., 2004) 
 Figure 4. Astaxanthin reduced the amount of DNA damage indicated by urinary 8-OHdG levels (Naito <em>et al.</em>, 2004)
Figure 5. Astaxanthin preserved the relative mesangial area.

 Figure 5. Astaxanthin preserved the relative mesangial area. +p<0.05 vs positive control (Naito <em>et al.</em>, 2004)
Earlier it was unclear how astaxanthin could ameliorate the progression of diabetic nephropathy, but new evidence revealed additional information in the mechanism of action. Naito et al., (2006) examined changes in the gene expression profile of glomerular cells in diabetic mouse model during the early phase of diabetic nephropathy. The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway was most significantly affected by high-glucose concentration (mediated via reactive oxygen species). Long term treatment with astaxanthin significantly modulated genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative stress and the TGF-ß-collagen synthesis system.

Manabe et al., 2007 went further and analyzed normal human mesangial cells (NHMC) exposed to high glucose concentrations. In the presence of astaxanthin, it significantly suppressed ROS production (Figure 6) and inhibited nuclear translocation and activation of NF-ĸB (Figure 7) in the mitochondria of NHMC. Furthermore, this was the first time to detect astaxanthin in the mitochondrial membrane (Table 1) and its presence also suppressed ROS attack on membrane proteins.


Figure 6. Astaxanthin reduced ROS production in NHMC-mitochondria exposed to high glucose (Manabe et al., 2007) 
 Figure 6. Astaxanthin reduced ROS production in NHMC-mitochondria exposed to high glucose (Manabe <em>et al.</em>, 2007)  
 
Top left panel: mitochondria as green fluorescence, Top right panel: ROS as red fluorescence; Bottom right panel: Merged picture as yellow fluorescence.
 
Figure 7. Astaxanthin suppressed high-glucose induced nuclear translocation and activation of NF-ĸB (Manabe et al., 2007) 
 Figure 7. Astaxanthin suppressed high-glucose induced nuclear translocation and activation of NF-ĸB (Manabe <em>et al.</em>, 2007)
Table 1. Astaxanthin content in NHMC mitochondria expressed as percentage of total astaxanthin added. 
 
Mean of 3 samples. (Manabe et al., 2007) Table 1. Astaxanthin content in NHMC mitochondria expressed as percentage of total astaxanthin added. Mean of 3 samples. (Manabe <em>et al.</em>, 2007)

Outlook

Although clinical trials involving antioxidants in humans have only recently begun, these preliminary results concluded that strong antioxidant supplementation may improve type 2 diabetic control and inhibit progressive renal damage by circumventing the effects of glycation-mediated ROS under hyperglycemic conditions. Astaxanthin improved pancreas function, insulin sensitivity, reduced kidney damage and glucose toxicity in diabetic mouse models. New techniques by gene chip analysis and fluorescence imaging revealed further details of mechanism and site of protection by astaxanthin. Further research and clinical studies are still required. However, it is reasonable to suggest that astaxanthin may be useful as part of a nutrigenomic strategy for type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.

References

  1. Forefront (Summer/Fall) 2005, American Diabetes Association.
  2. Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals June 2004. “The dietary solution to diabetes.”
  3. HSR Health Supplement Retailer July 2004. “Fighting Diabetes the natural way.”
  4. Iwabayashi M, Fujioka N, Nomoto K, Miyazaki R, Takahashi H, Hibino S, Takahashi Y, Nishikawa K, Nishida M, Yonei Y. (2009). Efficacy and safety of eight-week treatment with astaxanthin in individuals screened for increased oxidative stress burden. J. Anti Aging Med., 6 (4):15-21.
  5. Manabe E, Handa O, Naito Y, Mizushima K, Akagiri S, Adachi S, Takagi T, Kokura S, Maoka T, Yoshikawa T. (2008). Astaxanthin protects mesangial cells from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative signaling. J. Cellular Biochem. 103 (6):1925-37.
  6. Naito Y, Uchiyama K, Aoi W, Hasegawa G, Nakamura N, Yoshida N, Maoka T, Takahashi J, Yoshikawa T. (2004) Prevention of diabetic nephropathy by treatment with astaxanthin in diabetic db/db mice. BioFactors 20:49-59. Nutritional Outlook April. “Fighting Diabetes”
  7. Naito Y, Uchiyama K, Mizushima K, Kuroda M, Akagiri S, Takagi T, Handa O, Kokura S, Yoshida N, Ichikawa H, Takahashi J, Yoshikawa T. (2006). Microarray profiling of gene expression patterns in glomerular cells of astaxanthin-treated diabetic mice: a nutrigenomic approach. Int. J. Mol. Med.,18:685-695.
  8. Preuss H, Echard B, Bagchi D, Perricone VN, Yamashita E. (2009). Astaxanthin lowers blood pressure and lessens the activity of the renin-angiotensin system in Zucker Fatty Rats. J. Funct. Foods, I:13-22.
  9. The Global Diabetes Community. http://www.diabetes.co.uk. Article retrieved on June 8th, 2010.
  10. Uchiyama K, Naito Y, Hasegawa G, Nakamura N, Takahashi J, Yoshikawa T. (2002). Astaxanthin Protects β–cells against glucose toxicity in diabetic db/db mice. Redox Rep., 7(5):290-293.


