Tag Archives: Proizvodnja konzumne ribe u šaranskim ribnjacima

How Do I Get Started in Aquaculture?

 

CCRES AQUAPONICS

 

As part of our aquaculture initiative, the Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES) has started the CCRES aquaponics  program. This Web site is part of that program. We have attempted to include as much information as possible for beginning and experienced fish farmers. While the information compiled here is not all-inclusive, we have tried to be as thorough as possible, covering all the various types of aquaculture relevant to Croatia. If you would like to submit any information for our Web site, please contact us.

 

Specal thanks to :

Indiana Soybean Alliance

5730 W 74th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46278
1-800-735-0195

for giving us great source of informations.

 

How Do I Get Started in Aquaculture?

 

The most important activity anyone considering fish farming should conduct is developing and writing a business plan.

 

Here are some of the basic steps.

 

Business Planning    

 

Writing a business plan is the single most important step a farmer can take when determining if aquaculture is something they want to explore as a viable economic investment. A well-developed business plan will cover all aspects of an aquaculture business, from species and production systems, to economics and marketing. Failing to complete a business plan is one of the primary reasons for business failure!

 

Feed Management   

 

Feed management, from buying the correct feed and proper feeding rates to properly storing feed, is essential to managing fish health and growth. Excellent feed managers not only save money by not wasting feed, they also optimize production potential on their farms. Every farm will likely have a different feed management strategy as production criteria like feeding rates and growth rates will be impacted by species selection, production system, environmental conditions, among other things. Proper feed management should be implemented as part of an overall best management practices plan.

 

Financing      

 

Aquaculture in Croatia doesn’t have a well-established track record like other forms of agriculture, so acquiring funds and insurance from traditional farm sources can be difficult.  Lenders and insurers will want to see a well-developed business plan with income and cash flow statements before they consider funding/insuring an aquaculture operation.  They may also want to see a best management practices plan.  Please visit the other sections to get more information covering these and other topics.

 

 

Economics

 

Filling out financial statements is one of the critical steps in developing a viable business plan. The following spreadsheets were developed to help new producers manage a business venture in aquaculture. There are different spreadsheets available depending on production system: Recirculating (RAS), pond or cage. There are examples provided as well, but these should only be used as a guide as many of the numbers will vary depending on your business specifics. The following material can be used to help plan and build a successful business in aquaculture.

 

 

Fish Health

Animal health is perhaps more of a challenge in aquaculture than any other type of livestock agriculture. There are very few veterinarians actively involved in fish health, thus it is often difficult for fish producers to obtain veterinary services. There are also few approved drugs available to treat sick fish. For these reasons, it is critical for fish farmers to implement a best management practices (BMP) plan that encourages fish health. The most common cause of fish disease is stress, and a well-developed BMP will help farmers minimize stress to their livestock.

 

Marketing

As with most specialty and niche crops, fish farmers in Croatia typically have to market their own product. This can be done in a variety of ways from local farmers markets and restaurants, to ethnic markets and restaurants in large metropolitan cities. Farmers should always have more than one market identified for their fish to be sure that they will always be able to sell product. This is especially critical for farmers who want to acquire funds from traditional agricultural lenders. Another option is for a group of farmers to start a marketing cooperative that can allow them to enter larger markets that would not be open to individual farmers because of the smaller scale of their business.

 

 

Production Systems

 

More information about specific production systems :

 

Cage Systems           

 

Cage farming is simply raising fish in a large, submerged cage that can be used in a pond that otherwise might not be ideal for farming. An ideal location for a cage production farm would be in a pond/private lake that is too large for traditional pond aquaculture or is unsuitable for another reason (perhaps it is too deep, or cannot be drained). Cages can be floated throughout the pond and accessed either via a dock or boat.

 

160fs – What is Cage Culture.pdf

161fs – Cage Site Selection Water Quality.pdf

162fs – Cage Construction Placement Aeration.pdf

163fs – Cage Species Suitable.pdf

164fs – Cage Handling and Feeding.pdf

165fs – Cage Problems.pdf

166fs – Cage Harvesting Economics.pdf

281fs – Cage Tilapia.pdf

FA04800 – Cage Management.pdf

tb110-CageCultureNCR.pdf

 

 

Larval Feed

Feeding larval fish can be difficult and depending on the species of fish, commercially formulated diets might not be available. Many fish farmers rely on feeding live feed to their larval fish until they are big enough to start eating formulated feeds. Farmers can rely on the natural productivity of ponds to grow their live feed, or they can utilize indoor production systems. These production systems are often smaller and specialized for raising small, often microscopic, live feed organisms.

 

701fs – Larval Feed.pdf

702fs – Artemia.pdf

 

 

 

Pond Systems           

 

Pond aquaculture is the most traditional type of aquaculture in the world. It has been producing fish in Asia and Africa for thousands of years. Most of the available fish farming information is based on pond aquaculture.

 

100fs – Levee Pond Site Selection.pdf

101fs – Levee Pond Construction.pdf

102fs – Watershed Pond Site Selection.pdf

103fs – Calculating Area Volume.pdf

280fs Pond Tilapia.pdf

395fs – Pond Inventory Assessment.pdf

460fs – Pond Clay Turbidity.pdf

462fs – Pond Nitrite.pdf

463fs – Pond Ammonia.pdf

464fs – Pond Water Quality Considerations.pdf

466fs – Pond Algae Blooms.pdf

468fs – Pond Carbon Dioxide.pdf

469fs – Fertilizing Fry Ponds.pdf

470fs – Pond Effluents.pdf

471fs – Pond Fertilization.pdf

700fs – Pond Zooplankton Larval Feed.pdf

Aquatic Weed Control in Ponds.pdf

FA00800 – Pond Copper Use.pdf

FA02100 – Pond Aeration.pdf

FA02800 – Pond Lime Use.pdf

FA03200 Pond Potassium Permanganate.pdf

PONDS.pdf

TB114 – Plankton Management.pdf

wrac-104 – Pond Fertilization.pdf

wrac-106 – Settling Basin.pdf

 

 

 

 

Recirculating Aquaculture Systems

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are the newest form of fish farming production system. RAS are typically an indoor system that allows for farmers to control environmental conditions year round. While the costs associated with constructing a RAS are typically higher than either pond or cage culture, if the system is managed properly to produce fish on a year round basis, the economic returns can make it worth the increased investment. RAS are the most complex aquaculture systems and beginners should plan on making a significant time commitment to learning how to operate a system.

 

103fs – Calculating Area Volume.pdf

451fs – RAS Critical Considerations.pdf

452fs – RAS Management.pdf

453fs – RAS Component Options.pdf

455fs – RAS Pond Systems.pdf

456fs – RAS Economic Spreadsheet.pdf

AA21200 – Energy Costs.pdf

FA05000 – RAS Principles.pdf

facts5 – RAS Prudence Pays.pdf

 

 

 

Barn Conversion

There has been a lot of interest in converting livestock buildings to fish production. While a “model” has yet to be developed, the material below has been presented at several different workshops focusing on converting livestock barns to aquaculture.

 

Barn Conversions for Aquaculture 3-8-07.asx

Chuck-IPVideoWorkshop.pdf

Hicks-Workshop.ppt

hogbarn.ppt

Laura-HogbarnWorkshop.pdf

Shawn-BarnConversion.pdf

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Proizvodnja konzumne ribe u šaranskim ribnjacima

 

 

Proizvodnja konzumne ribe u šaranskim ribnjacima

Proizvodnja konzumne ribe u šaranskim ribnjacima

Prema podacima Državnog zavoda za statistiku u 2006. u šaranskim ribnjacima proizvedeno je 3202 tone konzumne ribe na 6229 ha. U strukturi proizvedene ribe učešće šarana je 72%, som i smuđ 1,05%, bijeli amur sa 12,08%, te ostale vrste riba sa 14,8%.