CCRES special thanks to 


  Mr. Mitsunori Nishida, 


 
President of Corporate Fuji Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES) 

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The Effects of Astaxanthin – Hypertension

The Effects of Astaxanthin – Hypertension

 

 

Astaxanthin Reduces Hypertension

Astaxanthin Reduces Hypertension 

Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that dietary carotenoids such as astaxanthin may protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) which includes hypertension. This condition is associated with blood vessel dysfunction, altered contractility and tone; mediated by relaxant (nitric oxide NO; prostacyclin) and constrictor factors (thromboxane; endothelin) in the blood. Furthermore, blood flow properties serve an important role in the pathological complications seen in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Research presented here suggests that astaxanthin may be useful as part of an antioxidant therapy to alleviate hypertension (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Mechanisms by which Astaxanthin reduces hypertension Figure 1. Mechanisms by which Astaxanthin reduces hypertension

Reduction of Arterial Blood Pressure

An early study involving a composition of carotenoids have been used against hypertension or high blood pressure (BP), but Hussein et al., (2005a) published the first study involving astaxanthin with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and stroke prone (SHR-SP). This study investigated the effects of astaxanthin on the aortic vessel blood pressure (BP) in relation to endothelium and nitric oxide (NO) to elucidate mechanism and response.

Figure 2. Astaxanthin (5mg/kg/day) treated SHR reduced mean blood pressure. Hussein et al., 2005b. Figure 2. Astaxanthin (5mg/kg/day) treated SHR reduced mean blood pressure. Hussein <em>et al.</em>, 2005b.

In a double blind controlled placebo study conducted in Japan, 20 healthy postmenopausal women, who ingested 12 mg everyday for 4 weeks, reduced their systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 7% and 4%
In another study, 15 healthy subjects, between 27-50 of age, who received 9mg/day of astaxanthin for 12 weeks had their diastolic blood pressure decreased by 6% (Matsuyama et al., 2010).
A series of animal studies have largely replicated the effects of astaxanthin found in human studies (Ruiz et al., 2010; Preuss, 2009; Preuss, 2011).

Figure 3. Open Label Clinical Study. 73 subjects between 20-60 years of age received 4mg of astaxanthin x day for 4 weeks (Sato et al 2009) Figure 3. Open Label Clinical Study. 73 subjects between 20-60 years of age received 4mg of astaxanthin x day for 4 weeks (Sato et al 2009)

Mechanism of Anti-hypertension

The antihypertensive mechanism may be in part explained by the changes of vascular reactivity and hemorheology.
Microchannel Array Flow Analysis (MC-FAN) measured a significant increase of blood flow of 11% (Figure 3) in the astaxanthin treated group.

Figure 4. Open Label Clinical Study 35 healthy postmenopausal women (BMI 22.1) were included in the study, treated with astaxanthin daily dose of 12 mg for 8 weeks Figure 4. Open Label Clinical Study 35 healthy postmenopausal women (BMI 22.1) were included in the study, treated with astaxanthin daily dose of 12 mg for 8 weeks

In a human study conducted by Iwabayashi et.al., (2009) , 20 healthy women who ingested 6mg / day for 8 weeks increased ABI (ankle brachial pressure index) by 4% suggesting a reduction of lower limb vascular resistance. Another human study also prove that oral administration of 6 mg/day of astaxanthin for 10 days enhanced capillary blood flow by 10%.