Konzumna riba proizvodi se u ribnjacima za uzgoj konzumne ribe ili u tovilištima. To je najjednostavnija proizvodnja. Veličina ribnjaka varira od 1 do 160 ha sa prosječnom dubinom 1,2 do 1,5 m. Površine pod konzumnim ribom zauzimaju najviše površina na pojedinom ribnjačarstvu (70 do 80 % ). Obiteljska gospodarstva na malim površinama najčešće uzgajaju konzumnu ribu. Proizvodnja konzumne ribe može biti od 500 do 2300 kg ha‾¹, što ovisi od boniteta ribnjaka, gustoće nasada, vrsta i težinskih kategorija nasađene mlađi, te ekonomičnosti proizvodnje i potražnje ribe na tržištu.

Konzumna ribe proizvodi se u:

  1. Dvogodišnjem ili
  2. Trogodišnjem pogonu.

Dvogodišnji sustav uzgoja traje dvije kalendarske godine, dakle od mrijesta do proizvedene konzumne ribe prođu dvije godine. Gustoća nasada je 1000 do 1500 kom ha‾ ¹ jednogodišnje mlađi, koja na kraju druge uzgojne godine postiže prosječnu težinu 1,0 do 1,5 kg.

Trogodišnji sustav uzgoja traje tri kalendarske godine. Jednogodišnji mlađ se uzgaja kao dvogodišnji mlađ, koji tek na kraju treće kalendarske godine postiže završnu težinu veću od 2 kg.

Prema intenzitetu uzgoja uzgoj ribe može biti :

  1. ekstenzivan
  2. poluintenzivan
  3. intenzivan

Ekstenzivan sustav uzgoja bazira se isključivo na produkciji prirodne hrane.U poluintenzivnom sustavu riba se nasađuje gušće i uz prirodnu hranu, koja se stimulira gnojidbom prema analizi vode, dodaju se ugljikohidratna krmiva ( kukuruz, pšenica, ječam, raž ).Intenzivan uzgoj se provodi sa gustim nasadom a prirodna hrana je zanemariva, te je hranidba bazirana na izbalansiranim kompletnim smjesama.

Proizvodnja konzumne ribe na našim ribnjačarstvima najčešće je poluintenzivnog tipa.

Ribe za proizvodnju konzumne ribe nasađujemo u:

  1. monokulturi
  2. polikulturi.

Radi boljeg iskorištenja proizvodnog potencijala ribnjaka ribe se nasađuju u polikulturi. Kombinacijom raznih vrsta i težinskih kategorija iste vrste riba prema raspoloživoj količini i vrsti prirodne hrane, treba paziti da nema međusobne konkurencije i negativnog utjecaja na prirast glavne ribe tj.šarana. Uzgojem riba u monokulturi ne koriste se svi potencijali ribnjaka i rijetko se koristi.

Šaran (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758 ) je glavna konzumna riba u našim ribnjacima i hrani se sa zooplanktonom, bentosom i dodatnom hranom- žitaricama.

Biljojedne ribe, kao dopunske vrste ribe, uspješno su aklimatizirane u našim klimatskim uvjetima, ali ne mogu se razmnožavati prirodnim putem, već umjetnim mrijestom. Omogućavaju iskorištenje prirodne hrane ribnjaka, koja samo uzgojem šarana u monokulturi ostaje neiskoristiva, tako da povećavaju ukupnu proizvodnju ribe po hektaru.

Bijeli amur ( Ctenopharyngodon idella,Valenciennes ) hrani se višim vodenim biljem, korijenjem trske i dijelovima trulih panjeva. U nedostatku biljne hrane amur konzumira zrno žitarica, pojavljuje se masna degeneracija jetre i dolazi do uginuća. Ako je biljna masa u ribnjaku nedostatna, preporuča se dodavanje nakošene biljne mase pomoću plivajućih hranilica.

Bijeli glavaš (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Valenciennes) smanjuje količinu fitoplanktona, te se smatra čistačem, jer poboljšava higijenske uvjete u vodi ribnjaka i povećava sadržaj otopljenog kisika u vodi. Ne utječe negativno na prirast šarana.

Sivi glavaš ( Aristichthys nobilis, Richardson ) pomoću škržnog aparata filtrira vodu, i nasađuje se zbog negativnog utjecaja na prirast šarana najviše do 30%.Koristi također i dodatnu hranu ( žitarice) i podiže hranidbeni koeficijent.

Linjak ( Tinca tinca, L.) nasađuje se u ribnjacima sa manjom gustoćom šarana i gdje je intenzitet proizvodnje manji. Hrani se sa zooplanktonom i bentosom, tako da je konkurent šaranu. Dobro uspijeva u ribnjacima zaraslim sa barskim i močvarnim biljkama, među kojima žive razne vodene životinje kojima se linjak hrani.

Grabežljive ribe nasađuju se u ograničenim količinama, jer uz korovske vrste riba hrane se i plemenitim vrstama , te mogu nastati veliki komadni gubici kod plemenitih vrsta riba. Najčešće se uzgajaju: som, smuđ, štuka. U nedostatku drugih vrsta riba česta je i pojava kanibalizma, tj. veći primjerci jedu manje unutar iste vrste.

« Divlja riba» ( karas, babuška, deverika, crvenperka, karašić, balavac, sunčanica i dr.) je nepoželjna u prozvodnji konzumne ribe, jer prenosi bolesti, male je ekonomske vrijednosti, povećava hranidbeni koeficijent, slabog je prirasta i negativno utječe na ukupnu proizvodnju ribe.

Prije nasađivanja ribnjaka treba:

1. pripremiti ribnjak za proizvodnju ( isušivanje dna ribnjaka, mehanička obrada tla kad je to moguće, premrzavanje, vapnjenje, prema potrebi izmuljivanje dna ribnjaka, uništiti zaostalu divlju ribu, pripremiti rešetke odgovarajućih profila, koje sprečavaju ulazak divlje ribe na napustu ribnjaka)

2. nasaditi ribnjak ( utvrđivanje broja komada temeljem prosječne težine i ukupne količine ribe, obaviti eventualne ljekovite kupke prema preporuci veterinara)

3. izvršiti kontrolu nasađivanja( iza nasađivanja obilazimo ribnjak radi utvrđivanja uginulih riba o čemu tijekom cijele godine treba voditi evidenciju. Nasađivanje je obavljeno uspješno, ako nema uginuća i ribe se kreću prirodnim pokretima. Ako riba pliva uz obalu neprirodnim pokretima i zijeva znači da smo ribu oštetili prilikom nepravilnog transporta i istovara.

Proizvodnja ribe se kontrolira tijekom cijelog vegetativnog razdoblja pokusnim ribolovima svakih 15 dana od početka svibnja do konca rujna. Riba se lovi sačmaricom na hranidbenim mjestima, vaganjem se utvrđuje prosječna težina i prirast, kondicija, količina utrošene dodatne hrane, te zdravstveno stanje ribe i stanje planktona u ribnjaku. Riba se počinje hraniti kada se temperatura vode trajno poveća iznad 12ºC, tako da se riba tijekom kalendarske godine u našim klimatskim uvjetima uzgaja od travnja do konca listopada.

Utrošak hrane za kg prirasta je od 2,0 do 3,5 i jedina je stočarska proizvodnja, koja bjelančevine, vitamine i minerale koristi iz produktivnog sloja mulja ribnjaka preko planktona, bentosa i vodenog bilja.

Ribnjak se lovi ispuštanjem vode do kraja u jesenskim mjesecima od listopada do konca studenog i u proljeće od veljače do konca ožujka ili travnja ovisno od vremenskih prilika. Radi snabdijevanja tržišta ribom tijekom ljetnih mjeseci na visokoj vodi « ljetnim odlovom» riba se lovi mrežama mamljenjem na hranu. Prakticira se također i ljetni izlov ribe ispuštanjem vode do kraja.

Nakon izlova riba se skladišti u zimnjacima sa stalnim dotokom svježe vode, gdje se riba odmori i očisti probavni trakt od hrane, kako bi se moglo lakše s njom manipulirati na tržište. Izlovljeni ribnjak se ponovo nasađuje mlađem veličine 3 do 5 cm, koji do kraja uzgojne sezone postaje jednogodišnji mlađ, tako da u jednom ribnjaku ostvarujemo « dvije žetve « godišnje.
mr. sc. Marija Kuhinek

CCRES AQUAPONICS
projekt
Hrvatskog Centra Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)

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