Figure 5. Astaxanthin (6 mg/day) supplementation for 10 days improves blood flow in humans as tested by MC-FAN. Miyawaki et al., 2005. Figure 5. Astaxanthin (6 mg/day) supplementation for 10 days improves blood flow in humans as tested by MC-FAN. Miyawaki <em>et al.</em>, 2005.
Figure 6. Astaxanthin increases relaxant and reduces constrictor mechanisms to help reduce blood pressure in SHR.
  Figure 6. Astaxanthin increases relaxant and reduces constrictor mechanisms to help reduce blood pressure in SHR.

Indeed, Hussein et al., (2006b) demonstrated that 5 mg/day of astaxanthin for 7 weeks decreased vascular wall thickness by 47%.

Figure 7. A) Coronary artery wall is thinner and lumen is wider in astaxanthin treated rats. B) Elastin bands are also fewer in number and less elastic compared to the control groups which also show intense and branched elastine feature (C). Hussein et al., (2006a). Figure 7. A) Coronary artery wall is thinner and lumen is wider in astaxanthin treated rats. B) Elastin bands are also fewer in number and less elastic compared to the control groups which also show intense and branched elastine feature (C). Hussein <em>et al.</em>, (2006a).

Outlook

The oxidative status and physiological condition during hypertension are successfully mediated by astaxanthin. The mechanisms of action include improved blood rheology, modulation of constrictor and dilator factors and blood vessel remodelling. Although, these findings are based on spontaneous hypertensive rat models, these serve as a solid basis for extending the hypothesis to human clinical trials.

References

  1. Hussein G, Nakamura M, Zhao Q, Iguchi T, Goto H, Sankawa U, Watanabe H. (2005)a. Antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin in experimental animals. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28(1):47-52.
  2. Hussein G, Goto H, Oda S, Iguchi T, Sankawa U, Matsumoto K, Watanabe H. (2005)b. Antihypertensive potential and mechanism of action of astaxanthin II. Vascular reactivity and hemorheology in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28(6):967-971.
  3. Hussein G, Goto H, Oda S, Sankawa U, Matsumoto K, Watanabe H. (2006)a. Antihypertensive potential and mechanism of action of astaxanthin: III. Antioxidant and histopathological effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29(4):684-688.
  4. Hussein G, Sankawa U, Goto H, Matsumoto K, Watanabe H. (2006)b. Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid with Potential in Human Health and Nutrition. J. Nat. Prod., 69(3):443 – 449.
  5. Iwabayashi M, Fujioka N, Nomoto K, Miyazaki R, Takahashi H, Hibino S, Takahashi Y, Nishikawa K, Nishida M, Yonei Y. (2009). Efficacy and safety of eight-week treatment with astaxanthin in individuals screened for increased oxidative stress burden. J. Anti Aging Med., 6 (4):15-21.
  6. Kudo Y, Nakajima R, Matsumoto N. (2002). Effects of astaxanthin on brain damages due to ischemia. Carotenoid Science (5):25.
  7. Li W, Hellsten A, Jacobsson LS, Blomqvist HM, Olsson AG, Yuan XM. (2004). Alpha-tocopherol and astaxanthin decrease macrophage infiltration, apoptosis and vulnerability in atheroma of hyperlipidaemic rabbits. J. Mol. Cell. Cardio., 37(5):969-978.
  8. Miyawaki H, Takahashi J, Tsukahara H, Takehara I. (2005). Effects of astaxanthin on human blood rheology. J. Clin. Thera. Med., 21(4):421-429.
  9. Preuss H, Echard B, Bagchi D, Perricone VN, Yamashita E. (2009). Astaxanthin lowers blood pressure and lessens the activity of the renin-angiotensin system in Zucker Fatty Rats. J. Funct. Foods, I:13-22.


CCRES special thanks to 
  Mr. Mitsunori Nishida, 
 
President of Corporate Fuji Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.

Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES) 

Tagged
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